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A New Industrial Age

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A New Industrial Age Chapter 6 The Gilded Age Thin layer of prosperity covered the poverty and corruption of society. Great for industrialists, bad for immigrants ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A New Industrial Age


1
A New Industrial Age
  • Chapter 6

2
The Gilded Age
  • Thin layer of prosperity covered the poverty and
    corruption of society.
  • Great for industrialists, bad for immigrants,
    farmers, workers.
  • There was a lot of abuse of power in business and
    government.

3
Natural Resources Fuel Industrialization
  • 3 factors that led to industrial growth
  • Wealth of natural resources oil, coal, and iron
  • Government support for business
  • Growing Urban population that provided chap labor
    and markets.

4
  • Edwin Drake drilled for oil in Titusville, PA
    started oil breakthrough.
  • Iron ore deposits plentiful
  • Iron - dense, but breaks and rusts not used a
    lot ex/ RR used a thin layer on top of wood.
  • Steel remove carbon from iron. Used the
    Bessemer Process to do this. Bessemer Process
    cool air put in to hot iron to remove the carbon.
    Look at map page 231 Pittsburgh - of steel
    mills.

5
  • New Uses for Steel
  • RR biggest customers of steel.
  • barbed wire, farm machinery steel could break
    through tough soil.
  • Buildings and bridges Brooklyn Bridge,
    skyscrapers 1st one was the Chicago Insurance
    Building in Chicago. 10 stories tall. These led
    to upward growth in cities.

6
Inventions Promote Change
  • Inventions began to have an impact on daily life.
  • Electricity - Thomas Edison - light bulb. He
    later
  • invented an entire system to distribute
    electricity
  • central power station
  • George Westinghouse - instead of the costly
    direct current Edison used, he came up with an
    alternating current that was cheaper and more
    efficient.
  • This changed business. Allowed many machines
    to operate. Factories could now locate outside of
    cities and away from the water sources they had
    always relied on.
  • In homes time saving appliances, like the
    refrigerator.

7
Inventions Change Lifestyles
  • Christopher Sholes typewriter 1867
  • Alexander Graham Bell telephone
  • Inventions changed jobs at home for women too.
    Women no longer needed to make clothes because
    now factories were making them. Factories were
    also making food that was once grown on farms
    canned goods.

8
The Age of Railroad
  • Transcontinental RR spanned the nation. Central
    Pacific and Union Pacific RRs.
  • Changes in railroads overtime included the use of
    steel rails - safer and could hold heavier loads.
    Standard gauge of track width - eliminated
    changes from one line to another. Westinghouse
    air brakes contributed to efficiency and safety.
    Pullman Palace Cars traveling hotels.

9
  • 1869 RR set 4 time zones Eastern, Central,
    Mountain, and Pacific
  • 1883 RR and towns synchronized watches
  • 1884 worldwide time zones incorporated RR zones
  • 1918 Congress adopted RR times
  • Growth of RR - growth of towns - new markets.
    Some towns specialized in a product Chicago
    meat, Minneapolis grain.

10
Credit Mobilier (Corruption)
  • The growth of the RRs did lead to corruption
  • Union Pacific RR stockholders formed a
    construction company called Credit Mobilier.
    Gave this company a contract to lay track at 2
    3 times the actual cost. Pocketed the profit.
    Donated shares of the profit in stock to members
    of Congress.
  • Made about 23 million.

11
The Grange and the RR
  • RR Abuses
  • misuse of land grants sold to other businesses,
    not farmers Scratch my back
  • fixed prices esp. with storage
  • different rates
  • Granger Laws laws passed by state legislatures
    to protect farmers

12
  • 1877 Munn v. Illinois Supreme Court upheld
    Granger Laws allowed states to regulate
    businesses within its borders, including RR.
  • Wabash v. Illinois Munn overturned only
    federal government can regulate interstate trade

13
Interstate Commerce Act
  • 1887
  • Re-establishes the fed. govt. right to supervise
    RR.
  • Set up Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to do
    that.
  • ICC couldnt regulate RR b/c too many and met
    resistance.

14
Andrew Carnegie
  • one of the first industrialists to make
  • his own fortune.
  • 1873 entered steel business
  • 1899 Carnegie Steel produced more steel than
    all the factories in Great Britain.
  • Management practices
  • Made better products cheaper incorporated new
    machinery and techniques like accounting systems
    track exact costs.
  • Got talented people to work for him by offering
    them stock in the company he encouraged
    competition among his assistants.

15
  • He worked at controlling as much of the steel
    industry as possible vertical integration
    bought out suppliers included the coal fields,
    iron mines, ore freighters, and RR lines. He
    also practiced horizontal integration buying
    out those companies that were competition.

16
Social Darwinism and Business
  • Social Darwinism strongest businesses will
    survive and the government shouldnt regulate.

17
Growth and Consolidation ways to eliminate
competition
  • 1. Mergers buying out the stock of another
    corporation.
  • 2. Monopoly when a company got rid of all
    competition had complete control over its
    production, wages and prices.
  • 3. Holding Company set up to do nothing but buy
    out the stock of other companies. J.P. Morgan, a
    banker, made U.S. Steel the most successful
    holding company. Bought out Carnegie Steel in
    1901.

18
John D. Rockefeller
  • Standard Oil Company formed trusts
  • with competing companies.
  • 4. Trusts members turned their stock over to a
    board of trustees who ran the companies as one
    large corporation. Companies in return earned
    profits. Rockefeller used this to gain control
    of the oil industry.
  • Drove competitors out of business by
  • selling his oil at lower prices. When
  • competition was gone he raised prices to make a
    profit.

19
Sherman Antitrust Act
  • 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act made it illegal to
    form a trust that interfered with free trade
    between states or with other countries.
  • Wasnt easy to enforce, and eventually it was
    overlooked.

20
Business Boom Bypasses the South
  • North natural and urban resources plentiful.
  • South lack of capital, people unwilling to take
    a financial risk. Mostly agriculture, at the
    mercy of the RR, high tariffs on imported goods,
    and lack of skilled workers.
  • The South remained mostly rural. Industry was
    hard to start in the South. Railroad owners
    charged higher prices on goods shipped from the
    South to the North.

21
Labor Unions Emerge
  • Why?? Low wages, unsafe working conditions, drew
    workers together to try to improve conditions.
  • No vacation, sick days, workers comp, etc.
  • Working conditions bad dirty, poorly
    ventilated, led to injuries.
  • Repetitive takes on sometimes faulty equipment.
  • In 1882 675 workers killed.
  • Low wages - whole families had to work, even
    children as young as 5.

22
Early Labor Organizing
  • National Labor Union 1st large-scale national
    organization of labor William H. Sylvis.
    Included skilled and unskilled. Membership
    640,000. Lasted 6 years 1869 Terrance Powderly
    Knights of Labor open to all workers skilled
    and unskilled, men and women.
  • Strikes as last resort.
  • Goals - equal pay for equal work, 8 hour day,
  • and no child labor.

23
  • Samuel Gompers started American Federation of
    Labor (AFL) focused on collective bargaining
    negotiations between labor and management where
    they would reach agreements on wages, hours, etc.
    Organized skilled male workers in smaller unions
    under the umbrella of the AFL.

24
Strikes Turn Violent
  • The Great Strike of 1877 - Baltimore and Ohio RR
    workers protest 2nd wage cut in 2 months.
    Stopped working. 50,000 miles stopped working for
    over a week. RR owners asked President Hayes to
    step in he sent in federal troops to stop the
    strike. Companies now relied on federal and
    state troops to repress labor unrest.

25
  • The Haymarket Affair
  • 1886 - fight between strikers (Knights of Labor)
    and scabs
  • Police were called in to break it up - shots were
    fired.
  • Rally -bomb - gunfire erupted
  • After this, strikes were not successful (public
    began to turn against the labor unions) and the
    Knights of Labor disappeared.

26
  • The Homestead Strike
  • Carnegie Steel wage cut.
  • Pinkertons - there was a battle, some detectives
    and workers were killed, and the plant closed.
  • The National Guard was called in.
  • The union lost a lot of support
  • The Pullman Company Strike
  • laid off workers and cut wages
  • Went on strike, it turned on violent.
  • President Cleveland sent in troops.

27
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
  • New York City 1911.
  • Fire spread quickly through 8 10th floors.
  • Company had locked doors to prevent theft and
    there was no sprinkler system.
  • 146 women died.

28
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