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The Colonies Become New Nations

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Southeast Asia Vietnam and Cambodia Vietnam Vietnam had been ruled by ... This group wanted to strengthen the Ottoman Empire and end the threat of western imperialism. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Colonies Become New Nations


1
The Colonies Become New Nations
2
Collapse of European Imperialism
  • Non-Western Nationalism

3
INDIA
4
  • Since the 1700s, the British had maintained
    control of the Indian subcontinent.
  • INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS-In 1885, nationalist
    leaders in India formed the Indian National
    Congress, which became known as the Congress
    Party.

5
  • This group was made up mainly of Hindu
    professionals and business leaders.
  • This Congress Party called for equal
    opportunities for Indians to serve in government
    and for western-style democracy.

6
  • MUSLIM LEAGUE-Initially, Muslims and Hindus
    cooperated in their campaign for self-rule.
  • However, Muslims soon grew distrustful of the
    Hindu dominated Indian National Congress.
  • In 1906, Muslim leaders formed the Muslim League
    to protect their own rights and interests.

7
TURKEY
8
  • In the 1800s, the multinational Ottoman Empire
    (present day Turkey) faced challenges from the
    various ethnic groups in the empire.
  • YOUNG TURKS-A group of liberals in the 1890s
    established a movement called the Young Turks.
  • This group wanted to strengthen the Ottoman
    Empire and end the threat of western imperialism.

9
  • In 1908, they overthrew the sultan and took
    control of the government.

10
India-Independence Partition
11
  • Indian nationalists had been demanding
    independence since the 1800s.
  • Indians were angered when, during World War II,
    the British put off granting them independence
    but expected them to support Britain in the war.

12
Mohandas Gandhi
  • A leader named Mohandas Gandhi headed the Indian
    Nationalist Movement, seeking independence from
    British imperialism.
  • He taught nonviolent resistance and civil
    disobedience (the refusal to obey unjust laws),
    rather than bloodshed, were the way to win
    rights.

13
  • He used tactics such as boycotting, or refusing
    to buy, British goods.
  • Finally, in 1947, Britain granted independence to
    India.

14
Muslim and Hindu Conflicts
  • In India, Hindus were the majority and Muslims
    were the minority.
  • In 1947, British officials drew borders that
    created Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan. The
    partition, or division, of India did not bring
    peace.

15
  • Independence set off mass migrations of Muslims
    fleeing India and Hindus fleeing Pakistan.
  • Millions were killed crossing the borders.
  • Gandhi tried to ease these tensions but a Hindu
    fanatic assassinated him during the process.

16
  • Tensions between Hindus and Muslims still exist
    and continue to erupt into violence today over
    border disputes.

17
Status of the Caste System
  • The Caste System, a system of social
    stratification, has been a part of Indian life
    for more than 2,000 years.
  • In the 1900s, the system underwent change.

18
  • Mohandas Gandhi campaigned to end the harsh
    treatment of the caste called Untouchables.
  • The Indian constitution of 1950 banned
    discrimination against Untouchables.
  • The government set aside jobs and places in
    universities for Untouchables.

19
  • In spite of improvements in the legal status of
    Untouchables, discrimination still exists today.
  • Ultimately, the Caste System is still part of
    Indian society today, and tends to have a
    stronger effect in rural villages than in urban
    areas.

20
Nonalignment
  • During the Cold War, India followed a policy of
    nonalignment.
  • This policy, instituted by Jawaharlal Nehru,
    (Indias 1st Prime Minister) allowed India to
    accept help from both capitalist and socialist
    nations.

21
Sikh Separatism
  • Sikhism is a religion that began in India in the
    1500s by blending elements of Islam and Hinduism.
  • In the 1980s, there was an increased demand for
    self-rule by the Sikhs.
  • The Indian Prime Minister sent in troops to put
    down this Sikh uprising.

22
  • Many Sikhs died as a result of this uprising and
    the Prime Minster herself was assassinated by two
    Sikhs who had served as her bodyguards.
  • Continuing tension exists between Sikhs and
    Hindus today.

23
African Independence Movements and Pan Africanism
24
  • A movement called Pan-Africanism had been
    nourishing nationalist movements in Africa since
    the 1920s.
  • Pan-Africanism emphasized the unity of Africans
    and people of African descent all over the world.

25
Early Independence Movements
  • GHANA-former British Colony known as the Gold
    Coast which gained independence in 1957 and
    renamed Ghana.
  • KENYA-former British Colony which was given
    independence in 1963.
  • ALGERIA-former French Colony given independence
    in 1962 after many years of warfare.

26
Economic Links with Europe
  • Today, much of Africa suffers from trading
    patterns that were established during the age of
    imperialism.
  • As a result, today these countries have trade
    deficits and rising debts.

27
Ethnic Tensions and Nationalism
  • Most of the current national boundaries in Africa
    were established during the colonial period by
    Europeans.
  • These boundaries were made without consideration
    for the traditional territories of tribal and
    ethnic groups.

28
  • Today, therefore, loyalty to ones tribe is often
    stronger than loyalty to ones nation.

29
  • Nigeria is one of the many nations where
    tribalism has led to civil war.
  • More than 200 ethnic groups live within the
    borders of Nigeria, as a result in 1966 a
    massacre of 20,000 took place.

30
  • Shortly after this massacre war broke out between
    ethnic tribes in Nigeria which ultimately
    resulted in the deaths of nearly a 1,000,000
    people.

31
  • In Rwanda, ethnic conflict led to genocide.
  • Ethnic violence broke out between the Hutus and
    the Tutsis which resulted in the deaths of
    approximately 500,000 people in just a few months.

32
African Union
  • In 2002, 53 African countries formed a
    federation, the African Union (AU).
  • The AUs goals include solving economic, social,
    political, and environmental problems in Africa.
  • AU members deal with issues such as
    desertification, AIDS, and famine.

33
  • The AU also works to resolve conflicts, such as
    the situation in Darfur (2003), a region of
    western Sudan.
  • Arabic militias have killed more than 200,000
    black villagers, with the quiet approval of the
    Sudanese government.
  • Today, as we speak, this situation in Darfur
    continues with more than 2,000,000 villagers
    being displaced-along with rapes and the
    employment of children into the militias.

34
Apartheid-Policy of Racial Separation
Segregation
  • For nearly 350 years, Europeans ruled South
    Africa.
  • Although South Africa won its independence in
    1910, its white citizens held all of the
    political power.
  • In order to maintain this control, whites in 1948
    made official a system of apartheid, or
    separation of the races.

35
  • Apartheid required black Africans and other
    nonwhites to live in certain zones, the
    segregation of public facilities and
    transportation, and forbade interracial marriages.

36
The Anti-Apartheid Movement
  • In 1912, a political party known as the African
    Nation Congress (ANC), was organized in South
    Africa.
  • The ANC used boycotts and civil disobedience to
    oppose apartheid.

37
  • In 1960, the police killed 69 people and wounded
    180 and the South African government outlawed the
    ANC.

38
  • In 1964, Nelson Mandela, an important ANC leader,
    was sentenced to life in prison.
  • He became a powerful symbol of the struggle for
    freedom.

39
  • Desmond Tutu was a black Anglican bishop and
    civil rights leader.
  • Tutu and other activists convinced foreign
    nations and businesses to limit trade and
    investment in segregated South Africa.

40
  • F.W. de Klerk became president of South Africa in
    1989.
  • He legalized the ANC and released Mandela in
    1990.
  • In 1994, South Africa held an election in which
    people of all races could vote.

41
  • Mandela was elected president.
  • He was succeeded in 1999 by Thabo Mbeki.

42
Southeast Asia
  • Vietnam and Cambodia

43
Vietnam
  • Vietnam had been ruled by the French since the
    mid-1800s.
  • Ho Chi Minh, leader of the Vietminh an alliance
    of nationalist and communist groups, declared
    Vietnam free.
  • Defeated by the Vietminh, the French abandoned
    Vietnam which became divided in 1954 with a
    communist north and a non-communist south.

44
The Vietnam War
  • Ho Chi Minh, now leader of communist North
    Vietnam, supported the Viet Cong, a group of
    communist rebels who were trying to overthrow
    Diem, the South Vietnamese government.

45
  • The United States sent troops to support Diems
    government.
  • The Vietnam War lasted from 1959 to 1975 when
    antiwar sentiment in the U.S. forced President
    Nixon to withdraw all American forces from
    Vietnam.

46
  • In 1975, Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam,
    fell and the country reunited under communist
    control.

47
Cambodia
  • During the Vietnam War, Cambodia served as a
    supply route for the Viet Cong and North
    Vietnamese forces.
  • In 1969, American forces bombed and then invaded
    Cambodia to destroy the route.

48
  • After the Americans left, Cambodian communist
    guerillas, known as the Khmer Rouge, took control
    of the government.
  • Under the leadership of Pol Pot, the Khmer Rouge
    began a reign of terror to remove all western
    influence from Cambodia.

49
  • More than a million Cambodians were slaughtered
    in what became known as the Killing Fields.
  • In 1979, Vietnamese forces invaded Cambodia and
    occupied the country until the 1990s, when a
    settlement was negotiated to end the civil war.
  • UN peacekeepers monitored elections, but some
    fighting continued.
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