INTRODUCTION TO INFECTION CONTROL ICNO Infection Control Unit, Teaching Hospital, Jaffna. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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INTRODUCTION TO INFECTION CONTROL ICNO Infection Control Unit, Teaching Hospital, Jaffna.

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Infection Control Unit, Teaching Hospital, ... What is infection control? Hospital acquired infections Sources of infections HAI Why is it a problem? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTRODUCTION TO INFECTION CONTROL ICNO Infection Control Unit, Teaching Hospital, Jaffna.


1
INTRODUCTION TO INFECTION CONTROLICNOInfection
Control Unit,Teaching Hospital,Jaffna.
2
What is infection control?
  • Infection control is a series of procedures and
    guidelines to prevent hospital associated
    infection. H.A.I

3
Hospital acquired infections
  • Acquired by patients during their stay in the
    hospital
  • Neither present nor incubating at the time the
    patient was admitted to the health care facility
    and may appear even after the patient is
    discharged
  • Symptoms appear usually 48-72 hours after
    admission

4
Sources of infections
  • Endogenous due to organisms in own flora.
  • Eg group B streptococcal infections
  • Exogenous infections acquired from outside.
  • (Cross infections/HAI)
  • -Infected or colonized patients/staff
  • -Contaminated equipment/ medication
  • -Environment surfaces, air, food, water

5
HAI Why is it a problem?
  • Caused by hospital bacteria Resistant to
    commonly used antibiotics
  • Eg- MRSA (methicillin resistant
    staphylococcus aurous)
  • ESBL (Extended-spectrum
    beta-lactamase)
  • Have to use expensive drugs in their treatment
  • Duration of infection is usually long
  • Higher mortality
  • Increased economic burden
  • Quality of life
  • Pain/suffering/ depression

6
Types of HAI
  • Urinary Tract Infections
  • Respiratory Tract Infections ventilator
    associated pneumonia
  • Surgical site Infections
  • Septicaemia
  • Skin Soft tissue Infections
  • Meningitis -rare

7
Causative organisms
  • Gram negative bacilli- E.coli ,
  • - Klebsiella
    spp
  • - Serratia spp
  • - Acinetobacter
    spp
  • - Pseudomonas
    spp
  • Gram positive cocci S. aureus (MRSA)
  • - Enterococci
    (VRE)
  • Gram positive bacilli Corynebacteria spp
  • - Clostredium
    difficilli
  • Candida spp

8
Factors affecting HAI
  • Age elderly very young patients
  • Underlying Diseases
  • Invasive procedures
  • Immunosuppression Cytotoxic drugs
  • Trauma , Burns
  • Implants

9
Routes of Spread of Infections
  • Contact direct - hands
  • - indirect via fomites
  • Respiratory tract - air born particles lt5µ
  • droplet
    particles gt5µ
  • Faecooral food water
  • - poor hygiene
  • IV fluids medications
  • Blood blood products
  • Sharp injuries -occupational
  • Splashes on to mucus membranes -occupational

10
How are these infections transmitted?
  • H.A.I may be transmitted by health care workers
    to patients, from patient to patient and from
    patient to health care workers.

11
Prevention of Hospital Infections
  • Many of these infection can be controlled
    following a set of very simple practical
    guidelines called stranded precaution.
  • Elimination of source of infection
  • Interruption of transmission
  • Enhancing the host ability to resist infection

12
STANDARD PRECAUTION
  • 1.Hand hygiene
  • 2.Use personal protective equipment PPE
  • 3.Proper cleaning disinfection and sterilization
    of patient care equipment.
  • 4.Environmental cleaning and disinfection when
    necessary.
  • 5.Proper handling of linen.
  • 6.Proper waste disposal.
  • 7.Proper handing and disposal of sharps.
  • 8.Occupational Health

13
SPECIFIC MEASURES
  • Facilities for hand washing and drying
  • Adequate space
  • Ventilation
  • Isolation facilities
  • Health care workers with out infection.
  • Infection surveillance
  • Antibiotic policy
  • Liaison with infection control team
  • Health education of staff, patients and visitors

14
THANK YOU ICNOInfection Control
Unit,Teaching Hospital,Jaffna.
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