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History Behind George Orwell

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History Behind George Orwell s Animal Farm Karl Marx s Communist Manifesto George Orwell Government Definitions The Russian Revolution Bolshevik Leaders – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History Behind George Orwell


1
History Behind George Orwells Animal Farm
Karl Marx s Communist Manifesto
George Orwell
Government Definitions
The Russian Revolution
Bolshevik Leaders
2
George Orwell (1903-1950)
  • Real Name Eric Blair
  • Birth 1903 to parents of the British upper
    middle class
  • Education Government gave him scholarships.
    Considered poor boy in a rich boys school
  • Political Views Socialist, everything he wrote
    had a political purpose behind it. He hated and
    feared totalitarianism

3
Literary Styles
  • Allegory- a story in which the characters and
    events represent an idea or generalization about
    life. Allegories often have a strong moral, or
    lesson. Ex Edgar Allan Poe Masque of the Red
    Death
  • Satire- a literary tone used to ridicule or make
    fun of human weakness and social institutions
    (government).
  • Ex Jonathan Swift A Modest Proposal

4
Government Definitions
Next
Title Page
Totalitarianism/Dictatorship
  • A government system which has complete control
    over its citizens
  • Controls all aspects of their lives including
    church, family, economy, school and media

5
Socialism
Next
Previous
  • A social system where the state possesses
    political power (usually led by working class)
    and the production and distribution of goods.
  • Purpose is to increase social and economic
    equality and cooperation
  • Everyone gets certain distribution of goods, but
    can get more if they work harder

6
Communism
Next
Previous
  • A government system marked by an absence of
    social classes
  • Everyone controls the means of producing goods
    and sees that all goods are shared equally.
  • Never actually been practiced in history.

7
Capitalism
Next
Previous
  • Economic system of free enterprise (supply and
    demand)
  • Open competition in a free market
  • Means of production are privately owned and
    operated for personal profit with no or minimal
    government interference

8
Bourgeoisie
Next
Previous
  • Wealthy middle class

9
Proletariat
Next
Previous
  • Working class citizens

10
Bolshevik
Title Page
Previous
  • A communist extremist
  • Headed by Nikolai Lenin

11
Karl Marxs Communist Manifesto
  • Karl Marx is considered the founder of all
    present day Communist parties
  • Manifesto- proposal of principles, policies and
    objectives
  • Marx uses the phrase WORKERS OF THE WORLD,
    UNITE! to elicit unity among the proletariats.

12
Stage One
  • All history is the story of the struggle of one
    class of people against another that has more
    wealth/power.
  • Middle class takes over nobles
  • Marx believes that it is the working class turn
    to have the power.

13
Stage Two
  • Once the middle class has power, the next stage
    is for the workers to seize it from them.
  • This stage may take a long time and it is up to
    the socialists to hurry it along.

14
Stage Three
  • Once the workers have the power they will rule.
    This stage is called the dictatorship of the
    proletariat.
  • No individual will be able to make a profit from
    the work of anyone else
  • This type of government system is considered
    Socialism.
  • The ideal situation during this stage would be
    for everyone to work to the best of his/her
    ability and would be rewarded according to the
    work he did.

15
Stage Four
  • The government system involved in the final stage
    would be true communism.
  • By this time everyone will recognize that what is
    best for all is best for the individual, and no
    one will be greedy for private gain again.
  • Everyone will continue to work to the best of
    their ability for the public good, and in return
    they will be able to have whatever they need.

16
Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924)
  • Russian Marxist revolutionary
  • Creator of the Bolshevik Party
  • Founder of Soviet State
  • Assumed power following the resignation of the
    Russian emperor (Nicholas II)

17
Vladimir Lenin (cont)
  • Was considered the decision maker of the
    Bolshevik party
  • Wanted a communist society for Russia
  • Lenin was in charge for FIVE years before he
    died.

18
Leon Trotsky (1879-1940)
  • Head of Soviet Foreign Ministry
  • Commander of the troops of the Red Army
  • Trotsky was a very charismatic man and eloquent
    and energetic speaker

19
Leon Trotsky (cont)
  • Stalin and Trotsky conflicted
  • Stalin eventually won the conflict when Trotsky
    was publically humiliated and exiled in 1927.
  • It was rumored at the time that Stalin had
    Trotsky killed.

20
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
  • Stalin took power over the country after Lenin
    died and formulated all principal policies
  • Stalin worked his way up into power through
    various revolutionary activities.

21
Joseph Stalin (cont)
  • Transformed corrective labor camps into slave
    labor camps.
  • In the early 1930s, Stalin forced the peasantry
    into collective farms (huge government-run farms)
    and took all their possessions
  • Stalin established a terroristic police state.

22
Joseph Stalin (cont)
  • Instituted trials where people were found guilty
    of treason and executed.
  • Promoted many 5 Year Plans which focused on the
    economic growth of the U.S.S.R.
  • These prominent Bolsheviks were accused of
    plotting with Trotsky to assassinate Stalin and
    overthrow the Soviet government.

23
Joseph Stalin (cont)
  • Stalin approved of the cult of the Stalinist
    Adoration because he was vain and wanted devotion
    only to him.
  • Cities were named after Stalin and there was
    Ceremonial homage (special honor) to him
    throughout the country.

24
The Royal Romanovs
Title Page
  • Tsar Nicholas II
  • Last of the dynasty of over 300 years
  • Anastasia was one of 5 children
  • Still believed in the divine right of kings ?
    made Russia out-dated
  • Disliked for many reasons

25
Major Factors of Peoples Dislike of Nicholas II
  • Farmers
  • Workers
  • Bloody Sunday
  • WWI
  • Rasputin

26
Nobody Likes Nicholas
  • Rural Farmers made up large amount of population
  • No tax relief high rent of land
  • Most unproductive land in Europe
  • Poor and starving
  • Workers had no way to improve situation
  • No unions
  • No industry until 1890
  • Low pay, long hours, horrible working conditions

27
Nobody Likes Nicholas
  • Bloody Sunday ? January 1905
  • Workers went on strike and stormed Nicholas
    Winter Palace unarmed
  • The Royal Guard killed hundreds of people
  • Nicholas II was to blame

28
Nobody Likes Nicholas
  • Grigori Rasputin
  • healed Nicholas son Alexi of hemophilia
    (genetic disorder that weakens ability to stop
    bleeding)
  • Mystic believed in the healing powers of prayer
  • Stopped people from giving him the new drug
    aspirin, which would make his condition worse
  • He had direct control over the Tsar and Tsarina ?
    lost credibility with people

29
Nobody Likes Nicholas
  • WWI (1914-1918)
  • Largest reason for revolution
  • Death tolls were devastating
  • People blamed the presence of Nicholas on the
    front lines
  • Low supplies led to starvation

30
Nobody Likes Nicholas
  • February Revolution (1917)
  • Strikes paralyzed St. Petersburg
  • Nicholas tried to put them down by force, but
    soldiers mutinied
  • Abdicated throne to his brother, Michael, but he
    refused
  • Ended Russian empire
  • Provisional Government (Petrograd Soviet Party)
    was put in place

31
Nobody Likes Nicholas
  • October Revolution (1917)
  • Lenin (leader of Bolshevik Party) gained
    popularity under the promise of Peace, Land, and
    Bread
  • With the help of the Red Guard (Trotsky), the
    Bolsheviks overtook the Provisional Government
    (Petrograd Soviet Party)
  • Established a party dictatorship
  • Renamed Bolsheviks as Communist Party

32
Civil War (1918-1920)
  • Whites (Anti-Communist) and Reds (Pro-Communist)
    fought for control
  • The War left Russia with more famine and
    casualties than WWI
  • Trotsky and Lenin won and established the USSR
    in 1922 (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)

33
Life in the U.S.S.R.
  • Constant Propaganda
  • Mandatory subscription to Pravda ? The Truth
  • Put out whatever the Communist Party wanted
  • Would alter the truth

34
Life in the U.S.S.R.
  • Russian Working Class
  • Center of the Russian Revolutions
  • Dedicated and loyal, yet naive to corruption
  • Russian Apathetical Class
  • didnt care either way
  • did not feel there was that much of a difference
    before or after the revolution

35
Life in the U.S.S.R.
  • Russian Orthodox Church
  • Had it better under the Tsar
  • Was abolished for a while (separation of Church
    and State)
  • Then brought back
  • The Petit Bourgeoisie
  • Wealthy middle Class
  • Many fled Russia
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