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## Chapter 11 Gas Laws

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### THE IDEAL GAS LAW PV=nRT Where P = V= n= R= T= THE IDEAL GAS LAW ... assuming constant volume? COMBINED GAS LAW Incorporates both Boyle s and Charles laws. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 11 Gas Laws

1
Chapter 11 Gas Laws
• Pages 361-391

2
• 7 Stamps
• 7 warm ups!

3
Background Information
• Air is composed of several kinds of colorless
gases.
• Some gases have color.
• Chlorine (Cl2) yellow green
• Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) brownish-red
• Any 1 mole of a gas occupies a volume of 22.4 L.

4
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
• Ideal Gas A hypothetical gas that perfectly fits
all assumptions of the kinetic-molecular model.
• Real gas A gas that does not behave according to
the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.

5
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
• 1. Gas Consists of large numbers of tiny
particles that are far apart relative to their
size.
•
• 2. Collisions between gases are always elastic.
• An elastic collision is one where there is no net
loss of total kinetic energy.
• 3. Gas particles are in continuous, rapid, random
motion.
• 4. There are no forces of attraction between gas
particles.
• 5. The temperature of a gas depends on the
average kinetic energy of the particles.

6
Gases and Pressure
• Pressure Force per unit area on a surface
• Equation FORCE
• AREA
• ?Pressure area ?
• ?Pressure area ?

7
Gases and Pressure
8
Gases and Pressure
• Different units for measuring pressure
• (need to memorize!)
• 1 atm
• 760 mmHg
• 101.3 kPa
• 101300 Pa
• 760 torr
• 14.7 lb/in2

9
Converting pressure
• 745mmHg_________________Kpa
• 16.5atm __________________lb/in2
• 11.3 lb/in2_________________Kpa
• 100.7Kpa__________________atm

10
• Barometer Instrument used to measure pressure.

11
Temperature Conversions
• Temperature Kelvin system
• KC273
• -16C__________K
• 8.7C___________K
• 212K__________C
• 0K_____________C

12
• Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
• Temperature 273 K
• Pressure 1 atm
• 760 mmHg
• 101.3 kPa
• 101300 Pa
• 760 torr
• 14.7 lb/in2

13
Daltons Law of Partial Pressure
• The sum of the partial pressures of all the
components in a gas mixture is equal to the total
pressure of a gas mixture.
• Equation P1 P2 P3 . PTotal

14
Daltons Law of Partial Pressure Examples
• A person using an oxygen mask is breathing air
with 33 oxygen. What is the partial pressure of
oxygen with the air pressure in the mask is
110Kpa?

15
Daltons Law of Partial Pressure Examples
• What is the atmospheric pressure if the partial
pressure of nitrogen, oxygen and argon are
604.5mmHg, 162.8mHg, and 0.5mmHg, respectively?

16
Daltons Law of Partial Pressure Examples
• Oxygen gas from the decomposition of potassium
chlorate was collected by water displacement. The
barometric pressure and the temperature during
the experiment were 731.0 torr and 20.0C. What
was the partial pressure of the oxygen collected?
(Hint Use Table A-8 in your text!)

17
Pressure and Volume Boyles Law
• The volume of a gas is indirectly proportional to
the Pressure (_at_ S.T)
• Equation P1V1 P2V2
• Visually

18
(No Transcript)
19
Pressure and Volume Boyles Law Examples
• A gas has an initial volume of 242cm3 at a
pressure of 87.6Kpa, what is the volume if the
pressure changes to standard pressure?

20
Pressure and Volume Boyles Law Examples
• A gas at a pressure of 608mmHg is held in a
container with a volume of 545cm3. The volume of
the container is then increased to 1065cm3
without a change in temperature. Calculate the
new pressure of the gas

21
Volume and Temperature Charles Law
• The volume of a gas is directly proportional to
the temperature (_at_ S.P).
• Equation V1 V2
• T1 T2
• Visually

22
Volume and Temperature Charles Law
23
• Animations
• http//www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/06stwbwrk/0
6gas/1esepcharles/esepcharles.html
• http//www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/06stwbwrk/0
6gas/2slyscharles/2slysflash.html

24
Volume and Temperature Charles Law - Examples
• If 20.0L of Oxygen gas are cooled from 100C to
0C. what is the new volume?

25
Volume and Temperature Charles Law - Examples
• A gas can be used as a thermometer. IF it is
known that the sample of gas has a volume of
1.00L at 255K, what is the temperature if the
volume of the same gas sample is changed to 0.45L

26
Pressure and Temperature Gay-Lussacs Law
• The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to
the temperature (_at_ constant volume).
• Equation

27
Pressure and Temperature Gay-Lussacs Law -
Examples
• The gas in a container is at a pressure of 3.00
atm at 25ºC. Directions on the container warn the
used not to keep it in a place where the
temperature exceeds 52ºC. What would the gas
pressure in the container be at a 52ºC?

28
Pressure and Temperature Gay-Lussacs Law -
Examples
• At 120.0ºC the pressure of a sample of nitrogen
is 1.07 atm. What will the pressure be at 205ºC,
assuming constant volume?

29
Combined gas Law
• Incorporates both Boyles and Charles laws. It
relates pressure, volume and temperature.
• Equation P1V1 P2V2
• T1 T2

30
Combined gas Law Examples
• A gas has a volume of 10.0cm3 measured at 75.6Kpa
and 60.0C, what is the new volume if conditions
change to STP?

31
Combined gas Law Examples
• A gas that had a volume of 955cm3 measured at 58C
and 108.0Kpa, what will be the new volume if the
conditions change to 76.0C and 123.0Kpa?

32
Gay-Lussacs law of combining volumes of gases
• at constant _______________ and
_________________, the _______________ of gaseous
reactants and producs can be expressed as
_____________ of _________________ _____________
________________.
• Animation
• http//www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/06stwbwrk/0
6gas/1amcslussac/amcsgaylussac.html

33
• The volume of a gas is _____________proportional
to the number of moles of that gas (_at_ S.T).
• Equation
• An anmimation http//www.marymount.k12.ny.us/mary
l

34
Volume and Moles Avagadros Law Examples
• Suppose we have a 12.2 L sample containing 0.50
moles of oxygen gas at a pressure of 1 atm and a
temperature of 25 C. If all of this oxygen is
converted to ozone, O3, at the same temperature
and pressure, what will be the volume of ozone
formed?

35
Volume and Moles Avagadros Law Examples
• Consider two samples of nitrogen gas. Sample one
contains 1.5 moles of nitrogen and has a volume
of 36.7 L at 25 C and 1 atm. Sample 2 has a
volume of 16.5 L at 25 C and 1 atm. Calculate the
number of moles of nitrogen in sample 2.

36
Gas Stoichiometry
• Standard molar volume of a gas The volume
occupied by ____________ ___________ of a gas
at STP has been found to equal ___________________
___.
• Example What volume does 0.0685 mol of gas
occupy at STP?

37
Gas Stoichiometry Example
• Propane, C3H8, is a gas that is sometimes used as
a fuel for cooking and heating. It undergoes a
combustion reaction. What will be the volume of
oxygen required for the complete combustion of
0.350L of propane?

38
The Ideal Gas Law
• PVnRT
• Where
• P
• V
• n
• R
• T

39
The Ideal Gas Law Examples
• What pressure will be exerted by .622 mol of a
gas contained in 9.22L at 16C. Find pressure in
Kpa.

40
The Ideal Gas Law Examples
• How many moles of a gas will occupy a 486cm3
flask at 10.C and 66.7 Kpa?

41
The Ideal Gas Law Examples
• What volume will be occupied by .684mol of gas at
99.4Kpa and 9C?

42
Diffusion and Effusion
• Diffusion
•
• Effusion
• Animation
• http//www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/06stwbwrk/0
6gas/2hdkrdiffusion/2hdkrdiffusion.html

43
Diffusion and Effusion
• Grahams Law Rates of _________________ of gases
at the same _____________ and ______________ are
inversely proportional to the _______________
____________ of their ________________
________________.

44
Diffusion and Effusion Examples
• Compare the rates of effusion of hydrogen and
oxygen at the same temperature and pressure.

45
Diffusion and Effusion Examples
• Compare the rate of effusion of carbon dioxide
with that of hydrogen chloride at the same
temperature and pressure.

46
• Animation Summary
• http//www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialche
mistry/flash/gasesv6.swf
• Web Quest
• http//www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/we
bquest/blimp.htm