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German and Italian Unification


German and Italian Unification Key Personalities: The King of Piedmont Victor Emanuel II and prime minister Count Camillio di Cavour King William I and Otto Eduard ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: German and Italian Unification

German and Italian Unification
  • Key Personalities
  • The King of Piedmont Victor Emanuel II and prime
    minister Count Camillio di Cavour
  • King William I and Otto Eduard von Bismarck
  • Emperor Francis Joseph and Count Beust and
    Hungarian Ferencz Deak

  • Tools
  • Machiavellian methods
  • Use of diplomacy and war
  • Plebiscites
  • Federal schemes
  • Personalities
  • Piecemeal incorporation

  • Unification of Italy 1859-1870
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  • Piedmont Lombardy 1859,
  • Parma, Modena, Tuscany, Umbria 1860,
  • Naples and Sicily 1860,
  • Venice (1866),
  • Papal State and Rome (1870),
  • San Marino stays out.

  • Unification of Germany 1862-1871
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  • Northern German Confederation 1867
  • German Empire with the incorporation of southern
    states 1871.

Economic and Social aspects
  • Germany
  • economically much more developed, (zollverien,
    common currency, banking system, expanding coal
    and steel production)
  • socially very strong common culture and language,
  • strong civil society linking professional classes
    across the German Bund,
  • common national cause including liberals united
    behind Prussian leadership

  • In contrast Italy
  • culturally and geographically very disperse,
  • economically not very integrated,
  • Piedmont modernizing while the South very
  • no strong bond across the different Italian
  • financial difficulties

  • Italy
  • Pact of Plombieres 1858 between Napoleon II and
  • intermarriage to ling the two state between King
    Emanuels daughter princess Clotilde (15 years
    old) and Jerome cousin of Napoleon III,
  • France and Piedmont would go to war against
  • Piedmont would get Lombardy and Venetia to form
    Kingdom of Upper Italy linked to Duchies of
    Parma, Madena and Papal legations,
  • In turn Piedmont would cede Nice and Savoy to

  • Piedmont/France vs Austria War and the Treaty of
  • Villafranca, July 1859
  • Only Lombardy given up and an Italian confederacy
    under the Pope advocated,
  • Piedmontese ignored the treaty and maintained
    occupation of central Italian states,
  • The next year with British and French approval
    the states of Parma, Madena, Tuscany, Papal
    legations thru plebiscites would join the Kingdom
    of Sardinia and Piedmont,
  • France receives Nice and Savoy,
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi and his irregulars conquer
    Sicily and Naples,
  • Makes it on to Rome when Piedmontese forces stop
  • He turn his gains over to King Emanuel in
    September 1860,
  • Victor Emanuel of Savoy crowned as King of Italy
    in March 1861.

  • Italy vs Austria War of 1866
  • Battles inconclusive but Italy under Prussian
    pressure receives or redeems territories under
    Austria occupation thru plebiscites including
    Venice via France

  • Franco-Prussian war of 1870
  • French troops left Rome and Italy invades and
    completes unification
  • The Pope would accept this new state of affairs
    until the Lateran Treaty of 1929

  • Austria/Prussia vs. Denmark 1864
  • Joint army claiming to act on behalf of the Bund
    defeated the Danes,
  • Treaty of Vienna of October 1864,
  • Denmark renounced claims over the two duchies.
  • Convention of Gastein in August 1865 signed,
  • Prussia got Schleswig and Austria got Holstein.

  • Prussia vs Austria 1866
  • Bismarck in June 1866 proposes to abolish the
    Bundestag and the German Bund instead hold a
    German Assembly to draft a new constitution,
  • Austria objects,
  • War breaks out at Sadowa and Austria defeated,
  • Treaty of Prague signed,
  • Austria to give Venice to France and then France
    to Italy,
  • loss of Austrian role in German affairs,
  • Bismarck leads of a new confederal constitution
    for Germany north of the Main composed of 22
    states led by Prussia alongside an association of
    southern states (Baden, Bavaria and Wurttemberg),
  • Prussia annexed Schleswig and Holstein, Danish
    populated part in the north would be subjected to
    a plebiscite that would not take place until

  • Prussia vs. France 1870
  • Bismarck began to plot his next major move
    against France,
  • Employed very unscrupulous Machiavellian tactics
    to trap Napoleon III,
  • Embarrasses Napoleon III over annexation of
    Wallonia but first supporting then ensuring thru
    British mediation independence of Belgium and
    Luxembourg re-confirmed,
  • Bismarck in July 1867 incorporated Hannover,
    Nassau and Frankfurt having defeated them on
    battle ground,
  • Severe blows to Napoleons prestige,
  • shock came over succession to Spanish throne in
    July 1870,
  • Bismarck edits Prussian Kings telegram over
    encounter with French ambassador,
  • French hysteria provoked ensures withdrawal of
  • France declares war,
  • Prussian army commanded by Moltke defeats the
    French captures Napoleon at the Battle of Sedan,
  • Third Republic formed and continues war but
    eventually Paris falls,
  • Bismarck uses the occasion to unify rest of
    Germany as the three southern states induced to
    join the German Confederation.

  • Treaty of Frankfurt signed in May 1871
  • Confirmed the frontier between the French Third
    Republic and the German Empire - involving the
    annexation of most of Alsace and the Lorraine
    departement of Moselle,
  • Gave residents of the annexed Alsace-Lorraine
    region until October 1, 1872 to decide between
    keeping their French nationality and emigrating,
    or to remain in the region and become German
  • Set a framework for the withdrawal of German
    troops from certain areas,
  • Regulated the payment of France's war indemnity
    of five billion francs (due within three years)
  • Recognized the acceptance of William I of Prussia
    to be German Emperor,
  • Required military occupation in parts of France
    until the staggering indemnity was paid (to the
    surprise of Germany, the French paid the
    indemnity quickly)

  • Compared to Metternichs system and balance of
  • Nationalism and populism rises,
  • Media, print media, impact on populism massive
    especially in the Franco-Prussian war and
    subsequently colonial expansion,
  • Flexible alliances disappear and major
  • General geo-strategic situation,
  • French-German rivalry grows,
  • Balkans become a powder-keg,
  • British aloofness,
  • Five-power dynamism, desire not to be left in a
    minority accompanied by Bismarcks concern not to
    be sandwiched between two enemies.
  • Outcomes
  • secrecy, insecurity and fear,
  • new patterns of alignments,
  • British-German naval rivalry,
  • Weakness of Concert of Europe,
  • The Eastern Question and weakening of the Ottoman
  • Sarajevo incident