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Seven Families of Phytochemicals

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Seven Families of Phytochemicals B-3.03 -- Seven Families of Phytochemicals * Seven Families Allyl sulfides Carotenoids carotenes, xanthophylls Flavonoids ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Seven Families of Phytochemicals


1
Seven Families of Phytochemicals
2
Seven Families
  • Allyl sulfides
  • Carotenoids carotenes, xanthophylls
  • Flavonoids isoflavones
  • Indoles isothiocyanates
  • Phenolic acids (or phenols) polyphenols
  • Saponins
  • Terpenes

3
Characteristics
  • Scientists are examining their
  • structure,
  • stability in food, and
  • sources.
  • Function
  • Gives foods color and flavor.
  • Helps plants resist pests and disease.
  • Provides potential health benefits.

B-3.03 -- Seven Families of Phytochemicals
4
1 -- Allyl Sulfides
  • Contain sulfur
  • Increase enzyme reactions
  • Sources -- onions, garlic, leeks, chives
  • Benefits in raw and cooked forms

5
2 -- Carotenoids
  • Over 600 known carotenoids
  • Precursors to vitamin A
  • Subgroups
  • Carotenes
  • Xanthophylls

6
Carotenes
  • Contain only carbon and hydrogen atom
  • Not readily destroyed by heat
  • Alpha-carotene pumpkins and carrots
  • Beta-carotene dark green yellow vegetables
  • Lycopene tomatoes, watermelon, guava, and red
    peppers

7
Xanthophylls
  • Yellow and orange in color
  • Stability related to food source
  • Lutein and zeaxanthin

8
3 -- Flavonoids
  • Most red and white in color
  • Responsible for flavor
  • Potential benefits
  • Anti-flammatory/anti-carcinogen
  • Sources
  • Apples
  • Broccoli
  • Cranberries
  • Onions
  • Red grape juice, and
  • Tea

9
Isoflavones
  • Subgroup of flavonoids
  • Also called phytoestrogens or plant hormones
  • Genistein and daidzein are best known.
  • Sources
  • Soy
  • Chickpeas
  • Licorice
  • Oriental vegetables -- Chinese cabbage and bok
    choy

10
4 -- Indoles
  • Found in cruciferous vegetables
  • Broccoli, cabbage, kale, and cauliflower
  • Stimulate enzymatic reactions
  • Heating and thorough chewing speed these chemical
    reactions
  • Isothiocyanates
  • subgroup that forms aroma in Brussells sprouts,
    cabbage, turnips, mustard greens, watercress, and
    radishes

11
5 -- Phenolic Acids
  • Weak acids
  • Sources
  • Carrots
  • Citrus
  • Nuts
  • Raspberries
  • Strawberries
  • Tomatoes
  • Whole grains

12
Polyphenols
  • Sources
  • Green and black teas (green are higher)
  • Red and purple grape products
  • Rosemary
  • Sunflower seeds, barley, and apples

13
6 -- Saponins
  • Product of a sugar and alcohol
  • Sources
  • Spinach, potatoes, tomatoes, oats, beans,
    legumes, soybeans, sugar beets, peanuts, and
    asparagus

14
7 -- Terpenes
  • Flavor compound in citrus, cherries and many
    seasonings and herbs
  • Taxol
  • Best known
  • Found in Pacific Yew tree
  • Can be very toxic

15
Best Sources of Phytochemicals
  • Vegetables
  • Black and green tea
  • Dark green and orange
  • Herbs
  • Legumes
  • Nuts
  • Onions and garlic
  • Soy
  • Tomatoes
  • Fruits
  • Apples
  • Berries -- blueberries, raspberries,
    blackberries, and strawberries
  • Citrus peel
  • Dark orange fruits -- mango, papaya, apricots,
    peaches, nectarines
  • Red and purple grapes
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