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Title: Unit 10 Personality


1
Unit 10 Personality
2
Introduction
  • Personality

3
Two Main Theories
  • Psychodynamic Theory Freuds theory that calls
    attention to motivation, especially unconscious
    motives, and the influence of our past
    experiences on the formation of personality.
  • Humanistic Theory focused on our inner
    capacities for growth and self-fulfillment
  • Man is Good philosophy

4
Psychodynamic Theory
  • First theory on personality (early 1900s)
  • We are driven by unconscious forces (sexual and
    aggressive forces).
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Hypnosis
  • Dreams latent and manifest
  • Free association

5
What is the iceberg analogy of consciousness?
6
Levels of Consciousness Iceberg theory
  • 1. Conscious mind like the top of the iceberg,
    only a small portion of our mind is accessible to
    us.
  • 2. Preconscious mind outside awareness but
    easily accessible. Forgotten memories, but
    easily recalled
  • 3. Unconscious mind is completely outside of
    our awareness (could produce anxiety if made
    conscious).
  • a reservoir of unacceptable thoughts, wishes,
    feelings emotions, and memories

7
Parts of Personality
  • 1. Id pleasure principle unconscious impulses
    that want to be gratified, without regard to
    potential punishment.
  • 2. Ego reality principle moderates between
    the id and superego.
  • 3. Superego the moral principle of our
    personality which tells us right from wrong our
    conscience

8
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9
What TV characters, especially Simpsons
characters, are driven by the ID?
10
ID
11
ID leads us to eating and drinking
12
How about Superego?
13
Superego
14
How about ego, our voice of reason?
15
Ego
16
Id controlling Marge.
17
Exploring the UnconsciousPersonality Development
  • Psychosexual stages
  • Oral
  • Anal
  • Phallic
  • Latency
  • Genital

18
Oral Stage
19
Oral Stage
  • The pleasure center is the mouth.
  • If not gratified at this stage become fixated
  • do things with mouth for pleasure
  • Ex. Smoking, eating, gum chewing, nail biting
  • exhibit passive dependence
  • Ex. lack of self-confidence, indecisiveness, and
    a tendency to cling to and seek support from
    others.
  • exaggerated dependence
  • Ex. Acting tough, sarcastic

20
Anal Stage
21
Anal stage
  • Fixation occurs if potty training occurs too
    early or if potty training not encouraged
  • Too early - Anal retentive are overly-neat and
    organized (Type A personality)
  • Haphazardly - Anal expulsive are overly messy and
    irresponsible.

22
Phallic stage
  • Genitals are the pleasure zone.
  • Oedipal complex boys have erotically tinged
    preference for their mother compete with their
    father for mothers attention
  • Gender identity occurs during this stage

23
Phallic stage cont. . .
  • Must cope with incestuous sexual feelings
  • Not resolving the Oedipal conflict may result in
    boy not identifying with father, sexual
    deviance/disfunction
  • Electra complex (girls equivalent to Oedipus)
  • Girls have penis envy and blame and resent their
    mothers for their anatomical deficiency.

24
Latency Period
  • Latency cooties stage - sexuality is hidden
    (latency hidden)
  • Children in same sex groups.
  • Boys hang with father. Girls with mother.
  • Begins around age 6

25
Genital stage (puberty )
  • Libidinal energy is not focused on your own
    genitals (like in the phallic stage) but on other
    peoples genitals.
  • Fixation in earlier stages will hinder this
    stage.
  • If all stages successfully completed person
    should be sexually matured and mentally healthy

26
Exploring the UnconsciousPsychosexual Stages
27
What are ego Defense Mechanisms?
  • How our personality (ego) deals with unpleasant
    emotions and thoughts.
  • 8 Defense Mechanisms tactics that reduce
    anxiety by distorting reality
  • Repression
  • Rationalization
  • Reaction formation
  • Projection
  • Regression
  • Displacement
  • Sublimation
  • Denial

28
8 Defense mechanisms
  • 1. Repression motivated forgetting the
    suppression of unpleasant thoughts. We push
    unpleasant thoughts into unconscious so that we
    cant access them.
  • E.g., a child who is molested, may suppress the
    traumatic event so that he/she has no memory for
    the event.

29
2. Rationalization we justify something bad
weve done
  • You run over a person and tell yourself Im sure
    he would have died soon anyway.
  • You steal and say, Well, I spend a lot of money
    at this store!

30
Everybody else is doing it!
New Orleans looting after Katrina
31
3.Regression
  • Dealing with problems by regressing or going
    backward in terms of maturity.
  • Ex Soldiers crying for mommy
  • Ex Fighting couples acting immature.

32
4. Displacement- you take out your anger
frustration on a person or object not the actual
target of your anger in a negative way
  • E.g., After being grilled by your boss, you go
    home yell at your partner or the dog/cat.
  • Peeing on the teachers car.

33
5. Projection You attribute your negative
characteristics to another person.
  • When people project their own faults onto others,
    they generally do not deny that they themselves
    possess those faults.
  • E.g., Your partner tells you how selfish you are,
    when they are in fact selfish.
  • If you have a strong dislike for someone, you
    might instead believe that he or she does not
    like you

34
6. Reaction Formation acting the opposite of
how you feel.
  • You do the opposite of how you feel to defend
    your own doubts.
  • E.g., A person who doubts his faith may act like
    a religious zealot to defend his religion.
  • E.g., A person who is angry with a colleague
    actually ends up being particularly courteous and
    friendly towards them.

35
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36
7. Denial- refusing to believe something
unpleasant has occurred.
  • We refuse to accept horrible news, even with
    evidence to the contrary.
  • E.g., you hear a friend has died wont believe
    its true.

37
I dont have drinking problem
38
8. Sublimation Making something bad about
yourself into something positive.
  • Dont mix up with displacement (kicking dog)
  • E.g., Aggressive impulses are transformed into
    the urge to engage in competitive sports.
  • A person who has an obsessive need for control
    and order becomes a successful business
    entrepreneur
  • Most desirable way of dealing with unacceptable
    id impulses.

39
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40
Neo-Freudian Theorists
  • Accept Freuds basic ideas
  • Id, ego, superego
  • Importance of unconscious
  • Personality develops in childhood
  • Different
  • More emphasis on conscious mind
  • Disagreed with the importance of childhood sexual
    instincts

41
The Neo-Freudian Theorists
  • Neo-Freudians
  • Adler - inferiority complex
  • Horney - sense of helplessness
  • Jungs - collective unconscious
  • Ex. Different cultures share same
  • legends
  • Psychodynamic theory

42
Assessing Unconscious Processes
  • Projective Test
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  • Rorschach Inkblot Test

43
Criticisms of Freuds theory
  • 1.   Freud had no scientific data to support his
    theories.
  • 2.   Freuds theories (unconscious, libido, etc.)
    cannot be observed.
  • 3.   Theory explains behavior (post-hoc) after
    the fact.
  • 4.   Doubt that conscience and gender identity
    form as child resolves Oedipus complex at age
    5-6we gain gender identity early and become
    masculine or feminine even without a same sex
    parent
  • 5. Research contradicts that painful memories
    are repressed

44
Criticisms of Freud
  • 6. Neural networks not mature enough to sustain
    the emotional trauma as Freud assumed
  • 7. Freud overestimated parental influence and
    underestimated child abuse and peer influence
  • 8. New ideas of why we dream dispute Freuds
    belief that dreams disguise and fulfill wishes.
  • 9. Slips of tongue can be explained through
    competition between similar verbal choices in our
    memory network
  • 10. The modern unconscious mind
  • False consensus effect
  • Terror management theory

45
Pros of Freuds theory
  • 1. Argued that childhood experiences are
    important in personality development.
  • 2. Information outside of awareness does
    influence us ie. Procedural memory (implicit)
  • 3. Defense mechanismsgood descriptions of some
    of our behaviors.
  • 4. Research agrees - conscious awareness of what
    goes on in our minds is very limited

46
Humanistic Psychology
  • 1960s people became sick of Freuds negativity
    and Skinners mechanistic behaviorism.
  • Freud studied the ill, humanists studied the
    healthy and ways they strive for self
    determination and self actualization

47
Abraham Maslows Self Actualizing Person
  • Hierarchy of Needs
  • Self- actualization - process of fulfilling our
    potential.
  • Self-transcendence meaning purpose and
    communion beyond the self
  • Studied healthy people

48
Who did Maslow study?
49
Self-Actualized People
  • They share certain characteristics
  • They are self aware and self accepting
  • Open and spontaneous
  • Loving and caring
  • Not paralyzed by others opinions.
  • They are secure in who they are.

50
Self-Actualized People
  • Problem centered rather than self-centered.

Focused their energies on a particular task.
Few deep relationships, rather than many
superficial ones.
51
Self-Actualization
  • These are the qualities that make up a mature
    adult.
  • These people have found their calling in life.

Is this a goal worth striving for?
52
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53
Carl Rogers
  • People are basically
  • Good
  • Personal growth is
  • promoted by inter-actions
  • with others who are
  • genuine, accepting, and
  • empathetic

54
Carl Rogers Person-Centered Perspective
  • Carl Rogers
  • Growth promoting climate
  • Genuineness
  • Acceptance
  • Empathy
  • Unconditional positive
    regard
  • Self-concept

55
Assessing the Self
  • Self-report tests
  • Congruency
  • Ideal versus actual self

56
Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective
  • Renewed interest in self-concept
  • Criticisms
  • Vague and subjective
  • Individualistic and Western biased
  • Naïve

57
The Trait Perspective
58
Traits
  • Trait
  • Describing rather than explaining
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

59
Exploring TraitsFactor Analysis
  • Factor analysis
  • Eysenck and Eysenck
  • Extroversion versus introversion
  • Emotional stability versus instability
  • Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

60
Exploring TraitsFactor Analysis
61
Exploring TraitsFactor Analysis
62
Exploring TraitsFactor Analysis
63
Exploring TraitsFactor Analysis
64
Exploring TraitsFactor Analysis
65
Exploring TraitsFactor Analysis
66
Exploring TraitsFactor Analysis
67
Exploring TraitsBiology and Personality
  • Brain scans
  • Brain arousal
  • Genetics
  • Autonomic nervous system reactivity

68
Assessing Traits
  • Personality inventory
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    (MMPI)
  • Empirically derived test
  • Objective test
  • Lie scale

69
The Big Five Factors
  • The Big Five
  • Conscientiousness
  • Agreeableness
  • Neuroticism
  • Emotional stability vs instability
  • Openness
  • Extraversion

70
The Big Five Factors
71
The Big Five Factors
72
The Big Five Factors
73
The Big Five Factors
74
The Big Five Factors
75
The Big Five Factors
76
The Big Five Factors
77
The Big Five Factors
  • Questions on The Big Five
  • How stable are the traits?
  • How heritable are the traits?
  • Do the traits predict other personal attributes?

78
Traits and the Stars
  • Stock spiel builds on the observation that each
    of us is in some ways like no one else and in
    other ways just like everyone
  • Barnum effect acceptance of stock positive
    descriptions. Theres a sucker born every
    minute

79
Evaluating the Trait PerspectiveThe
Person-Situation Controversy
  • Person-situation controversy
  • Are traits
    consistent?
  • Can traits
    predict
    behavior?

80
The Social-Cognitive Perspective
81
The Social-Cognitive Perspective
  • Social-cognitive perspective (Bandura)
  • 1. learn many of our behaviors either through
    conditioning or observing others (social part)
  • 2. Emphasize the importance of mental processes
    (cognitive part)
  • 3. Focus on our interaction with the
    environment (interpretation and response to
    external events)

82
Reciprocal Influences
  • Reciprocal determinism

83
Reciprocal Influences
  • Ways individuals and the environment interact
  • Different people choose different environments
  • Our personalities shape how we interpret and
    react to events
  • Our personalities help create situations to which
    we react

84
The Biopsychosocial Approach to the Study of
Personality
85
Personal Control
  • Personal control
  • Two ways to study personal control
  • Correlate peoples feelings of control with their
    behaviors and achievements
  • Experiment by raising and lowering peoples sense
    of control and noting the effects

86
Personal ControlInternal Versus External Locus
of Control
  • Internal versus external locus of control
  • External locus of control
  • Internal locus of control

87
Personal ControlDepleting and Strengthening
Self-Control
  • Self-control

88
Personal ControlBenefits of Personal Control
  • Learned helplessness

89
Personal ControlBenefits of Personal Control
  • Learned helplessness

90
Personal ControlBenefits of Personal Control
  • Learned helplessness

91
Personal ControlBenefits of Personal Control
  • Learned helplessness

92
Personal ControlBenefits of Personal Control
  • Learned helplessness
  • Tyranny of choice

93
Personal ControlOptimism Versus Pessimism
  • Optimism and Health
  • Excessive Optimism
  • Blindness to ones
    own incompetence
  • Positive psychology
  • Seligman
  • Self Serving Bias

94
Assessing Behavior in Situations
  • US Army spy training
  • Business use of simulations

95
Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Perspective
  • Based on research
  • Focuses too much on the situation

96
Comparing Research Methods
97
Comparing Research Methods
98
Comparing Research Methods
99
Comparing Research Methods
100
Comparing Research Methods
101
Comparing Research Methods
102
Comparing Research Methods
103
Exploring the Self
104
Introduction
  • Self
  • Possible
    selves
  • Spotlight
    effect

105
The Benefits of Self-Esteem
  • Self-esteem

106
Self-Serving Bias
  • Self-serving bias
  • People accept more responsibility for good deeds
    than for bad, successes than failures
  • Most people see themselves as better than
    average
  • Defensive self-esteem

107
Culture and the Self
  • Individualism
  • Collectivism

108
Individualism versus Collectivism
109
Individualism versus Collectivism
110
Individualism versus Collectivism
111
Individualism versus Collectivism
112
Individualism versus Collectivism
113
Individualism versus Collectivism
114
Individualism versus Collectivism
115
Individualism versus Collectivism
116
The End
117
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123
Definition Slides
124
Personality
  • an individuals characteristic pattern of
    thinking, feeling, and acting.

125
Free Association
  • in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the
    unconscious in which the person relaxes and says
    whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or
    embarrassing.

126
Psychoanalysis
  • Freuds theory of personality that attributes
    thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and
    conflicts the techniques used in treating
    psychological disorders by seeking to expose and
    interpret unconscious tensions.

127
Unconscious
  • according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly
    unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and
    memories. According to contemporary
    psychologists, information processing of which we
    are unaware.

128
Id
  • a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that,
    according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic
    sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on
    the pleasure principle, demanding immediate
    gratification.

129
Ego
  • the largely conscious, executive part of
    personality that, according to Freud, mediates
    among the demands of the id, superego, and
    reality. The ego operates on the reality
    principle, satisfying the ids desires in ways
    that will realistically bring pleasure rather
    than pain.

130
Superego
  • the part of personality that, according to
    Freud, represents internalized ideals and
    provides standards for judgment (the conscience)
    and for future aspirations.

131
Psychosexual Stages
  • the childhood stages of development, (oral,
    anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which,
    according to Freud, the ids pleasure-seeking
    energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.

132
Oedipus Complex
  • according to Freud, a boys sexual desires
    toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and
    hatred for the rival father.

133
Identification
  • the process by which, according to Freud,
    children incorporate their parents values into
    their developing superegos.

134
Fixation
  • according to Freud, a lingering focus of
    pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier
    psychosexual state, in which conflicts were
    unresolved.

135
Defense Mechanisms
  • in psychoanalytic theory, the egos protective
    methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously
    distorting reality.

136
Repression
  • in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense
    mechanism that banishes anxiety- arousing
    thoughts, feelings, and memories from
    consciousness.

137
Regression
  • psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an
    individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more
    infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic
    energy remains fixated.

138
Reaction Formation
  • psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the
    ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulse
    into their opposites. Thus, people may express
    feelings that are the opposite of their
    anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.

139
Projection
  • psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which
    people disguise their own threatening impulses by
    attributing them to others.

140
Rationalization
  • psychoanalytic defense mechanism that offers
    self-justifying explanations in place of the
    real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for
    ones actions.

141
Displacement
  • psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts
    sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more
    acceptable or less threatening object or person,
    as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet.

142
Sublimation
  • psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which
    people re-channel their unacceptable impulses
    into socially approved activities.

143
Denial
  • psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which
    people refuse to believe or even to perceive
    painful realities.

144
Collective Unconscious
  • Carl Jungs concept of a shared, inherited
    reservoir of memory traces from our species
    history.

145
Projective Test
  • a personality test, such as the Rorschach or
    TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to
    trigger projection of ones inner dynamics.

146
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  • a projective test in which people express their
    inner feelings and interests through the stories
    they make up about ambiguous scenes.

147
Rorschach Inkblot Test
  • the most widely used projective test, a set of
    10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach seeks
    to identify peoples inner feelings by analyzing
    their interpretations of the blots.

148
Terror-management Theory
  • a theory of death-related anxiety explores
    peoples emotional and behavioral responses to
    reminders of their impending death.

149
Self-actualization
  • according to Maslow, one of the ultimate
    psychological needs that arises after basic
    physical and psychological needs are met and
    self-esteem is achieved the motivation to
    fulfill ones potential.

150
Unconditional Positive Regard
  • according to Rogers, an attitude of total
    acceptance toward another person.

151
Self-concept
  • all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves,
    in answer to the question, Who am I?

152
Trait
  • a characteristic pattern of behavior or a
    disposition to feel and act, as assessed by
    self-report inventories and peer reports.

153
Personality Inventory
  • a questionnaire (often true-false or
    agree-disagree items) on which people respond to
    items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings
    and behaviors used to assess selected
    personality traits.

154
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
  • the most widely researched and clinically used
    of all personality tests. Originally developed to
    identify emotional disorders (still considered
    its most appropriate use), this test is now used
    for many other screening purposes.

155
Empirically Derived Test
  • a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing
    a pool of items and then selecting those that
    discriminate between groups.

156
Social-cognitive Perspective
  • views behavior as influenced by the interaction
    between peoples traits (including their
    thinking) and their social context.

157
Reciprocal Determinism
  • the interacting influences of behavior,
    internal cognition, and environment.

158
Personal Control
  • the extent to which people perceive control
    over their environment rather than feeling
    helpless.

159
External Locus of Control
  • the perception that chance or outside forces
    beyond your personal control determine your fate.

160
Internal Locus of Control
  • the perception that you control your own fate.

161
Positive Psychology
  • the scientific study of optimal human
    functioning aims to discover and promote
    strengths and virtues that enable individuals and
    communities to thrive.

162
Self
  • in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the
    center of personality, the organizer of our
    thoughts, feelings, and actions.

163
Spotlight Effect
  • overestimating others noticing and evaluating
    our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if
    we presume a spotlight shines on us).

164
Self-esteem
  • ones feelings of high or low self-worth.

165
Self-serving Bias
  • a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.

166
Individualism
  • giving priority to ones own goals to over
    group goals and defining ones identity in terms
    of personal attributes rather than than group
    identifications

167
Collectivism
  • giving priority to the goals of ones group
    (often ones extended family or work group) and
    defining ones identity accordingly.
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