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REVIEW FOR THE UNIT TEST

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REVIEW FOR THE UNIT TEST The Enlightenment American Revolution French Revolution and Napoleon Latin American Revolutions Unifications of Italy and Germany – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: REVIEW FOR THE UNIT TEST


1
REVIEW FOR THE UNIT TEST
  • The Enlightenment
  • American Revolution
  • French Revolution and Napoleon
  • Latin American Revolutions
  • Unifications of Italy and Germany

2
The two eras known as the Renaissance and the
Enlightenment are similar in that they both led
to people doing two things
(1) Question the world around them (2) try to
improve society
3
During the Scientific Revolution, scholars
applied logic and reason this inspired the
Enlightenment thinkers to also use logic and
reason as they came up with new ideas about
economics and government
4
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
Baron de Montesquieu felt that too much power in
the hands of one person always leads to tyranny
Rousseau agreed with this idea of too much power
Montesquieu believed in separation of powers
dividing power among three branches of government
5
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
The Swiss philosophe Jean-Jacques Rousseau
believed in individual freedom
Rousseau believed that people are naturally good,
but too much power corrupts them
6
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
John Locke said that the purpose of government
was to protect citizens natural rights
Locke believed that people are born with natural
rights rights to life, liberty, and property
7
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
Locke believed that a governments power comes
from consent of the governed (approval of the
people)
  • The English Bill of Rights (1689)
  • The king cannot tax or overturn Parliaments laws
  • Protected freedom of speech
  • The army cannot be used as a police force
  • No excessive bail

He argued that kings could be overthrown if they
violated peoples rights
8
Political Ideas of the Enlightenment
Voltaire argued for certain rights freedom of
speech and religion he criticized intolerance,
prejudice, and oppression
Voltaire once saidI may disapprove of what you
say, but I will defend to the death your right to
say it.
9
English philosophe Thomas Hobbes believed that
humans are naturally cruel, selfish, and hungry
for power
Because he believed people needed to be protected
from themselves, Hobbes supported rule by
absolute monarchs (like Louis XIV) he argued
that only kings with absolute power could
maintain order in society
Hobbes would disagree with the political ideas of
Locke and Montesquieu
10
To collect the new ideas of the Enlightenment and
make them accessible, Denis Diderot created the
first encyclopedia
11
Capitalism is an economic model based on private
ownership of property and the goal is to make
profits
Laissez-faire (hands off) is the idea that
the economy thrives when there is minimal
government involvement in the economy and business
12
Impact of the Enlightenment Kings
Some powerful monarchs known as enlightened
despots listened to new ideas and tried to
improve the lives of their citizens
13
The policies of the enlightened despots were
influenced by the writings of Enlightenment
thinkers (such as Voltaire, Rousseau)
14
Enlightened despots improved the lives of their
citizens they favored religious tolerance, tax
reform, reduced government spending, and legal
rights
15
Salons were discussion parties held by
Enlightenment thinkers in Europe they discussed
new ideas in culture, government, and economics
16
Impact of the Enlightenment Music
Music composers created new, elegant styles of
music known as Classical
Franz Joseph Haydn
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Beethoven
17
The storming of the Bastille prison in 1789
represented the beginning of the French Revolution
18
The French Revolution was started by the
financial crisis in France, the unfair taxes on
the Third Estate, the spread of Enlightenment
ideas, and inspired by the success of the
American Revolution
19
The French and Indian War (1754-1763)
England won the French and Indian War France
gave England all French lands east of the
Mississippi River...
but the war left England with massive debts
20
To pay off war debts, Britain created a series of
new taxes (such as the Stamp Act) for the
American colonists
The colonists were upset that the Parliament in
England would pass laws and taxes without the
colonists approval
21
Their slogan became No taxation without
representation, which meant that colonists
believed that they should be able to vote on
taxes and laws that affected them
22
The Declaration of Independence used ideas from
the Enlightenment (especially John Locke) to
explain why Americans were declaring independence
The Declaration suggested that the government
should protect the rights of its citizens
23
Like Americas Declaration of Independence,
Frances Declaration of the Rights of Man and of
the Citizen also stated that the government
should protect the rights of its citizens
24
Frances unequal social structure the Three
Estates
The clergy (priests) of the Roman Catholic Church
made up the First Estate
They owned 10 of land in France but paid little
in taxes to the government
25
The Second Estate was made up of rich nobles
They owned 20 of French land but were exempt
from paying taxes
26
The Third Estate made up 97 of the population
and was mostly made up of extremely poor peasants
This group paid 50 of their income in taxes
27
The members of the Third Estate, the French
commoners, hated having no say in the government
and having to pay all the taxes
This cartoon shows the poor Third Estate carrying
the burden of the First and Second Estates
28
During a meeting of the Estates-General (Frances
government), the First and Second Estates voted
to increase taxes on the Third Estate King Louis
XVI approved of the vote, which enraged the Third
Estate
29
The American Revolution and French Revolution
were important events in world history
Both revolutions created new democratic
governments based on the Enlightenment ideas of
individual liberty
30
In 1793, King Louis XVI was arrested, convicted
of treason, and executed by guillotine
31
In 1793, radical Maximilien Robespierre slowly
gained control of the National Convention,
Frances new government after the death of the
king
32
When King Louis XVI was executed during the
French Revolution, many European nations
attacked France to keep revolutionary ideas from
spreading
33
From 1793 to 1794, any French citizens who were
accused of being disloyal to the new republic
were executed
Robespierre executed 30,000 traitors during
an era known as the Reign of Terror (until he,
too, was executed)
34
In 1799, a French military general named
Napoleon Bonaparte led a coup d'état and seized
power in France
Similar to Robespierre, Napoleon took advantage
of the chaos of the French Revolution to increase
his personal power
35
Napoleon made a series of reforms to improve the
government, economy, and lives for French
citizens
To fix the French economy, he introduced a fair
tax system and created a Bank of France to
regulate the money supply
36
In order rule France more effectively, Napoleon
created a comprehensive set of laws called the
Napoleonic Code
This law code provided order, freedom of
religion, and eliminated privileges by estates
37
In 1812, Napoleon made his greatest mistake and
invaded Russia
38
Russias severe winters and the Russians
scorched earth policy devastated the French
army and forced Napoleon to retreat
39
The era after the fall of Napoleon was a conflict
among conservative, liberal, and radical forces
CONSERVATIVES were usually wealthy land owners
and nobles they typically supported traditional
monarchies
LIBERALS were usually from the middle class they
supported Enlightenment ideas like limited
monarchies and protecting citizens liberty
RADICALS were usually from the lower classes
they supported extending democracy to all
citizens
40
After the fall of Napoleon in 1815, European
leaders met at the Congress of Vienna to restore
a balance of power in Europe
41
The Congress of Vienna was attended by
conservatives from Austria, Prussia, Russia,
Britain, and France and was led by Austrian
minister Klemons von Metternich
Metternich and other conservatives wanted to
restore powerful monarchies in Europe, disliked
democracy, and feared the ideas of the French
Revolution
42
In the class system of Latin America, rich and
powerful White Europeans called Peninsulares
were at the top of society
43
Peninsulares were at the top of society in Latin
America
44
In 1791, Haitian slaves rose in revolt against
their French rulers Toussaint LOuverture became
the leader of the slave uprising and helped free
all the slaves by 1801
45
From 1811 to 1824, Venezuelan creole Simon
Bolivar led an army of revolutionaries in the
independence movement against Spain
46
Argentinean creole San Martín led the
independence movement in southern South America
47
Enlightenment ideas spread from Europe to South
America, which led to creoles fighting for
independence from Spain and other European rulers
48
In Mexico, a poor but well educated Catholic
priest named Miguel Hidalgo used Enlightenment
ideals to call for a revolution against Spain
49
What is NATIONALISM?
  • Nationalism is loyalty and devotion to a nation
    of people
  • It is a sense of national identity exalting one
    nation above all others
  • It can be defined as pride in ones nation, and
    it can also be defined as the desire of an ethnic
    group to have its own country

50
ITALY and GERMANY TWO DIVIDED NATIONS
As of the early 1800s, the German and Italian
people were DIVIDED into numerous small states.
Germany and Italy would not become fully unified
until 1871
GERMAN STATES
ITALIAN STATES
51
GARIBALDI UNIFIER OF ITALY
Giuseppe Garibaldi wanted a unified Italy under a
republic style of government
Garibaldi, who always wore a red shirt in battle,
named his forces the Redshirts
52
BISMARCK UNIFIER OF GERMANY
Otto von Bismarck was the Prime Minister of
Prussia in the 1860s
Bismarcks goal was the unification of the German
states under the leadership of Prussia
53
BISMARCK UNIFIER OF GERMANY
  • Otto was an advocate of realpolitik, politics
    of reality, where there is no room for idealism
  • As someone in favor of realpolitik, Bismarck was
    ruthless and saw using force, threats, and deceit
    as ways to achieve his goals

54
BLOOD AND IRON
  • In 1862, Bismarck makes his intentions known
  • Germany will not be united through speeches and
    diplomacy, but through blood and iron.

55
NEXT, REVIEW SOME MATERIAL FROM THE PREVIOUS
UNITS TO REFRESH YOUR MEMORIES
56
Ottoman ruler Suleyman the Magnificents greatest
accomplishment was establishing a stable
government for the Ottoman Empire through the law
code he created
57
By the mid-1500s, Suleyman the Magnificent was
the most powerful king in the world similar to
kings such as King Louis XIV of France and Czar
Peter the Great of Russia, he ruled with absolute
power
58
During the time of Tokugawas rule, the actual
power in Japan was held by the shogun, not the
emperor
Tokugawa Ieyasu
59
Nagasaki Bay
Deshima
Japan
Dutch ships
Very similar to Qing China, Tokugawa Japans
policy with foreigners was one of isolationism
60
HAMMURABIS CODE
Babylonian King Hammurabi created the worlds
first written code of law
61
During the Roman Republic, the Senate ruled when
they became the Roman Empire, emperors called
caesars ruled with absolute power
Pax Romana
62
The Justinian Code
The Justinian Code was the legal system of the
Byzantine Empire it is considered important
because it would serve as a model for future
European legal systems
63
Absolute monarchs like Louis XIV of France and
Peter the Great of Russia made all government
decisions without the consent of their people
this is what made them absolute monarchs
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