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George H. Bush, 1988 Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT) ... have a filter to stop it from revealing its personality Projective Test The Rorschach Inkblot Test A ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Personality

Defining Personality
  • An individuals unique and enduring pattern of
    thinking, feeling, and behaving across a variety
    of situations
  • You are honest, dependable, anxious, excitable?

  • What factors determine an individuals unique

The Psychoanalytic Approach
  • Freuds theory that an individual's personality
    is reflective of their unconscious thoughts and

  • The part of our brain processes that we are
    unaware of and have no control over

  • Whats in the Unconscious Mind?

  • ID
  • EGO

  • The most basic of all human instincts and desires
    live in the unconscious mind. Primitive,
    uncontrolled thoughts of sex, aggression, hunger.

  • The ID works on the pleasure principle of
    immediate gratification, without any
    consideration to consequences.

  • The ID houses our repressed thoughts, passions,
    desires, wishes, feelings, etc. All of the things
    that wed like to do if there were no
    consequences, yet dont act upon, lie dormant in
    the ID.

  • Part of the unconscious mind that focuses on the
    real world, and focuses solely on how you should
  • The superego internalizes ideals, standards,
    laws, rules and morals and norms to govern a
    persons behavior

  • The semi-conscious part of your personality that
    operates on the reality principle
  • The EGO mediates behavior choices between the
    wants and desires of the ID, and the morals and
    norms of the SUPEREGO

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  • The ID, SUPEREGO, EGO Conflict

  • How do we access the Unconscious Mind?

  • Freud believed that to really understand a
    patients true personality, he needed to access
    the unconscious mind, or at least interpret its
    disguised, conscious manifestations

Free Association
  • Freuds method of exploring the unconscious mind,
    in which a person relaxes and says whatever comes
    to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing

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Dream Interpretation
  • Manifest Content the actual content of dreams
  • Latent Content the interpretation of a dream

The Freudian Slip
  • Slips of speech when the ID passes through
    unfiltered. Insights into your real thoughts and
  • "As I was telling my husb" before abruptly
    breaking off and correcting herself "As I was
    telling President Bush. Condoleezza Rice, 2006
  • For seven and a half years Ive worked alongside
    President Reagan. Weve had triumphs. Made some
    mistakes. Weve had some sexuhsetbacks.
    George H. Bush, 1988

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Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
  • Subjects are shown pictures and then asked to
    make up stories abut them. Researchers claim
    that the subjects will project their own
    feelings, goals, desires, etc. onto the picture,
    and their resulting story will reveal their
    inner, unconscious mind.

  • With the conscious mind resting, the still active
    unconscious mind wont have a filter to stop it
    from revealing its personality

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Projective Test The Rorschach Inkblot Test
  • A set of 10 inkblots, without any discernable
    patterns or images, are presented to a patient.
    Subjects simply identify what they think the
    inkblot looks like, and researchers interpret
    those identifications as personality

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Rorschach Inkblot Test
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               Plate X

  • What does this all mean?

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  • Black ink. A roughly triangular shape, point
    down, suggesting a broad, fox like face with
    prominent ears. Naughty bits a pair of breasts
    (rounded projections at top of blot) a vertical
    female figure, her torso partly visible through a
    gauzy dress (along center line). The first blot
    is easy. How fast you answer is taken as an
    indication of how well you cope with new
    situations. The best reaction is to give one of
    the most common responses immediately. Good
    answers are bat, butterfly, moth, and (in center
    of blot) a female figure. Mask, jack-o'-lantern,
    and animal face are common responses too, but in
    some interpretation schemes they suggest
    paranoia. A bad response is any that says
    something untoward about the central female
    figure. "She" is often judged to be a projection
    of your own self-image. Avoid the obvious comment
    that the figure has two breasts but no head. If
    you don't give more than one answer for Plate I,
    many psychologists will drop a hint--tell you to
    look closer.

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  • Black and red ink. Two dark-gray splotches
    suggesting dancing figures. Red splotches at top
    of each figure and at bottom center. Naughty
    bits penis (upper center, black ink) vagina
    (the red area at bottom center). It is
    important to see this blot as two human figures
    usually females or clowns. If you don't, it's
    seen as a sign that you have trouble relating to
    people. You may give other responses as well,
    such as cave entrance (the triangular white space
    between the two figures) and butterfly (the red
    "vagina," bottom center). Should you mention
    the penis and vagina? Not necessarily. Every
    Rorsehach plate has at least one obvious
    representation of sexual anatomy. You're not
    expected to mention them all. In some
    interpretation schemes, mentioning more than four
    sex images in the ten plates is diagnostic of
    schizophrenia. The trouble is, subjects who took
    Psychology 101 often assume they should detail
    every possible sex response, so allowances must
    be made. Most Rorschach workers believe the sex
    images should play a part in the interpretation
    of responses even when not mentioned. You may not
    say that the lower red area looks like a vagina,
    but psychologists assume that what you do say
    will show how you feel about women. Nix on
    "crab" stick with "butterfly."

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  • Black and red ink. Two obvious .figures (black
    ink) facing each other. Butterfly-shaped red blot
    between the figures an elongated red blot behind
    each figure's head. Naughty bits penises and
    breasts (at anatomically appropriate positions
    for each figure). This is the blot that
    supposedly can determine sexual preference. Most
    people see the two human figures. Both figures
    have prominent "breasts" and an equally prominent
    "penis." If you don't volunteer the gender of the
    figures, you'll be asked to specify it. By the
    traditional interpretation, seeing the figures as
    male is a heterosexual response (for test
    subjects of both sexes). Describing the figures
    as female or acknowledging the androgynous nature
    of the blot is supposed to be a homosexual
    response. Does it work? Not really--many
    straights describe the figures as women, and not
    all gays give a gay response. A 1971 study at
    Mount Sinai Hospital in New York showed the
    traditionally heterosexual response (two male
    figures) to be declining in popularity. The
    splotches of red ink are usually perceived
    separately. Common responses are "bow-tie" or
    "ribbon" (inner red area) and a stomach and
    esophagus (outer red areas).

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  • Black ink. A roughly triangular blot, point up,
    with the two lower comer regions resembling boots
    or pet. Naughty bits two penises (on either side
    of blot, near top of triangle) vagina (on center
    line near top of blot). Plate IV is the "father
    card." At first glance it is a difficult blot to
    see as a single image. The "boots" are fairly
    conspicuous between them is the apparent head of
    a dog or Chinese dragon. Many subjects see the
    blot as an animal skin. After a few seconds,
    though, most can see it as a standing figure seen
    from below. The boots become the feet, enlarged
    because of the unusual perspective. The arms and
    head, at the top, are smaller. Common
    descriptions are bear, gorilla, or man in a heavy
    coat. Bad descriptions are monster or attacking
    bear or gorilla-Rorschach theorists equate your
    description of the figure with your perception of
    your father or male authority figures.

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  • Black ink. A simple, bat like shape. Naughty
    bits two penises (the "ears" or "antennae").
    Rorschach himself thought this was the easiest
    blot to interpret. It is a bat or a butterfly,
    period. You don't want to mention anything else.
    Seeing the projections on the ends of the bat
    wings as crocodile heads signifies hostility.
    Seeing the paired butterfly antennae or feet as
    scissors or pliers signifies a castration
    complex. Schizophrenics sometimes see moving
    people in this blot. Many psychologists take
    particular note of the number of responses given
    to this plate. If you mention more images here
    than in either Plate IV or VI, it is suggestive
    of schizophrenia.

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  • Black ink. An irregular shape like that of an
    animal-skin rug. Naughty bits penis (center line
    at top) vagina (below penis). Plate VI is the
    most difficult blot. The best-rendered penis of
    all the blots is at top, but few subjects mention
    it. The rest of the blot doesn't look like much
    of anything. Some hold that the value of this
    blot is to have the subject grope for images and
    possibly reveal subconscious attitudes about
    sexuality. Basically, the secret of this plate
    is to turn it. A good response is to say it looks
    like an animal hide (about the only reasonable
    response when held right side up), then turn it
    on its side and say it looks like a boat or
    surfaced submarine with reflection, and then turn
    it upside down and say it looks like a mushroom
    cloud, a pair of theater masks, or caricatures of
    men with long noses and goatees.

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  • Black ink. A U-shaped blot, each side of the U
    resembling a female figure in a narrow-waisted
    dress. Naughty bits a vagina (on center line at
    bottom of U). This blot is supposed to reveal
    how you really feel about your mother. Virtually
    everyone sees two girls or women. Deprecating
    descriptions of the figures "witches,"
    "gossips," "girls fighting," "spinsters" indicate
    poor maternal relations. Seeing the blot as
    thunderclouds instead of female figures suggests
    anxiety to some psychologists seeing it as a
    walnut kernel may mean a vulgar fixation. There
    is an entirely different side to this blot, but
    you're not supposed to see it. The white space
    between the girls or women can be interpreted as
    an oil lamp or similar object. It is claimed that
    only schizophrenics usually see the lamp.

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  • Pink, blue, gray, and orange ink. An almost
    circular array of interconnected forms--a gray
    triangle (point up) at top, a pair of blue
    rectangles in the center, a pink and orange
    splotch at bottom, and two pink "animal" shapes
    forming the right and left sides of the circle.
    Naughty bits a vagina (pink-orange area at
    bottom). The first full-color card is easy. It
    is important that you see the four-legged
    animals- lions, pigs, bears, etc. -on the sides
    of the blot. They're one of the most common
    responses on the test, and you're assumed to be a
    mental defective if you don't see them. Other
    good responses are tree (gray triangle at top),
    butterfly (pink and orange area at bottom), and
    rib cage or anatomy chart (skeletal pattern in
    center between blue rectangles and gray
    triangles). The entire configuration can be seen
    as a heraldic design (good answer) or a Christmas
    tree with ornaments (reaching). Children tend to
    like this blot and say a lot about it-the bright
    colors and animal shapes make it more interesting
    than your basic penis/vagina number (II, IV, or

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  • Green, orange, and pink ink. A very irregular
    upright rectangle. Orange at top, protruding
    green areas at center, pink at bottom. Naughty
    bits a vagina (center line at bottom). There
    aren't many good answers here. If you're going to
    throw up your hands (figuratively see warning
    about emotional outbursts above) and plead a
    mental block, this is the place to do it. The
    colors clash, apparently by Rorschach's design.
    Good answers are a fire with smoke, an explosion
    (but paranoids are claimed more apt to note the
    pale green mushroom cloud on the center line at
    top), a map, anatomy, or a flower. If you turn
    the card ninety degrees, you can make out a man's
    head in the pink areas at bottom. (The man is
    identified as Mark Twain, Santa Claus, or Teddy
    Roosevelt.) A bad response is to describe the
    orange areas at top as monsters or men
    fighting---a sign of poor social development. As
    with Plate V, the psychologist may be counting
    the number of responses you give to this blot for
    comparison with the preceding and succeeding
    blots. You want to give fewer responses to this

               Plate X

  • Pink, blue, gray, green, yellow, and orange ink.
    A loose assortment of brightly colored shapes,
    the most chaotic of the plates. Naughty bits
    penis and testes (top center, gray ink). The
    unspoken purpose of this last blot is to test
    your organizational ability. Plate X is full of
    colorful odds and ends easy to identify---blue
    spiders, gray crabs, paired orange maple seeds,
    green caterpillars, a light-green rabbit's head,
    yellow and orange fried eggs--and you're expected
    to list them. But the psychologist will also be
    looking for a comprehensive answer, something
    that shows you grok the whole Gestalt. There are
    two good holistic answers sea life and a view
    through a microscope. Some subjects see two
    reddish faces at top center, separated by the
    orange maple key. If you describe them as blowing
    bubbles or smoking pipes, it may be interpreted
    as evidence of an oral fixation. Seeing the gray
    "testes" and "penis" as two animals eating a
    stick or tree indicates castration anxiety.

  • What are defense mechanisms?

  • The EGO is the executive portion of your
    unconscious that weighs all of the options and
    makes a behavior choice. The EGO is constantly
    under pressure and stress to make the right
  • When you feel stressed, have self-doubts,
    worries.thats and expression of the EGO.

  • In order to alleviate and avoid anxiety, the EGO
    has a number of defense mechanisms that is uses
    to redirect or alleviate stress.

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  • Defense Mechanisms

  • Banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and
    memories from conscious awareness. Instead of
    dealing with the stress, forget the issue

  • Repression is when someone almost drowns as a
    child and can't remember the event -- but he
    still has a fear of open water.
  • Repression is forgetting the last five minutes
    leading up to a car crash, or not being able to
    recall the face of a mugger.

  • occurs when we revert to comfort behaviors to
    ease the stress away.

  • A child may begin to suck their thumb again or
    wet the bed when they feel scared or threatened.
    Teenagers may giggle uncontrollably when
    introduced into a social situation involving the
    opposite sex. A freshman college student may need
    to bring an old toy from home.

Reaction Formation
  • The correct choice of behavior is not socially
    acceptable, so the EGO chooses a behavior that is
    exactly opposite in order to cover up for some
    perceived inadequacy.

  • An individual who cant accept their
    homosexuality may become overly macho and a gay
    basher. A women who has had an abortion may
    become a pro-life protester.

  • Disguising stressful character flaws by
    attributing them to others.

  • You didnt fail the group project because you
    were lazy, your group members didnt do good
    research, they didnt put together a good
    product, they werent dedicated.
  • Its not your fault you cheated on your spouse.
    They worked late, they had a lot of male friends,
    they became distant.

  • Offers self-justifying explanations for our
    behaviors we offer excuses for our behaviors

  • What Im doing is okay because everyone else is
    doing it
  • I could have done better but I really didnt
  • Im a recovering alcoholic, but just one drink
    on the holiday is ok.
  • I really didnt want to go to that school
    anyway, it was too expensive, too far away.

  • Diverting or shifting sexual or aggressive
    impulses towards a more acceptable (or less
    threatening) object or person, instead of dealing
    with the issue straightforwardly

  • When you strike out in a baseball game, you cant
    yell at the umpire, so instead you kick a trash
    can or punch the water cooler. You cant yell at
    your incompetent boss, but you can go home and
    kick the dog and yell at your wife.

  • Denial is not forgetting. It involves not
    accepting the truth and continue living on as if
    the stress isnt there.

  • Bill and Sally broke up, though Bill cant accept
    it. He continues to call Sally, waits by her
    locker at the end of school, and plans for the
    prom in Spring. Youre in debt and almost
    bankrupt, but you still buy the fancy shoes and
    go out for fine dinners.

  • An individual satisfies the ID through a socially
    acceptable behavior.

  • When someone who has a book fetish works as a
    librarian. A sex addict may take up a painting
    class with nude models. Someone with anger
    issues takes up boxing.

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  • What are the stages of a developing personality?

  • Freud believed that a persons personality forms
    during lifes first few years, in a series of
    psychosexual stages

  • During each of the stages, the IDs
    pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct
    pleasure-sensitive area of the body (erogenous

  • Failure to achieve a proper resolution through
    the development of the superego, however, will
    make the child fixated in the present stage. This
    is believed to be the cause of many personality
    and behavioral disorders.

  • Stage 1 ORAL (0-18 mos.)
  • Stage 2 ANAL (18-36)
  • Stage 3 PHALLIC (3-6 years)
  • Stage 4 LATENCY (6-Puberty)
  • Stage 5 GENITAL (Puberty on)

Oral Stage (0 -18 mos.)
  • The ID is satisfied through the mouth, with
    actions such as suckling (as a sign of mothers
    love), gumming, biting, and swallowing.
  • Improper satisfaction leads to oral fixations,
    such as chewing on nails and pencils, overeating,
    gum chewing, smoking.

Anal Stage (18 mos. 3 yrs.)
  • The ID is satisfied through the anus, in terms of
    bowel movements (potty training). A child learns
    for the first time that they have control over
  • If parents are too harsh, the child may become
    anal retentive (overly clean, overly organized,
  • If parents are too lenient, the child may become
    anal expulsive (disorganized, sloppy, reckless,

Phallic Stage (3 - 5)
  • The ID is satisfied through the genitals as
    children discover their bodies, and the opposite
  • Boys will naturally be attracted to girls,
    especially their mothers. Unless they resolve
    what is a proper attraction, they may develop an
    Oedipus Complex. This means they constantly
    compete with their fathers for their mothers
    attention, and may fear that their fathers want
    to castrate them (castration anxiety).

  • Girls will be naturally attracted to their
    fathers, and if they dont resolve their
    attractions, they may develop an Electra Complex
    (competing with their mothers for their fathers
  • Girls may also realize that they were born
    without a penis, and want one because they see
    that men have more power and control (penis envy).

Latency Stage (5 - Puberty)
  • Children enter school, make new friends, play
    sports and other activities, and the ID is
    dormant. Social relationships are formed,
    academics and other social activities become the

Genital Stage (Puberty - ?)
  • The ID is once again satisfied through the
    genitals. Sexual relationships dominate social
    interactions. There are no inherent fixations in
    this stage, just the manifestations of disorders
    from earlier fixations. Girls date guys just like
    dad, or guys masturbate excessively (phallic
    stage). Guys are afraid to date for fear of
    leaving home (oral stage), girls are preoccupied
    with careers and competition (anal stage) instead
    of dating.

  • The Expression of Personality

  • The trait perspective is interested solely on
    classifying personalities into groups based on
    specific patterns of behavior. It labels
    personality types based on common characteristics
    of those types.

  • A type is a behavior title accompanied by a
    list of traits and outward behavioral expressions
    common amongst people of that type
  • IE. Some personalities are happy types, and
    they smile a lot, walk with a bounce in their
    step, are polite,, optimistic, etc.

  • Type A Personality people tend to feel a sense
    of pressure and are easily angered. Competitive
    and ambitious. Work and play hard.
  • Type B Personality people tend to be relaxed
    and easygoing.

Type A Type B
  • Personality Inventories A questionnaire on
    which people respond to items designed to gauge a
    wide range of feelings and behaviors used to
    assess selected personality traits and then
    classify a type of personality

The Big Five
  • Many personality tests are based on five basic
    personality types
  • Each type is broken down into six different
  • When you answer a personality questionnaire, you
    are answering questions based on these thirty

  • Type 1 Emotional Stability
  • Are you
  • Calm vs. Anxious
  • Secure vs. Insecure
  • Self-Satisfied vs. Self-Pitying

  • Type 2 Extraversion
  • Are you
  • Sociable vs. Retiring
  • Fun-Loving vs. Sober
  • Affectionate vs. Reserved

  • Type 3 Openness
  • Are you
  • Imaginative vs. Practical
  • Variety vs. Routine
  • Independent vs. Conforming

  • Type 4 Agreeableness
  • Are you
  • Soft-hearted vs. Ruthless
  • Trusting vs. Suspicious
  • Helpful vs. Uncooperative

  • Type 5 Conscientiousness
  • Are you
  • Organized vs. Disorganized
  • Careful vs. Careless
  • Disciplined vs. Impulsive

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  • Does the environment influence personality?

  • Internal locus of control means that we control
    our own destiny and behaviors. Confident,
  • External locus of control means that our
    personalities and behaviors are shaped by outside
    forces. Luck, blame others, the victim.

  • Albert Bandura behaviors and personalities are
    influenced by the interaction between persons and
    their social context and the environment

  • The interaction between the environment and an
    individual is called reciprocal determination

  • A person's belief in their own competence.
  • Based on an individuals personality and
    perception of control.
  • People will be more inclined to take on a task if
    they believe they can succeed. People generally
    avoid tasks where their self-efficacy is low, but
    will engage in tasks where their self-efficacy is

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