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The Cold War

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The Early Cold War: 1945-1960 World War II is over Japan and Europe are in ruins Agriculture Industry Transportation In ruins The Cold War 1945 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War


1
The EarlyCold War1945-1960
2
Part IReconstruction Confrontation
3
World War II is over
  • Japan and Europe are in ruins
  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Transportation
  • In ruins

4
The Cold War 1945-1991
5
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6
Climate of mutual distrust
  • Soviets feared Capitalist encirclement

7
  • World Bank set up
  • to help stimulate development in third
    world countries
  • IMF International Monetary Fund
  • to regulate exchange rates.

8
  • United Nations set up
  • provided a forum resolving postwar conflicts

9
UNITED NATIONS
  • 197 members

10
UNITED NATIONS
  • United States, Great Britain, France, China, and
    the USSR
  • each would have a permanent seat and veto power
    on the governing Security Council.

11
REBUILDING JAPAN
  • General MacArthur
  • US pledge military protection
  • New Constitution helps to rebuild Japan

12
COLD WAR
  • Such concern about rebuilding of Germany
  • Soviets built buffer countries

13
COLD WAR
  • Occupied Germany
  • Divided into 4 sectors
  • France, Great Britain, Russia and the United
    States

14
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15
COLD WAR
  • Berlin
  • Capital of country located in Russian sector
  • City divided into the same 4 vectors

16
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17
HARRY S TRUMAN
  • United States developed policy of
  • Containment

18
The Iron Curtain
From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient
capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.
-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
19
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20
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
21
What was it..
Because of the fear of Communism the USA was
prepared to intervene throughout the world to
protect democracy against communism. By lending
equipment, advice etc ( and eventually military
force) The main aim was to stop communism
spreading further This policy was called
CONTAINMENT
22
TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that
    the USA would support free peoples who are
    resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by
    outside pressures.
  • aid to Greece and Turkey

23
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24
THE MARSHALL PLAN 1947(Marshall Aid)
  • An American response to the poverty and hardship
    in post war Europe
  • Who was Marshall?
  • An American General and American Secretary of
    State, sent to assess the economic state of
    Europe

25
It was thought that these were the conditions in
which communism thrived WHY?
Economies in ruins Shortages of goods Bread still
rationed Coal shortages in GB electricity cuts
each day
Details
26
Marshalls reaction
  • Lend 17 million dollars to Europe
  • 1948 Plan passes by Congress to last four
    years

27
MARSHALL PLAN
  • The Marshall Plan
  • by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of
    Communism, Czechoslovakia showed interest in
    receiving Marshall Aid but was blocked by
    Russia.The Soviet system was as much dependent
    upon creating a self-contained economic bloc as
    it was in maintaining a repressive political
    system.

28
What a nice gesture by the Americans.
  • Yes BUT..
  • The aid came in the form of goods made by
    American firms
  • So there was an element of American self-interest
    to prevent another depression in USA

29
And Stalin
  • He hated Marshall Aid!!
  • Forbade Eastern European countries from having
    anything to do with it
  • Regarded as anti-Communist
  • Feared that it might weaken his hold on Eastern
    Bloc
  • And Eastern countries would swing to the US
    dollar.

30
Marshall Plan 1948
  1. European Recovery Program.
  2. Secretary of State, George Marshall
  3. The U. S. should provide aid to all European
    nations that need it. This move is not against
    any country or doctrine, but against hunger,
    poverty, desperation, and chaos.
  4. 12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe
    extended to Eastern Europe USSR, but this was
    rejected.

31
Improve your knowledge
  • The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was
    expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid
    Russian development of nuclear technology, helped
    by the work of the atom spies was a
    shock.Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared
    war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945
    and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a
    position for the post-war settlement. This helped
    make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts
    more likely.

32
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33
BERLIN CRISIS
  • 1948 Stalin attempted to drive British, French,
    and American forces out of Berlin by cutting off
    all highway and railway access to the
    Western-controlled portion of the city of Berlin

34
Berlin Airlift
  • West Berlin, as an outpost of Western democracy
    and economic success deep within the Communist
    zone, was both a nest of spies for both sides and
    a constant challenge to the Soviets.The Berlin
    Blockade
  • was an attempt to starve the city into
    submission and the Allied airlift signalled the
    Wests determination to use all resources to
    defend Berlin.

35
Berlin Airlift
  • Truman restricted his ant-Soviet policy to one of
    containment, resisting the advance of Communism
    into South Korea. After some hesitation he
    resisted his Commander, Gen Douglas MacArthurs
    attempt to roll-back Communism by invading
    North Korea and China.MacArthur was dismissed
    but Trumans successors continued to be drawn
    into conflicts of containment for the rest of the
    cold war. The beginning of the Korean War also
    highlighted the failings of the United
    Nations.Up to 1950, Russia and America had
    respectively blocked each others iniatives by
    using their veto powers in the Security Council.
    Because the Russian delegates were boycotting the
    UN in 1950, Truman was able to condemn the
    Communist invasion of S Korea and to set up a
    counter-attack under the banner of the UN. In
    contrast to the pre-War League of Nations, at
    least this ensured that the UN would, in future,
    be able to deploy force in international
    disputes.

36
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37
Post-War Germany
38
Berlin Blockade Airlift (1948-49)
39
BERLIN AIRLIFT
  • U.S. Airlift

40
Cold War
  • BERLIN AIRLIFT
  • France, Britain and United States fused their
    sectors of Berlin

41
BERLIN AIRLIFT
42
Cold War
  • Economic recovery was progressing in West Berlin
  • Soviets alarmed blockaded rivers, highways and
    rails

43
Cold War
  • Attempted to starve the city
  • Truman responded with an airlift of supplies to
    West Berlin

44
Cold War
  • Cold War confrontation
  • Situation is resolved militarily without a shot
    being fired at each other directly

45
Cold War
  • NATO
  • In response to Soviet aggression
  • Free nations of Europe and United States

46
Cold War
  • Formed military alliance
  • NATO
  • Peacetime military alliance

47
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
  • United States
  • Belgium
  • Britain
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • France
  • Iceland
  • Italy
  • Luxemburg
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Portugal
  • 1952 Greece Turkey
  • 1955 West Germany
  • 1983 Spain

48
  • NATO Member Countries
  • NATO is an Alliance that consists of 26
    independent European and North American Countries

49
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50
Cold War
  • Soviet Union responded with Warsaw Pact Eastern
    Europe and Soviet Union
  • Military pact

51
Warsaw Pact (1955)
  • U. S. S. R.
  • Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Czechoslovakia
  • East Germany
  • Hungary
  • Poland
  • Rumania

52
Cold War
  • Two sides aligned by alliances
  • Different economic and political systems
  • Both wary of each other former allies

53
Cold War
  • Will enter into a war with no direct shots
    fired at each other

54
1949 Fall of China
  • In June, Chiang Kai-shek defeated by Mao
  • Flee to island of Taiwan
  • Oct 1, Mao proclaims Peoples Republic of China
    (PRC)
  • Two months later, Mao travels to Moscow,
  • negotiates the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship,
    Alliance and Mutual Assistance.

55
  • the Nationalist Government of Chiang Kai-shek
    received U.S. support
  • Attempt to prevent Communist control of China.

56
  • 1945, the leaders of the Nationalist Party
    Chiang Kai-shek
  • Communist partie Mao Zedong
  • met for a series of talks on the formation of a
    post-war government.
  • The truce was tenuous, by 1946 the two sides were
    fighting an all-out civil war.

57
  • Years of corruption and mismanagement had eroded
    popular support for the Nationalist Government.
  • Early in 1947, the ROC Government was already
    looking to the island province of Taiwan,

58
  • few contacts, limited trade and no diplomatic
    ties between the two countries.
  • Until the 1970s, the United States recognized
    the Republic of China, located on Taiwan, as
    China's true government and supported that
    government's holding the Chinese seat in the
    United Nations.

59
Cold War
  • China
  • Revolution by Mao-Tse Tung
  • Peoples Revolution

60
HARRY S TRUMAN
  • Communist revolution deposed United States backed
    Government of Chaing Kai-shek

61
Cold War
  • Revolution led to two Chinas
  • Taiwan (Nationalist Supported by United States)
  • Mainland China

62
Cold War
  • led by Mao and Communists

63
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64
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65
COLD WAR
  • Chaing Kai-shek government was corrupt
  • Did not have support of peasants

66
COLD WAR
  • Grain tax was imposed even during a famine
  • 10,000 peasants protested
  • Chaing Kai-shek troops opened fire on protesters

67
COLD WAR
  • Mao Gained the support of Peasants
  • Fighting erupted
  • United States backed Chaing Kai-shek with 2
    billion dollars of aid but no troops

68
COLD WAR
  • Mao was victorious
  • Chaing Kai-shek moved his government to Taiwan
  • United States did not recognized mainland China

69
COLD WAR
  • Peoples Republic of China
  • Continued support of Chaing Kai-shek on tiny
    island of Taiwan

70
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71
Cold War
  • Feeling in the United States was containment
    failed
  • Led to a rise in anti-communists feeling in the

72
COLD WAR
  • Truman believed that China was an internal
    struggle
  • Not enough for American involvement

73
The Korean War A Police Action (1950-1953)
Kim Il-Sung
Syngman Rhee
Domino Theory
74
The Arms RaceA Missile Gap?
  • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in
    1949.
  • Now there were two nuclear superpowers!

75
Premier Nikita Khrushchev
About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend
on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist.If you
don't like us, don't accept our invitations,
and don'tinvite us to come to see you. Whether
you like it our not, history is on our side. We
will bury you. -- 1956
De-Stalinization Program
76
An Historic Irony Sergei Khrushchev, American
Citizen
Who buried who?
77
The Suez Crisis 1956-1957
78
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
79
The Hungarian Uprising 1956
Imre Nagy, HungarianPrime Minister
  • Promised free elections.
  • This could lead to the end of communist rule in
    Hungary.

80
Sputnik I (1957)
The Russians have beaten America in spacethey
have the technological edge!
81
Nixon-KhrushchevKitchen Debate(1959)
Cold War ---gt Tensions
lt--- Technology Affluence
82
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)
Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down
over Soviet airspace.
83
Paris, 1961
Khrushchev JFK meet to discuss Berlin and
nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that
JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.
84
The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
CheckpointCharlie
85
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963)
President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West
is with them!
86
Khruschev Embraces Castro,1961
87
Bay of Pigs Debacle (1961)
88
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
89
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and
the other man blinked!
90
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
91
Vietnam War 1965-1973
92
Prague Spring (1968)
Former Czech President, Alexander
Dubcek Communism with a human face!
93
Prague Spring Dashed!
Dissidents/playwrights arrested like Vaclav
Havelfuture president of a free Czech Republic.
94
4th French Republic 1945-1958
  1. Democratic, but politically unstable 27
    governments!
  2. Universal suffrage.
  3. Weak President powerful legislature
  4. Many political parties coalition governments
  5. Failure to gracefully leave Indochina.
  6. Botched the Suez War.
  7. Failed to settle the Algerian Crisis.

95
5th French Republic(1958-Present)
  1. Powerful President. first Charles
    DeGaulle
  2. Weak Cabinet.
  3. Weakened legislature.
  4. Separation of powers.

96
DeGaulles Achievements
  1. Settled the Algerian Crisis.
  2. Made France a nuclear power.
  3. Sustained general prosperity.
  4. Maintained a stable, democratic government.
  5. Made France more politically independent.

BUT, late 60s student unrest and social changes
challenged him. In 1968 he resigned died of a
heart attack in 1970.
97
Student Riots in Paris(May, 1968)
98
Clement Attlee the Labor Party 1945-1951
  • Limited socialist programmodern welfare state.
  • Natl. Insurance Act
  • Natl. Health Service Act
  • Nationalized coal mines, public utilities, steel
    industry, the Bank of England, RRs, motor
    transportation, and aviation.
  • Social insurance legislation Cradle-to-Grave
    security.
  • Socialized medicine ? free national health care.

99
Clement Attlee the Labor Party 1945-1951
  • Britain is in a big debt!
  • The beginning of the end of the British Empire.
  • India 1947
  • Palestine 1948
  • Kenya ? Mau Mau uprising - 1955

100
Churchill Returns 1951-1955
He never really tried to destroy the welfare
state established by Attlees government.
101
The Federated Republicof Germany
  • Created in 1949 withthe capital at Bonn.
  • Its army limited to12 divisions 275,000.
  • Konrad Adenauer, aChristian Democrat,was its
    1st President.
  • Coalition of moderates and conservatives.
  • Pro-Western foreign policy.
  • German economic miracle.
  • Father of Modern Germany.

102
Italy After WW II
  1. Alcide de Gasperi was Italys P.M. from 1948-1953
  2. Coalition governments short and unstable!

103
Part IIEuropeanUnion
104
European Economic Integration
  • 1947 ? General Agreement on Tariffs and
    Trade GATT
  • 23 nations.
  • Became the foundation of postwar global commerce.
  • It set up procedures to handle commercial
    complaints.
  • It provided a framework for continuing
    negotiations rounds.
  • By 1990, 99 nations were participating.

105
European Economic Integration
  • 1952 ? European Coal Steel Community
    ECSC.
  • HQ in Luxembourg.
  • Inner Six ? Benelux nations,
    France, Italy, W. Germany.
  • Placed their coal and steel industries under a
    form of supranational authority.
  • Eliminated tariff duties and quotas on coal and
    steel.

106
European Economic Integration
  • 1957 ? European Economic Community
    EEC
  • HQ ? Brussels.
  • Treaty of Rome.

107
European Economic Integration
  • 1957 ? European Economic Community
    EEC
  • France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux.
  • Created a larger free trade area, or customs
    union.
  • Eliminate all trade barriers.
  • One common tariff with the outside world.
  • Free movement of capital labor.

108
European Economic Integration
  • 1967 ? combined the ECSC EEC to form the
    European Community EC.
  • HQ ? Brussels.
  • European Parliament.
  • Eurocrats.
  • 518 members elected by all voters in Europe.
  • Only limited legislative power.
  • Court of Justice.

109
European Economic Integration
  • 1991-92 ? Maastricht Agreements
  • European Union EU created from the EC.
  • One currency, one culture, one social area, and
    one environment!
  • Create a frontier-free Europe ? a common EU
    passport.
  • One large common market.
  • Goods coming into the EU would have high tariffs
    placed on them.
  • 2002 ? a common currency Euro
  • 2003 ? 60,000 men EU rapid defense
    force was created.
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