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Service Learning 101


Service Learning 101 An Introduction for SBCC Faculty Simple Definition Service learning combines community service with academic instruction, focusing on critical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Service Learning 101

Service Learning 101
  • An Introduction for SBCC Faculty

Simple Definition
  • Service learning combines community service
    with academic instruction, focusing on critical,
    reflective thinking and personal and civic

Expanded Definition
The National Center for service learning expands
this definition with three characteristics 1)
Service learning constitutes activities that are
focused on meeting the needs of the community
where the need has to do with the well being of
the individuals and/or the environment in which
they live. 2) Key academic and/or civic
objectives to be achieved through combining
service with learning have been identified prior
to the activity. 3) Opportunities for students to
reflect on their experience and its connection to
specific academic objectives are incorporated
into the activity.
Another Definition
  • Bob Bringle and Julie Hatcher define service
    learning as a course-based, creditbearing
    educational experience in which students 1)
    participate in an organized service activity that
    meets identified community needs and 2) reflect
    on service activity as a means of gaining deeper
    understanding of course content, a broader
    appreciation of the discipline and a enhanced
    sense of civic responsibility.

One more definition
  • Alliance for Service learning in Educational
    Reform emphasizes goal of civic responsibility
    and community engagement service learning
    involves students in community activities that
    complement their classroom studies. The aim is
    to help students increase their academic skill
    through understanding how what they learn in
    school can be applied to the real world.

  • To enhance students academic skills and
  • To promote life-long commitment to civic
  • To provide reflective opportunity to develop
    critical thinking skills.
  • To broaden the understanding of curriculum and
  • The goal is to blend service and learning so
    service reinforces, improves and strengthens
    learning and learning reinforces, improves and
    strengthens the service. The pedagogy of service
    learning produces a greater impact than either
    could have produced separately. (Andrew Furco)

Characteristics of Service Learning
  • Three characteristics 1) It is based on the
    experience of meeting needs in the community 2)
    It incorporates reflection and academic learning.
    3) It contributes to the students interest in
    and understanding of community life. (Robert
    Bringle, and Julie Hatcher)
  • Service learning programs are distinguished from
    other approaches to experiential education by
    their intention to equally benefit the provider
    and the recipient of the service as well as to
    ensure equal focus on both the service being
    provided and the learning that is occurring.
    (Andrew Furco, 1996)

Characteristics cont
  • Fosters the development of those intangibles
    empathy, personal values, beliefs, awareness,
    self-esteem, self-confidence, social-responsibilit
    y and helps foster a sense of caring for others.

Service Learning is Different
  • Internship Internship programs engage students
    in service activities primarily for the purpose
    of providing students with hands-on experiences
    that enhance their learning or understanding of
    issues relevant to a particular area of study.
  • Volunteerism Is the engagement of students in
    activities where the primary emphasis is on the
    service being provided and the primary intended
    beneficiary is clearly on the service recipient.

Why colleges?
  • A students college career is a time of training,
    not only for a career, but also for life.
    Research by Arthur Levine of Harvard University
    shows an estimate of 64 of colleges and
    university students participate in public service
    activities in addition to their course work.
    Service learning enhances learning. Service
    learning activities build new relationships
    between students and instructor, between the
    community and the college and between the people
    being served and the student. (Judith S.
    Berson, 1994)

Why Colleges cont
  • Students as consumers expect that the learning
    will be directly applicable to their immediate
    life interests. Students want to be able to see
    a visible connection between what they are
    learning and how that affects their daily lives.
    This is referred to as the test of
    connectivity. (Robert Exley, 1998) 

Why community colleges?
  • The community colleges mission is committed to
    addressing the needs of the community.
  • Community colleges are a mirror of the community.
  • Most community college students are members of
    the community.

Faculty Role
  • Embrace the service learning pedagogy
  • Develop learning objectives with service
  • Include service learning in syllabus extra
    credit, substitution, integral part of class or
    4th unit credit
  • Work with service learning center on community
  • Guide in-class reflection
  • Review reflective journals
  • Create a grading criteria

Finding Examples of Curriculum
  • Find books at the Career Center
  • Talk with your colleagues
  • Look on the the internet http//

Examples of Activities
  • Math students tutor third-graders in arithmetic.
  • Criminal justice students walk downtown streets
    in a community-policing program.
  • Sociology students serve soup in a soup kitchen
    and assist the homeless.
  • Communication students record books for the
    visually impaired.
  • Anthropology students collect and document what
    life was like during major recent historical
    periods by visiting nursing homes, rehabs, and
    veterans hospitals.

More Examples
  • Anthropology students help people in halfway
    houses to explore their roots.
  • Accounting students work with neighborhood boards
    to put on household finance budgeting workshops
    for residents of low-income areas, assist
    non-profits with fund-raising efforts and help
    senior citizens with tax returns.
  • Art students create fund raising event A Day
    without Art featuring artists who have died of
    AIDS-related causes and design create murals to
    beautify the public schools K-12.

Even More
  • Biology students work with local schools to
    conduct presentations on the pathology of AIDS,
    HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases
    and prevention.
  • Business students design a strategic plan for
    not-for-profit organizations and form a Consumer
    Helpline to act as advocates for consumers
  • Computer students personalize software for local
    non-profits to better manage volunteers,
    resources, finances, inventories, etc.

The Examples Keep Coming
  • English students read books to children in
    schools, work with non-profits to develop
    hard-hitting brochures for use in recruitment and
    information and assist in an adult literacy
  • History students study the history of
    homelessness in the surrounding community.
    Research will aid local shelters and governmental
    and social service agencies to better serve the

The Examples are Endless
  • Political Science students undertake training in
    community mediation skills do work afterwards
    in the city community dispute mediation center
    and assist with voter registration efforts
  • Psychology students apply social psychological
    principles to change peoples behavior concerning
  • You are sure to come up with your own brilliant

Benefits of Service Learning
  • A summary of findings of service learning
    research in higher education J. Eyler, D. Giles,
    C. Stenson C. Gray, 2001, At a Glance What We
    Know About the Effects of Service learning
    1993-2000 -

Benefits to the Student
  • Students learn by teaching and mentoring and gain
    real-world experiences
  • As students examine these community-directed
    activities in the classroom, they can see
    relevance of what they are learning to help civic
  • Reciprocal learning those who provide service
    and those who receive it learn from the
  • Learn responsibility, build character, solve
    problems and gain a better understanding of their

Students Reap Many Benefits
  • Positive effect on interpersonal development and
    ability to work with others.
  • Positive effect on reducing stereotypes and
    facilitating cultural and racial understanding.
  • Positive effect on sense of social responsibility
    and citizenship skills.
  • Increased ability to apply what they learned in
    the real world.

The Benefits are Abundant
  • Impact on academic outcomes as demonstrated
    complexity of understanding, problem analysis,
    critical thinking and cognitive development.
  • Contributes to career development.
  • Reports stronger faculty relationship than those
    not involved in service learning.
  • Improves students satisfaction with college
  • Increases likelihood of graduation.

Benefits to the Faculty
  • Innovative and effective teaching pedagogy.
  • Engages students in learning a particular
  • Increases student awareness of current societal
    issues as they relate to academic areas of
  • Increases understanding of course content and a
    broader understanding of the discipline.

More Faculty Benefits
  • Fosters a closer relationship with students and
    their learning.
  • Supports a broader development of student
  • Gives opportunity for students to increase their
    critical thinking skills.
  • Builds a deeper association with students.

Benefits to the Institution
  • Provides visible leadership in the community.
  • Supports institutional mission.
  • Increases retention.
  • Improves students satisfaction with college.
  • Builds reciprocal partnerships with the
  • local community.
  • Creates new areas for research.
  • Extends campus resources into the community and
    reinforces the value of the scholarship of

Benefits to the Community
  • Provides substantial human resources to meet
    educational, human, safety and environmental
    needs of the community
  • Allows energy and enthusiasm of college students
    to contribute to meeting needs.
  • Fosters an ethic of service and civic
    participation in students who will be tomorrows
    volunteers and civic leaders.
  • Creates potential for additional partnerships and
    collaboration with the campus.

  • Reflection is the intentional consideration of an
    experience in light of a particular learning
    objective. Reflection should be both
    retrospective and prospective students should
    consider their service experience in order to
    influence their future action. Effective
    reflection activities are linked to particular
    learning objectives of the class, are guided by
    the instructor, occur regularly throughout the
    course, allow for feedback and assessment and
    include opportunity for the clarification of
    values. When reflection activities are integrated
    into class discussion and appear on exams,
    students report higher levels of satisfaction
    with the course and greater academic gains from
    the experience. (Julie Hatcher, 1998)

Reflection Activities
  • Journal writing journal entries about their
    experience and its relation to the course
    curriculum and personal perspectives.
  • Directed writing Identify sections from class
    readings and structure questions for students to
    answer in relationship to their service learning
  • Experiential research paper Ask student to
    identify, research and write about an underlying
    social issue they have encountered in their
    service learning experience.

Reflection Activities cont
  • Ethical case studies Have student write up an
    ethical dilemma in relationship to their service
    experience including the context, people who
    would be involved, and the controversy that
    creates the dilemma.
  • Service learning portfolio Collect evidence of
    both process and products completed and an
    evaluation essay providing a self assessment on
    how effectively they met their service learning

Reflection Activities cont
  • Exit cards A brief note card reflection turned
    in at the end of each class reflecting on
    disciplinary content from class discussion or
    lecture in relation to their service experience.
  • Class presentations A presentation of their
    service learning experience with an analysis of
    the relationship to course material and broader
    discipline principles.

Topics to include in a reflective journal
  • Orientation Why am I doing this?
  • Observation What do I see, hear or experience?
  • Feelings/values clarification What are my
    values in relationship to the issues?
  • Personal analysis Am I part of the problem or
    part of the solution?
  • Social analysis What are the social roots of
    the problem? How can we make positive change?
  • Curriculum relevance How does this relate to
    what I am learning in class?

Service Learning Organizations and Resources
  • Campus Compact
  • Learn and Serve America
  • National Information Center for Service learning
  • American Association of Community Colleges (AACC)
    Service learning Clearinghouse
  • National Society for Experiential Education
  • Corporation for National Service (CNS)
  • Partnership for Service learning
  • American Association for Higher Education (AAHE)

  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//

  • The Higher Education Service Learning
  • Robin J. Crews, Oryx Press, Greenwood Publishing
  • Successful Service Learning Programs New
  • of Excellence in Higher Education
  • Edward Zlotkowski, Editor, Published by Anker
  • Service-Learning Reader Reflections and
    Perspective on Service
  • Gail Albert, et al, and ed., Raleigh, NC
    National Society for Experiential Education, 1994
  • A Practitioners Guide to Reflection in
  • Janet Eyler, Dwight E. Giles Jr. and Angela
    Schmied, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN,

More Books
  • Community Service and Higher Learning
  • R. A. Rhoads, Albany, NY State University of
    New York Press, 1997
  • Academic Service learning A Pedagogy of Action
    and Reflection
  • R.A Rhoads and J.P. Howard, eds., San
    Francisco Jossey-Bass, 1998
  • Service Learning
  • J. Schine, ed., Chicago The University of
    Chicago Press, 1997

  • Anyone can be great because anyone can serve. -
    Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I may
    remember. Involve me and I learn Ben Franklin
  • One is not born into the world to do everything
    but to do something Henry Thoreau
  • I dont know what your destiny will be, but the
    one thing I know, the only ones among you who
    will really be happy are those who will have
    sought and found how to serve.
    - Albert Schweitzer
  • Work to make a living, serve to make a life.
    Will Rogers

More Quotes
  • When you cease to make a contribution, you begin
    to die Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Be the change you wish to create
    Mahatma Gandhi
  • Ask not what your country can do for you, but
    what you can do for your country
    John F. Kennedy
  • How wonderful it is that nobody need wait a
    single moment before starting to improve the
    world Anne Frank
  • Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful,
    committed citizens can change the world indeed,
    its the only thing that ever has. Margaret

  • References
  • Andrew Furco, 1996, Service learning A Balanced
    Approach to Experiential Learning
  • Bringle, Robert and Julie Hatcher, A Service
    Learning Curriculum for Faculty, Michigan
    Journal of Community Service Learning
  • Judith S. Berson, 1994, Community College
    Journal, Community Colleges and Service learning
    A Marriage Made in Heaven
  • Robert Exley, 1998, AACC Service learning
    Resource Guide, Service learning and Curricular
    Integration, Vol.1, No. 1
  • Julie Hatcher, 1998, Reflection Connecting
    Service to Academic Learning