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Business Research


Business Research SMS Varanasi 1.1What is research? Research is the process of finding solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Business Research

Business Research
  • SMS
  • Varanasi


1 Introduction to Research
  • 1.1What is research?
  • Research is the process of finding solutions to a
    problem after a thorough study and analysis of
    the situational factors.

1.2.What is business research?
  • Research provides the needed information that
    guides managers to make informed decisions to
    successfully deal with problems.
  • The information provided could be the result of a
    careful analysis of data gathered firsthand or of
    data that are already available (in the company).

1.3.Types of Business research.
  • 1.Applied research
  • Is to solve a current problem faced by the
    manager in the work setting,demanding a timely
  • 2.Basic research (fundamental, pure)
  • Is to generate a body of knowledge by trying to
    comprehend how certain problems that occur in
    organizations can be solved.
  • The findings of such research contribute to the
    building of knowledge in the various functional
    areas of business.

1.4. Why is it important for managers to know
about research?
  • Solve problems
  • Decision making tool
  • Competition
  • Risk
  • Investment
  • Hire researchers and consultants more effectively

2 Scientific Investigation
  • 1 Observation
  • 2 Identification of problem area
  • 3 Theoretical framework
  • 4 Hypotheses
  • 5 Research design
  • 6 Data collection
  • 7 Data analysis
  • 8 Data interpretation
  • 9 Implementation

The seven-step process in the Hypothetico-Deductiv
e method
  • 1 Observation
  • 2 Problem identification
  • preliminary information gathering
  • 3 Theoretical framework
  • theory formulation
  • 4 Hypothesizing
  • 5 Research design
  • further scientific data collection
  • 6 logical analysis
  • 7 Deduction

The seven-step process
  • problem statement is a clear, precise, and
    succinct statement of the question or issue that
    is to be investigated with the goal of finding an
    answer or solution.
  • Theoretical framework is the foundation on which
    the entire research project is based.It is
    logically developed,described,and elaborated
    network of associations among the variables
    relevant to the problem situation.
  • A hypothesis is a tentative statement that
    proposes a possible explanation to some
    phenomenon or event. A useful hypothesis is a
    testable statement which may include a
    prediction. A hypotheses should not be confused
    with a theory.
  • Data analysis the data gathered are
    statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses
    that were generated have been supported.
  • Measurement is the process observing and
    recording the observations that are collected as
    part of a research effort.
  • Deduction is the process of arriving at
    conclusions by interpreting the meaning of the
    data analysis results.

Problem Formulation
  • "Well begun is half done" --Aristotle, quoting an
    old proverb
  • Where do research topics come from?
  • The idea for a research project?
  • one of the most common sources of research ideas
    is the experience of practical problems in the
  • The Literature Review

Levels of Measurement
The Research Cycle
  • The Research Cycle

Information needs in business
  • Almost every organization has to engage in
    research at some level to stay competitive.
  • Companies gather data both from within and
    outside the organization.
  • The methods used to gather,analyze,and synthesize
    information from the external and internal
    environments are becoming increasingly
    sophisticated to the immense scope of computer

Computer Technology and Business
  • ICT
  • Information
  • Communication
  • Technology

The research process
  • 1 Observation
  • 2 Data gathering
  • 3 Problem definition
  • 4 Theoretical framework (variables identified)
  • 5 Hypotheses
  • 6 Research design
  • 7 Data collection,analysis,interpretation
  • 8 Deduction
  • 9 Report writing
  • 10 Report presentation
  • 11 Managerial decision making

Research design
  • Purpose of the study
  • Exploratory study
  • Is undertaken when no information is available on
    how similar problems or research issues have been
    solved in the past
  • Descriptive study
  • Is to able to describe the characteristics of the
    variables of interest in a situation.
  • Hypotheses testing
  • Is undertaken to explain the variance in the
    dependent variable or to predict organizational
  • Case studies
  • Research design can be thought of as the
    structure of research -- it is the "glue" that
    holds all of the elements in a research project

  • The rating scale
  • Have several response catagories
  • Likert scale is designed o exermine how strongly
    subject agree or disagree with statements on a
    5-point scale
  • Ranking scale
  • Are used to tap preferences between two or more
    objects or items
  • Goodness of measure reliability,validity

Data collection methods
  • Data can be collected in a variety ways ,data
    sources can be primary or secondary.
  • Data collection methods such as
  • interview(face-to-face,telephone,computer-assisted
  • Questionaires
  • Observation
  • Motivational techniques

  • A sample is a subset of the population.
  • Sample is the process of selecting a sufficient
    number of elements from the population.
  • Studying a sample rather the entire population is
    sometimes to lead to more reliable results,
    mostly because fatigue is reduced,resulting in
    fewer errors on collection data. (time,
    cost,human resources)
  • Surveys are useful and powerful in finding
    answers to research question but if data are not
    collected from the people or objects that can
    provide the correct answers to solve the
    problem, the survey will be in vain.

Data Analysis and Interpretation
  • The data analysis involves three major steps,
    done in roughly this order
  • Cleaning and organizing the data for analysis
    (Data Preparation)
  • Describing the data (Descriptive Statistics)
  • Testing Hypotheses and Models (Inferential

Descriptive Statistics
  • Descriptive statistics
  • provide simple summaries about the sample and the
  • Central Tendency. The central tendency of a
    distribution is an estimate of the "center" of a
    distribution of values. There are three major
    types of estimates of central tendency
  • Mean is the most common-used measure of data
  • Median is the middle value , when the data
    is arranged in numerical order. 
  • Mode is the value ( number) that appears the
  • Dispersion (Range, Standard Diviation)refers to
    the spread of the values around the central
  • Inferential statistics
  • t-test, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Analysis
    of Covariance (ANCOVA), regression analysis,
    Correlation is a measure of the relation between
    two or more variables.
  • we use inferential statistics to make judgments
    of the probability that an observed difference
    between groups. Thus, we use inferential
    statistics to make inferences from our data to
    more general conditions
  • we use descriptive statistics simply to describe
    what's going on in our data.

Statistics methods
  • Central tendency

The Research Report
  • Researh proposal
  • Research report
  • Research presentation

Research report articles vary in how they are
  • Abstract - Brief summary of the contents of the
  • Introduction - A explanation of the purpose of
    the study, a statement of the research
    question(s) the study intends to address
  • Literature review - A critical assessment of the
    work done so far on this topic, to show how the
    current study relates to what has already been
  • Methods - How the study was carried out (e.g.
    instruments or equipment, procedures, methods to
    gather and analyze data)
  • Results - What was found in the course of the
  • Discussion - What do the results mean
  • Conclusion - State the conclusions and
    implications of the results, and discuss how it
    relates to the work reviewed in the literature
    review also, point to directions for further
    work in the area

Research Proposal
  • Title Page
  • Abstract (on a separate single page)
  • The Body (no page breaks between sections in the
  • Introduction (2-3 pages)
  • Methods (7-10 pages)
  • Sample (1 page)
  • Measures (2-3 pages)
  • Design (2-3 pages)
  • Procedures (2-3 pages)
  • Results (2-3 pages)
  • Conclusions (1-2 pages)
  • References
  • Tables (one to a page)
  • Figures (one to a page)
  • Appendices

  • How can you solve business problem?
  • Why do you need to know how to write the research
  • Do you understand the research process?
  • Do you know why do you have to identify problem
    statement clearly before doing research?
  • Do you know why sampling and statistics are
    important to the research result?
  • Why do you have to identify the limitation of
    your study?
  • Why the research report and presentation are
  • Do you know how to apply the steps of the
    research process ?

  • 1.If you want to set up a coffee shop near the
    university and school, what is your research
  • 2.Identify the problem statement.
  • 3.Identify the objectives
  • 4.The hypotheses
  • 5. The research methodology.
  • 6. The examples of the questionaire?