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High Performance Cluster Computing Architectures and Systems


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Title: High Performance Cluster Computing Architectures and Systems

High Performance Cluster ComputingArchitectures
and Systems
  • Book Editor Rajkumar Buyya
  • Slides Prepared by Hai Jin

Internet and Cluster Computing Center
  • Need more computing power
  • Improve the operating speed of processors other
  • constrained by the speed of light, thermodynamic
    laws, the high financial costs for processor
  • Connect multiple processors together coordinate
    their computational efforts
  • parallel computers
  • allow the sharing of a computational task among
    multiple processors

Era of Computing
  • Rapid technical advances
  • the recent advances in VLSI technology
  • software technology
  • OS, PL, development methodologies, tools
  • grand challenge applications have become the main
    driving force
  • Parallel computing
  • one of the best ways to overcome the speed
    bottleneck of a single processor
  • good price/performance ratio of a small
    cluster-based parallel computer

Need of more Computing PowerGrand Challenge
  • Solving technology problems using computer
    modeling, simulation and analysis

Life Sciences
Digital Biology
Military Applications
Parallel Computer Architectures
  • Taxonomy
  • based on how processors, memory interconnect
    are laid out
  • Massively Parallel Processors (MPP)
  • Symmetric Multiprocessors (SMP)
  • Cache-Coherent Nonuniform Memory Access (CC-NUMA)
  • Distributed Systems
  • Clusters
  • Grids

Parallel Computer Architectures
  • MPP
  • A large parallel processing system with a
    shared-nothing architecture
  • Consist of several hundred nodes with a
    high-speed interconnection network/switch
  • Each node consists of a main memory one or more
  • Runs a separate copy of the OS
  • SMP
  • 2-64 processors today
  • Shared-everything architecture
  • All processors share all the global resources
  • Single copy of the OS runs on these systems

Parallel Computer Architectures
  • a scalable multiprocessor system having a
    cache-coherent nonuniform memory access
  • every processor has a global view of all of the
  • Distributed systems
  • considered conventional networks of independent
  • have multiple system images as each node runs its
    own OS
  • the individual machines could be combinations of
    MPPs, SMPs, clusters, individual computers
  • Clusters
  • a collection of workstations of PCs that are
    interconnected by a high-speed network
  • work as an integrated collection of resources
  • have a single system image spanning all its nodes

Towards Low Cost Parallel Computing
  • Parallel processing
  • linking together 2 or more computers to jointly
    solve some computational problem
  • since the early 1990s, an increasing trend to
    move away from expensive and specialized
    proprietary parallel supercomputers towards to
    cheaper, general purpose systems consisting of
    loosely coupled components built up from single
    or multiprocessor PCs or workstations
  • the rapid improvement in the availability of
    commodity high performance components for
    workstations and networks
  • ? Low-cost commodity supercomputing
  • need to standardization of many of the tools and
    utilities used by parallel applications (ex) MPI,

Windows of Opportunities
  • Parallel Processing
  • Use multiple processors to build MPP/DSM-like
    systems for parallel computing
  • Network RAM
  • Use memory associated with each workstation as
    aggregate DRAM cache
  • Software RAID
  • Redundant array of inexpensive disks
  • Use the arrays of workstation disks to provide
    cheap, highly available, scalable file storage
  • Possible to provide parallel I/O support to
  • Use arrays of workstation disks to provide cheap,
    highly available, and scalable file storage
  • Multipath Communication
  • Use multiple networks for parallel data transfer
    between nodes

Cluster Computer and its Architecture
  • A cluster is a type of parallel or distributed
    processing system, which consists of a collection
    of interconnected stand-alone computers
    cooperatively working together as a single,
    integrated computing resource
  • A node a single or multiprocessor system with
    memory, I/O facilities, OS
  • generally 2 or more computers (nodes) connected
  • in a single cabinet, or physically separated
    connected via a LAN
  • appear as a single system to users and
  • provide a cost-effective way to gain features and

Cluster Computer Architecture
Prominent Components of Cluster Computers (I)
  • Multiple High Performance Computers
  • PCs
  • Workstations
  • Distributed HPC Systems leading to Metacomputing

Prominent Components of Cluster Computers (III)
  • High Performance Networks/Switches
  • Ethernet (10Mbps),
  • Fast Ethernet (100Mbps),
  • Gigabit Ethernet (1Gbps)
  • SCI (Dolphin - MPI- 12micro-sec latency)
  • ATM
  • Myrinet (1.2Gbps)
  • Digital Memory Channel
  • FDDI

Prominent Components of Cluster Computers (V)
  • Fast Communication Protocols and Services
  • Active Messages (Berkeley)
  • Fast Messages (Illinois)
  • U-net (Cornell)
  • XTP (Virginia)

Prominent Components of Cluster Computers (VII)
  • Parallel Programming Environments and Tools
  • Threads (PCs, SMPs, NOW..)
  • POSIX Threads
  • Java Threads
  • MPI
  • Linux, NT, on many Supercomputers
  • PVM
  • Software DSMs (TreadMark)
  • Compilers
  • C/C/Java
  • Parallel programming with C (MIT Press book)
  • Debuggers
  • Performance Analysis Tools
  • Visualization Tools

Key Operational Benefits of Clustering
  • High Performance
  • Expandability and Scalability
  • High Throughput
  • High Availability

Clusters Classification (III)
  • Node Hardware
  • Clusters of PCs (CoPs)
  • Piles of PCs (PoPs)
  • Clusters of Workstations (COWs)
  • Clusters of SMPs (CLUMPs)

Clusters Classification (V)
  • Node Configuration
  • Homogeneous Clusters
  • All nodes will have similar architectures and run
    the same OSs
  • Heterogeneous Clusters
  • All nodes will have different architectures and
    run different OSs

Clusters Classification (VI)
  • Levels of Clustering
  • Group Clusters (nodes 2-99)
  • Nodes are connected by SAN like Myrinet
  • Departmental Clusters (nodes 10s to 100s)
  • Organizational Clusters (nodes many 100s)
  • National Metacomputers (WAN/Internet-based)
  • International Metacomputers (Internet-based,
    nodes 1000s to many millions)
  • Metacomputing
  • Web-based Computing
  • Agent Based Computing
  • Java plays a major in web and agent based

Commodity Components for Clusters (III)
  • Disk and I/O
  • Overall improvement in disk access time has been
    less than 10 per year
  • Amdahls law
  • Speed-up obtained from faster processors is
    limited by the slowest system component
  • Parallel I/O
  • Carry out I/O operations in parallel, supported
    by parallel file system based on hardware or
    software RAID

What is Single System Image (SSI) ?
  • A single system image is the illusion, created by
    software or hardware, that presents a collection
    of resources as one, more powerful resource.
  • SSI makes the cluster appear like a single
    machine to the user, to applications, and to the
  • A cluster without a SSI is not a cluster

Cluster Middleware SSI
  • SSI
  • Supported by a middleware layer that resides
    between the OS and user-level environment
  • Middleware consists of essentially 2 sublayers of
    SW infrastructure
  • SSI infrastructure
  • Glue together OSs on all nodes to offer unified
    access to system resources
  • System availability infrastructure
  • Enable cluster services such as checkpointing,
    recovery from failure, fault-tolerant support
    among all nodes of the cluster

Single System Image Benefits
  • Provide a simple, straightforward view of all
    system resources and activities, from any node of
    the cluster
  • Free the end user from having to know where an
    application will run
  • Free the operator from having to know where a
    resource is located
  • Let the user work with familiar interface and
    commands and allows the administrators to manage
    the entire clusters as a single entity
  • Reduce the risk of operator errors, with the
    result that end users see improved reliability
    and higher availability of the system

Single System Image Benefits (Contd)
  • Allowing centralize/decentralize system
    management and control to avoid the need of
    skilled administrators from system administration
  • Present multiple, cooperating components of an
    application to the administrator as a single
  • Greatly simplify system management
  • Provide location-independent message
  • Help track the locations of all resource so that
    there is no longer any need for system operators
    to be concerned with their physical location
  • Provide transparent process migration and load
    balancing across nodes.
  • Improved system response time and performance

Resource Management and Scheduling (RMS)
  • RMS is the act of distributing applications among
    computers to maximize their throughput
  • Enable the effective and efficient utilization of
    the resources available
  • Software components
  • Resource manager
  • Locating and allocating computational resource,
    authentication, process creation and migration
  • Resource scheduler
  • Queueing applications, resource location and
  • Reasons using RMS
  • Provide an increased, and reliable, throughput of
    user applications on the systems
  • Load balancing
  • Utilizing spare CPU cycles
  • Providing fault tolerant systems
  • Manage access to powerful system, etc

Services provided by RMS
  • Process Migration
  • Computational resource has become too heavily
  • Fault tolerant concern
  • Checkpointing
  • Scavenging Idle Cycles
  • 70 to 90 of the time most workstations are idle
  • Fault Tolerance
  • Minimization of Impact on Users
  • Load Balancing
  • Multiple Application Queues

Computing Platforms Evolution Breaking
Administrative Barriers
Administrative Barriers
Individual Group Department Campus State National
Globe Inter Planet Universe
Desktop (Single Processor)
SMPs or SuperComputers
Local Cluster
Inter Planet Cluster/Grid ??
Enterprise Cluster/Grid
Global Cluster/Grid
Why Do We Need Metacomputing?
  • Our computational needs are infinite, whereas our
    financial resources are finite
  • users will always want more more powerful
  • try utilize the potentially hundreds of
    thousands of computers that are interconnected
    in some unified way
  • need seamless access to remote resources

Towards Grid Computing.
What is Grid ?
  • An infrastructure that couples
  • Computers (PCs, workstations, clusters,
    traditional supercomputers, and even laptops,
    notebooks, mobile computers, PDA, and so on)
  • Software (e.g., renting expensive special
    purpose applications on demand)
  • Databases (e.g., transparent access to human
    genome database)
  • Special Instruments (e.g., radio
    telescope--SETI_at_Home Searching for Life in
    galaxy, Austrophysics_at_Swinburne for pulsars)
  • People (may be even animals who knows ?)
  • Across the Internet, presents them as an unified
    integrated (single) resource

Conceptual view of the Grid
Leading to Portal (Super)Computing
Grid Application-Drivers
  • Old and new applications getting enabled due to
    coupling of computers, databases, instruments,
    people, etc.
  • (distributed) Supercomputing
  • Collaborative engineering
  • High-throughput computing
  • large scale simulation parameter studies
  • Remote software access / Renting Software
  • Data-intensive computing
  • On-demand computing

The Grid Impact
  • The global computational grid is expected to
    drive the economy of the 21st century similar to
    the electric power grid that drove the economy of
    the 20th century

Metacomputer Design Objectives and Issues (II)
  • Underlying Hardware and Software Infrastructure
  • A metacomputing environment must be able to
    operate on top of the whole spectrum of current
    and emerging HW SW technology
  • An ideal environment will provide access to the
    available resources in a seamless manner such
    that physical discontinuities such as difference
    between platforms, network protocols, and
    administrative boundaries become completely

Metacomputer Design Objectives and Issues (III)
  • Middleware The Metacomputing Environment
  • Communication services
  • needs to support protocols that are used for
    bulk-data transport, streaming data, group
    communications, and those used by distributed
  • Directory/registration services
  • provide the mechanism for registering and
    obtaining information about the metacomputer
    structure, resources, services, and status
  • Processes, threads, and concurrency control
  • share data and maintain consistency when multiple
    processes or threads have concurrent access to it

Metacomputer Design Objectives and Issues (V)
  • Middleware The Metacomputing Environment
  • Security and authorization
  • confidentiality prevent disclosure of data
  • integrity prevent tampering with data
  • authorization verify identity
  • accountability knowing whom to blame
  • System status and fault tolerance
  • Resource management and scheduling
  • efficiently and effectively schedule the
    applications that need to utilize the available
    resource in the metacomputing environment

Metacomputer Design Objectives and Issues (VI)
  • Middleware The Metacomputing Environment
  • Programming tools and paradigms
  • include interface, APIs, and conversion tools so
    as to provide a rich development environment
  • support a range of programming paradigms
  • a suite of numerical and other commonly used
    libraries should be available
  • User and administrative GUI
  • intuitive and easy to use interface to the
    services and resources available
  • Availability
  • easily port on to a range of commonly used
    platforms, or use technologies that enable it to
    be platform neutral

Metacomputing Projects
  • Globus (from Argonne National Laboratory)
  • provides a toolkit on a set of existing
    components to build metacomputing environments
  • Legion (from the University of Virginia)
  • provides a high-level unified object model out of
    new and existing components to build a metasystem
  • Webflow (from Syracuse University)
  • provides a Web-based metacomputing environment

Globus (I)
  • A computational grid
  • A hardware and software infrastructure to provide
    dependable, consistent, and pervasive access to
    high-end computational capabilities, despite the
    geographical distribution of both resources and
  • A layered architecture
  • high-level global services are built upon
    essential low-level core local services
  • Globus Toolkit (GT)
  • a central element of the Globus system
  • defines the basic services and capabilities
    required to construct a computational grid
  • consists of a set of components that implement
    basic services
  • provides a bag of services
  • only possible when the services are distinct and
    have well-defined interfaces (API)

Globus (II)
  • Globus Alliance
  • http//www.globus.org
  • GT 3.0
  • Resources management (GRAM)
  • Information Service (MDS)
  • Data Management (GridFTP)
  • Security (GSI)
  • GT 4.0 (2005)
  • Execution management
  • Information Services
  • Data management
  • Security
  • Common runtime (WS)

The Impact of Metacomputing
  • Metacomputing is an infrastructure that can bond
    and unify globally remote and diverse resources
  • At some stage in the future, our computing needs
    will be satisfied in same pervasive and
    ubiquitous manner that we use the electricity
    power grid
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