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Six Steps of the Writing Process


Six Steps of the Writing Process Six Steps of the Writing Process I. Planning II. Shaping III. Drafting IV. Revising V. Editing VI. Proofreading I. Planning A ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Six Steps of the Writing Process

Six Steps of the Writing Process
Six Steps of the Writing Process
  • I. Planning
  • II. Shaping
  • III. Drafting
  • IV. Revising
  • V. Editing
  • VI. Proofreading

I. Planning
consider purpose, audience, tone choose topic
discover ideas
A. Determining the Purpose
Purpose determines the material you choose, the
way your arrange it, and how it is
expressed 1. to express emotion? 2. to
inform? 3. to persuade?
B. Identifying the Audience
  • 1. Who will read the paper?
  • 2. What are the audiences age, sex, education?
  • 3. What are their needs, expectations, biases,
  • 4. What are their political, religious, and
    other beliefs?
  • 5. What biases do they have about the writer,
    subject, or opinion presented?
  • 6. Does your audience need definitions,
    overviews, examples, analogies?
  • 7. What does the audience expect?

C. Setting the Tone
  • 1. Formal
  • 2. Informal
  • 3. miscellaneous
  • a. remain consistent w/ purpose/audience
  • b. reveals the writers attitude toward
  • 4. word choice
  • a. denotations--dictionary meaning
  • b. connotations--beyond literal meaning

D. Analyzing the Assignment
  • 1. specific topic or free to choose?
  • 2. word, paragraph, page limit?
  • 3. due date?
  • 4. review of drafts?
  • 5. require research/documentation?
  • 6. specific format? (APA, MLA)

E. Choosing a Topic
  • 1. How?
  • a. instructor chosen
  • b. something you know or want to know about
  • 2. Narrow the topic
  • a. length

F. Finding Something to Say
  • 1. reading and observing
  • 2. keeping a journal
  • a. use a special book
  • b. write daily and date the entries
  • c. use your imaginationwrite down dreams,
    daydreams, songs, poems, story ideas, etc.
  • d. if you use someone elses quote, tell why
    you like it

  • 3. freewriting
  • a. time three to five minutes write
  • b. start with a word or topic important to
    you and write whatever you think about
  • c. if you cant think of anything new, copy
    the same word or phrase until something
    comes to youdont quit writing

  • EX
  • Freedom. Freedom. Freedom. Feeling free.
    Statue of Liberty I saw last year. Freedom.
    Feeling free on warm spring day when coats come
    off.. Bell ringing at 240. Being outside in
    the sun and wind. Not everyones so free. What
    about animals in cages at zoos? What about
    animals in cages? What about whales that swim
    around in small tanks? Do we have a right to do
    that to animals? IS FREEDOM ONLY FOR HUMANS?

  • 5. clustering (webbing, mapping)
  • a. write the subject in the center of the
    paper and circle it
  • b. in the space around the subject, write
    whatever related ideas occur to you.
    Circle these new ideas and draw lines
    connecting the new ideas with the original
  • c. dont stop writing

  • Kinds of cameras
  • Photography
  • restoring old photos
  • early photography
  • Matthew Brady

  • 4. Graphic organizers
  • a. write the subject at the top of the paper
  • b. list every idea that comes to mind
  • c. dont stop to evaluate the ideas
  • d. if you cant think of anything new, copy
    the same word or phrase until something
    comes to youdont quit writing

  • EX
  • Mummies graves
  • Daddies grave robbers
  • Egyptian mummies movie mummies
  • Famous mummies Brendon Frasier, not
  • Pyramids horror movies
  • Pharoahs mummies w/ bandages
  • King Tut religion
  • Afterlife mummies how preserved

Pippin Merry Sam

Merry-- Pippin--
Why they pledge their service
The manner which their lord treats them
How serve country
  • 6. asking journalistic questions-- a. who
  • b. what
  • c. when
  • d. where
  • e. why
  • f. how

  • Who Who were the major political figures in the
    American Revolution?
  • What What were the causes of the American
    Revolution? What were some of the results?
  • When When did the American Revolution take
  • Where Where did the American Revolution take
  • Why Why did some colonists fight for the
  • How How did the American Revolution affect

II. Shaping
  • Decide how to organize your material

A. Developing a Thesis
  • 1. Understanding
  • a. thesis main idea
  • b. support the information that explains
    and develops it
  • c. introductory paragraph opens essay and
    states thesis
  • d. body paragraphs support thesis
  • e. concluding paragraph closes and gives

  • 2. Four characteristics of an effective
  • a. clearly communicates the essays main
  • 1. what the topic is,
  • 2. how you will approach that topic
  • 3. what you will say about it

  • b. it is more than
  • 1. a general subject
  • a. The draft
  • 2. a statement of fact
  • a. The United States currently has no
    peacetime draft.
  • 3. an announcement of your intent
  • a. In this essay, I will consider our
    countrys need for a draft.

  • 4. good thesis statement Once the
    military draft may have been necessary to
    keep the armed forces strong however,
    todays all-volunteer force has eliminated
    the need for a draft.

  • c. carefully worded, direct
  • 1. Ineffective The real problem in our
    schools does not revolve around the absence
    of nationwide goals and standards the
    problem is primarily concerned with the
    absence of resources with which to implement
  • 2. Effective The real problem in our schools
    is not the absence of nationwide goals and
    standards the problem is the absence of
    resources with which to implement them.

  • d. suggests the essays direction,
    emphasis, and scope
  • 1. Thesis Widely ridiculed as escape
    reading, romance novels are becoming
    increasingly important as a proving ground
    for many never-before- published writers, and
    more significantly, as showcases for strong
  • 2. Do not use The reasons why tennis is
    such great exercise are

  • 3. Checklist for thesis
  • a. Does it clearly communicate the main
    idea, suggest the approach, and reflect the
  • b. Is it more than a subject, a statement of
    fact, or an announcement of intent?
  • c. Is it carefully worded to avoid vague and
    confusing language?
  • d. Does it suggest the essays direction,
    emphasis, and scope?

  • 4. Revising the thesis statement
  • a. begin writing w/ thesis in mind
  • b. thesis will evolve as you write and rewrite,
    think of new ideas, etc.
  • c. Examples
  • 1. rough draft Professional sports can
    easily be corrupted by organized crime.
  • 2. revised Although supporters of legalized
    sports betting argue that organized crime
    cannot make inroads into professional sports,
    the way in which underworld figures
    compromised the 1919 World Series suggests
    the opposite.

B. Support with Evidence
  • 1. Types of evidence
  • a. examples
  • b. reasons why
  • c. facts
  • d. details
  • e. statistics
  • f. anecdote
  • g. quotation

  • 2. Evidence is found...
  • a. in prewriting
  • b. personal experience
  • c. interview
  • d. library
  • 1. encyclopedias
  • 2. books
  • 3. magazines/newsprint
  • e. Internet

  • 3. Characteristics of evidence
  • a. relevant and unified--must clearly
    support the thesis
  • b. specific, concrete
  • c. adequate (enough concrete evidence)
  • d. accurate
  • e. representative--not an exception
  • f. borrowed evidence is documented

C. Organize the Evidence
  • 1. Pattern of development
  • a. description
  • b. narration
  • c. exemplification
  • d. division/classification
  • e. process analysis
  • f. comparison-contrast
  • g. cause-effect
  • h. argumentation-persuasion

  • 2. Select an organizational approach
  • a. chronological/time sequence
  • b. spatial--from a certain location
  • c. emphatic--most compelling evidence saved
    for last
  • d. simple to complex

D. Prepare an Outline
  • 1. Reread and evaluate your material.
  • 2. Write purpose, audience, tone, and thesis at
    the top of the outlining page.
  • 3. Below the thesis, enter the pattern of
    development that seems to be implied by the
    accumulated evidence.
  • 4. Record the which of the four organizational
    approaches that would be most effective.
  • 5. Reevaluate supporting material. Delete
    anything that doesnt support thesis.

  • 6. Add any new points or material.
  • 7. Group related items together and give each
    group a heading that represents a main topic in
    support of thesis.
  • 8. Label main topics w/ roman numerals.
  • 9. Identify subtopics.
  • 10. Group subtopics under appropriate main topic,
    indent, and label w/ capital letters.
  • 11. Identify supporting points (reason,

  • 12. Group them under appropriate subtopics,
    indent, and label with Arabic numbers.
  • 13. Identify specific details (secondary
    examples, facts, statistics, expert opinions,
    quotations. Group them under appropriate
    supporting points, indent, and label w/
    lowercase letters.
  • 14. Examine the outline for places where evidence
    is weak, and add new evidence.

E. Types of Outlines
1. topic outline--phrases or topics for the
entry 2. sentence outline--uses full sentences
III. Drafting

writing first draft
A. Strategies for Writing
1. Prepare work area 2. Fight writers
block--return to pre-writing if necessary 3. Take
breaks 4. Get ideas down quickly a. Begin with
body of paper. b. Introduction and conclusion
will be written last 5. T/S the first draft if
typing D/S by hand 6. Write on only one side of
the paper
B. Strategies for Writing
1. Write the supporting paragraphs
first. a. often focused by a topic
sentence b. organized around a pattern of
development 2. Connect ideas in the supporting
paragraphs. 3. Write the introduction. a. Broad
statement narrowing to a limited
subject b. brief anecdote c. idea that is the
opposite of the one developed d. series of short
  • e. definitions, quotations, controversial
  • f. refutation of a common belief
  • g. dramatic fact or statistic
  • 4. Write the conclusion.
  • a. summary
  • b. prediction or opinion
  • c. quotation
  • d. statistic
  • e. recommendation or call for action.
  • f. refer to the introduction

  • 5. Write the title.

  • A teachers personality is an important factor in
    creating a good learning environment for
    students. In this computer age when students
    have grown up playing video games, a good teacher
    has the ability to entertain his/her students.
    Teachers who entertain students create interest
    in the classroom and the subject matter. An
    interesting teacher uses many tools, such as
    humor, to grab a students attention. As a
    result, student performance in class may increase.

Body paragraph 1
  • In this computer age when students have grown up
    playing video games, a good teacher has the
    ability to entertain his/her students. Computers
    have become a primary source of entertainment for
    children who, as early as age two, are learning
    via Leap Frog (find source and cite). By first
    grade, most are proficient with Windows or Mac
    and others are already hooked by Playstation,
    Nintendo, or Wii (source). With this
    competition, a teacher must hook the interest
    of students through new methods of teaching. No
    longer can teachers just lecture a good teacher,
    instead, must rely on innovative activities that
    facilitate student learning by requiring active
    participation in their education.

IV. Revising
  • re-see write additional drafts

A. Suggestions for Revision
  • 1. set draft aside for awhile
  • 2. work from typed material if possible
  • 3. read draft aloud
  • 4. participate in peer review
  • a. dont be too easy or too critical
  • b. requires tact and kindness
  • c. should be constructive and include
  • observations about what works well

  • d. ask questions that need more than a yes
  • or no answer
  • e. take notes on someones oral
  • f. be open-minded
  • g. evaluate and respond to feedback, whether
    from instructor or from peer
  • h. view revision as a series of steps it
    may take more than one draft
  • i. see peer checklist page 73-75 in MR

V. Editing
  • A. check grammar
  • B. spelling
  • C. punctuation
  • D. mechanics
  • E. see editing checklist page 41 in HH

VI. Proofreading
  • check for typographical errors