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Chapter 11 Gas Laws

- Pages 361-391

- 7 Stamps
- 7 warm ups!

Background Information

- Air is composed of several kinds of colorless

gases. - Some gases have color.
- Chlorine (Cl2) yellow green
- Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) brownish-red
- Any 1 mole of a gas occupies a volume of 22.4 L.

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

- Ideal Gas A hypothetical gas that perfectly fits

all assumptions of the kinetic-molecular model. - Real gas A gas that does not behave according to

the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory.

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

- 1. Gas Consists of large numbers of tiny

particles that are far apart relative to their

size. - 2. Collisions between gases are always elastic.
- An elastic collision is one where there is no net

loss of total kinetic energy. - 3. Gas particles are in continuous, rapid, random

motion. - 4. There are no forces of attraction between gas

particles. - 5. The temperature of a gas depends on the

average kinetic energy of the particles.

Gases and Pressure

- Pressure Force per unit area on a surface
- Equation FORCE
- AREA
- ?Pressure area ?
- ?Pressure area ?

Gases and Pressure

Gases and Pressure

- Different units for measuring pressure
- (need to memorize!)
- 1 atm
- 760 mmHg
- 101.3 kPa
- 101300 Pa
- 760 torr
- 14.7 lb/in2

Converting pressure

- 745mmHg_________________Kpa
- 16.5atm __________________lb/in2
- 11.3 lb/in2_________________Kpa
- 100.7Kpa__________________atm

- Barometer Instrument used to measure pressure.

Temperature Conversions

- Temperature Kelvin system
- KC273
- -16C__________K
- 8.7C___________K
- 212K__________C
- 0K_____________C

- Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
- Temperature 273 K
- Pressure 1 atm
- 760 mmHg
- 101.3 kPa
- 101300 Pa
- 760 torr
- 14.7 lb/in2

Daltons Law of Partial Pressure

- The sum of the partial pressures of all the

components in a gas mixture is equal to the total

pressure of a gas mixture. - Equation P1 P2 P3 . PTotal

Daltons Law of Partial Pressure Examples

- A person using an oxygen mask is breathing air

with 33 oxygen. What is the partial pressure of

oxygen with the air pressure in the mask is

110Kpa?

Daltons Law of Partial Pressure Examples

- What is the atmospheric pressure if the partial

pressure of nitrogen, oxygen and argon are

604.5mmHg, 162.8mHg, and 0.5mmHg, respectively?

Daltons Law of Partial Pressure Examples

- Oxygen gas from the decomposition of potassium

chlorate was collected by water displacement. The

barometric pressure and the temperature during

the experiment were 731.0 torr and 20.0C. What

was the partial pressure of the oxygen collected?

(Hint Use Table A-8 in your text!)

Pressure and Volume Boyles Law

- The volume of a gas is indirectly proportional to

the Pressure (_at_ S.T) - Equation P1V1 P2V2
- Visually

(No Transcript)

Pressure and Volume Boyles Law Examples

- A gas has an initial volume of 242cm3 at a

pressure of 87.6Kpa, what is the volume if the

pressure changes to standard pressure?

Pressure and Volume Boyles Law Examples

- A gas at a pressure of 608mmHg is held in a

container with a volume of 545cm3. The volume of

the container is then increased to 1065cm3

without a change in temperature. Calculate the

new pressure of the gas

Volume and Temperature Charles Law

- The volume of a gas is directly proportional to

the temperature (_at_ S.P). - Equation V1 V2
- T1 T2
- Visually

Volume and Temperature Charles Law

- Animations
- http//www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/06stwbwrk/0

6gas/1esepcharles/esepcharles.html - http//www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/06stwbwrk/0

6gas/2slyscharles/2slysflash.html

Volume and Temperature Charles Law - Examples

- If 20.0L of Oxygen gas are cooled from 100C to

0C. what is the new volume?

Volume and Temperature Charles Law - Examples

- A gas can be used as a thermometer. IF it is

known that the sample of gas has a volume of

1.00L at 255K, what is the temperature if the

volume of the same gas sample is changed to 0.45L

Pressure and Temperature Gay-Lussacs Law

- The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to

the temperature (_at_ constant volume). - Equation

Pressure and Temperature Gay-Lussacs Law -

Examples

- The gas in a container is at a pressure of 3.00

atm at 25ºC. Directions on the container warn the

used not to keep it in a place where the

temperature exceeds 52ºC. What would the gas

pressure in the container be at a 52ºC?

Pressure and Temperature Gay-Lussacs Law -

Examples

- At 120.0ºC the pressure of a sample of nitrogen

is 1.07 atm. What will the pressure be at 205ºC,

assuming constant volume?

Combined gas Law

- Incorporates both Boyles and Charles laws. It

relates pressure, volume and temperature. - Equation P1V1 P2V2
- T1 T2

Combined gas Law Examples

- A gas has a volume of 10.0cm3 measured at 75.6Kpa

and 60.0C, what is the new volume if conditions

change to STP?

Combined gas Law Examples

- A gas that had a volume of 955cm3 measured at 58C

and 108.0Kpa, what will be the new volume if the

conditions change to 76.0C and 123.0Kpa?

Gay-Lussacs law of combining volumes of gases

- at constant _______________ and

_________________, the _______________ of gaseous

reactants and producs can be expressed as

_____________ of _________________ _____________

________________. - Animation
- http//www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/06stwbwrk/0

6gas/1amcslussac/amcsgaylussac.html

Volume and Moles Avagadros Law

- The volume of a gas is _____________proportional

to the number of moles of that gas (_at_ S.T). - Equation
- An anmimation http//www.marymount.k12.ny.us/mary

net/06stwbwrk/06gas/2lpimavogdro/2lpimavogadro.htm

l

Volume and Moles Avagadros Law Examples

- Suppose we have a 12.2 L sample containing 0.50

moles of oxygen gas at a pressure of 1 atm and a

temperature of 25 C. If all of this oxygen is

converted to ozone, O3, at the same temperature

and pressure, what will be the volume of ozone

formed?

Volume and Moles Avagadros Law Examples

- Consider two samples of nitrogen gas. Sample one

contains 1.5 moles of nitrogen and has a volume

of 36.7 L at 25 C and 1 atm. Sample 2 has a

volume of 16.5 L at 25 C and 1 atm. Calculate the

number of moles of nitrogen in sample 2.

Gas Stoichiometry

- Standard molar volume of a gas The volume

occupied by ____________ ___________ of a gas

at STP has been found to equal ___________________

___. - Example What volume does 0.0685 mol of gas

occupy at STP?

Gas Stoichiometry Example

- Propane, C3H8, is a gas that is sometimes used as

a fuel for cooking and heating. It undergoes a

combustion reaction. What will be the volume of

oxygen required for the complete combustion of

0.350L of propane?

The Ideal Gas Law

- PVnRT
- Where
- P
- V
- n
- R
- T

The Ideal Gas Law Examples

- What pressure will be exerted by .622 mol of a

gas contained in 9.22L at 16C. Find pressure in

Kpa.

The Ideal Gas Law Examples

- How many moles of a gas will occupy a 486cm3

flask at 10.C and 66.7 Kpa?

The Ideal Gas Law Examples

- What volume will be occupied by .684mol of gas at

99.4Kpa and 9C?

Diffusion and Effusion

- Diffusion
- Effusion
- Animation
- http//www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/06stwbwrk/0

6gas/2hdkrdiffusion/2hdkrdiffusion.html

Diffusion and Effusion

- Grahams Law Rates of _________________ of gases

at the same _____________ and ______________ are

inversely proportional to the _______________

____________ of their ________________

________________.

Diffusion and Effusion Examples

- Compare the rates of effusion of hydrogen and

oxygen at the same temperature and pressure.

Diffusion and Effusion Examples

- Compare the rate of effusion of carbon dioxide

with that of hydrogen chloride at the same

temperature and pressure.

- Animation Summary
- http//www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialche

mistry/flash/gasesv6.swf - Web Quest
- http//www.chemheritage.org/EducationalServices/we

bquest/blimp.htm