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Animal Behavior

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Animal Behavior Ecology Unit Ethology Observation/Analysis of animals as they interact in their natural environment Terms to Know Innate: behavior present at birth ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Behavior


1
Animal Behavior
  • Ecology Unit

2
What is Animal Behavior? The study of how and
why animals interact with each other (both within
and among species) and their environment.
Proximate questions - how mechanisms responsible
for interactions Ex rooster crows because light
breaks Ultimate questions - why how these
interactions influence an individual's survival
and reproduction. Ex rooster crows to establish
territorial rights
3
Ethology
  • Observation/Analysis of animals as they interact
    in their natural environment

4
Some examples
Intraspecific interactions
mate choice
5
Some examples
Intraspecific interactions
male competition
6
Some examples
Intraspecific interactions
alarm calls
7
Some examples
Intraspecific interactions
parental care
8
Some examples
Interspecific interactions
predation
9
Some examples
Interspecific interactions
Symbiotic relationships
10
Some examples
Interspecific interactions
compeitition
11
Some examples
Interactions with the environment
foraging
12
Some examples
Interactions with the environment
nest site selection
13
Some examples
Interactions with the environment
signal modification
14
Why study behavior?
Possible first science Our survival dependent on
knowledge of other animals (prey/competitors/preda
tors). Control/management of species
agricultural pests, invasive species, endangered
species. Understanding/modification of our own
behavior? Studies of how birds learn and develop
songs provide unique insights into the
development and neural control of speech in
humans.
15
What can we learn about human behavior by
observing animals?
16
Founders of the field of Animal Behavior
Niko Tinbergen
Konrad Lorenz
Karl von Frisch
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
1973 "for their discoveries concerning
organization and elicitation of individual and
social behaviour patterns"
17
Terms to Know
  • Innate behavior present at birth

18
  • FIXED ACTION PATTERN
  • Innate behavioral response
  • Common to all members of species
  • Once initiated, continues until completion

19
  • Sign Stimulus
  • External change in the environment that triggers
    a Fixed Action Pattern

20
NATURE vs. NURTURE
  • Aka Genetics vs. Environment
  • Aka Innate behavior vs. Learned Behavior
  • What is Learning?
  • Behavioral changes that occur due to life
    experience

21
special types of learning
  • Habituation
  • Animal learns to ignore an irrelevant stimulus
  • Imprinting
  • irreversible (usually) learning that occurs
    during CRITICAL PERIOD

22
Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) examined genetically
programmed behaviors in young and imprinting.
Young geese form an image of parent just
after hatching. If the hatchlings first
encounter a human, they will imprint on him and
follow him around as if he were their mother.
23
more types of learningASSOCIATIVE LEARNING
  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
  • Stimulus leads to a response that does not
    normally occur as a result of that stimulus

Ivan Pavlov
24
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25
Little Albert (1920)
26
  • OPERANT CONDITIONING
  • Animal learns to associate one behavior with
    either REWARD or PUNISHMENT!
  • Reward ? Repeat Behavior
  • Punishment ? Avoidance of Behavior

27
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28
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29
Animal Movement
  • TAXIS
  • vs.
  • KINESIS

30
Social Behavior
  • Play
  • Agonistic Displays
  • Courtship
  • Batesian Mimicry (posers)
  • Mullerian Mimicry
  • Altruistic Displays
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