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Improving Teaching and Learning through Differentiated Instruction

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Improving Teaching and Learning through Differentiated Instruction Saraland November, 2009 Dr. Susan Santoli University of South Alabama ssantoli_at_usouthal.edu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Improving Teaching and Learning through Differentiated Instruction


1
Improving Teaching and Learning through
Differentiated Instruction
  • Saraland
  • November, 2009
  • Dr. Susan Santoli
  • University of South Alabama
  • ssantoli_at_usouthal.edu

2
Introductions
  • Im __________ and I teach__________.
  • Select one of the following to add
  • When I think of differentiating instruction, I
    need to know more about ______.OR
  • One thing that that concerns me about
    differentiating instruction is ________.

3
Please stand up if I say something that applies
to you
  • I differentiate my instruction.
  • I have given a pre-test or a diagnostic
    assignment.
  • I have tutored a student.
  • I have given students different books to read.
  • I have taught students in a small group.
  • I have analyzed similarities and differences in
    students test scores.

4
Session Overview
  • What is Differentiation?
  • Differentiation Strategies
  • Tips for Implementing Differentiation
  • Differentiation Practice
  • Resources

5
Not all students are alike!
  • Varying background knowledge
  • Readiness
  • Language
  • Preferences in learning
  • Interests
  • Motivation

6
Differentiated Instruction
  • Students have multiple options for taking in
    information and making sense of ideas.
  • Teachers adjust the curriculum, presentation of
    information and assessment to learners rather
    than asking learners to modify themselves for the
    curriculum.
  • Classroom teaching is a blend of whole- class
    and individual instruction.

7
Elements of Differentiation
  • The teacher focuses on the essentials
  • The teacher attends to student differences
  • Assessment and instruction are inseparable
  • The teacher adapts content, process and/or
    products
  • All students participate in respectful work
  • Collaboration between teacher and student

8
  • The teacher balances group and individual norms.
  • Teacher and students work together flexibly.

9
  • All differentiation begins with assessment!

10
Assessment
  • Assessment is todays means of understanding how
    to modify tomorrows instruction
  • Think of assessment for learning vs. assessment
    of learning
  • Assessment should always have more to do with
    helping students grow, than cataloging their
    mistakes

From Carol Ann Tomlinson
11
(No Transcript)
12
What Differentiated Instruction IS
  • Having a vision of success for students
  • Realizing that not all students learn the same
    way
  • Allowing students some choice in their routes to
    learning
  • Providing opportunities for students to
    demonstrate knowledge they know and move forward
  • Offering lessons of varying degrees of difficulty
    to meet the same standard
  • Combining whole class instruction with individual
    and/or group work

13
What Differentiated Instruction IS NOT
  • A different lesson plan for each student each day
  • Assuming that all students learn by listening and
    writing
  • Assigning more work to students who have
    demonstrated mastery
  • Only for students who need acceleration
  • Giving all students the same work/assignments all
    of the time

14
The What
  1. Content
  2. Process
  3. Product

15
The How
  1. Readiness
  2. Interest
  3. Learning Profile

16
Teachers Can Differentiate
Content
Process
Product
According to Students
Interest
Learning Profile
Readiness
The Access Center. Adapted from The
Differentiated Classroom Responding to the
Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999)
17
Instructional Strategies that Support
Differentiation
  • Anchor Activities
  • Centers/Stations
  • Layered Curriculum
  • Tiered Lessons
  • Entry Points
  • Academic Contracts
  • Compacting

18
Anchor Activity
  • Student activities that are designed to extend
    and review already learned skills
  • Self directed
  • Can free up classroom teacher to work with small
    groups or individual students

19
Using Anchor Activities to Create Groups
1
Teach the whole class to work independently
and quietly on the anchor activity.
2
Flip-Flop
Half the class works on anchor activity.
Other half works on a different activity.
3
1/3 works with teacher---direct instruction.
1/3 works on anchor activity.
1/3 works on a different activity.
www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/curriculum/enriched/gi
ftedprograms/docs/anchor.ppt
20
Examples of Anchor Activities
  • Journals or learning logs
  • Supplementary readings
  • Learning packets
  • Learning/Interest Centers
  • Investigations
  • Research projects
  • Think-tac-toe (example to follow)
  • Learning Contracts (example to follow)
  • Webquests or web activities
  • Silent reading

21
Geography Anchor 6th grade
  • Students create an imaginary continent-can
    include country names, borders, capitals
  • Can add how various governments work, different
    cultures, laws, etc.
  • Can work on for whatever length of time the
    teacher chooses

22
Agendas-personalized list of tasks that a student
must complete in a specified time
  • Teacher creates an agenda that will last 2-3
    weeks
  • A particular time is set aside as agenda time
    (each day, each week)
  • Students generally determine the order in which
    theyll complete agenda items
  • This could also be a choice of projects or
    assignments

23
Examples of Think Tac Toe Projects
  • East Asia
  • 2008 Presidential Election
  • Language Arts
  • Spanish

24
Centers/Stations
  • Spots for concentrated work on particular skills
    or assignments or areas that students move
    through that contain different assignments
  • Holocaust Centers
  • Math Stations
  • Foreign Language

25
Layered Curriculum
  • Students have a variety of activities from which
    to choose
  • Choices are presented in layers, where each
    represents a different type of thinking or depth
    of understanding
  • Generally correlated to grades of A,B,C,

26
Layered Examples
  • Math
  • Egypt
  • Periodic Table
  • French
  • Kathy Nunnley site

27
Tiered Lessons-Summary
  • Things in common
  • Same concept or skill
  • Whole class activity
  • Some activities in the lesson may be the same
  • All Tiers should
  • Build understanding
  • Challenge Students
  • Be interesting and engaging
  • Be respectful
  • Differences in
  • Amount of structure
  • Number of facets
  • Complexity
  • Pace
  • Level of Independence

http//curriculum.leeschools.net/Summer/Preschool/
PowerPoints/DI/World20Languages.pp
28
  • Tiered Activities-used when a teacher wants to
    make sure that students with different learning
    needs work with the same essential ideas and use
    the same study skills
  • Language Arts
  • Science
  • Spanish
  • Examples from ss textbook resources

29
  • Great Depression Tiered Lesson Plan-Library of
    Congress
  • http//www.primarysourcelearning.org/teach/best_pr
    actices/diff_instruct_bulletin_sec.pdf
  • Standard for lesson plan The student will
    demonstrate knowledge of the social, economic,
    and technological changes of the early twentieth
    century by identifying the causes of the Great
    Depression, its impact on Americans, and the
    major features of Franklin D. Roosevelts New
    Deal.

30
Same content information, different LEARNING
PROCESS
31
  • Everyone will answer these questions
  • Describe what you see in the photograph. Include
    as much detail as possible.
  • Compare and contrast your home to the home you
    see in the photograph. What is similar and what
    is different?
  • In addition to the first two questions, student
    pairs will each receive one of the following
    questions based on academic readiness level.

32
  • Tier 1 If we could hear the people talking
    about their life, what would they be saying?
  • Tier 2 From what you see in the photograph,
    explain how you think this room might be used by
    the family and why.
  • Tier 3 Assess the Great Depressions social
    and economic impact on this family from the
    evidence in the photo.

33
Same content information, same analysis process,
different PRODUCTS
34
  • Tier 1 Create a timeline of the Dust Bowl and
    Great Depression era. Include the following 10
    events with accompanying visuals and written
    description.
  • Tier 2 Create a scrapbook depicting the life of
    a child affected by the Dust Bowl and the Great
    Depression. Include information about where the
    child lives, his/her familys economic and social
    situation, recreation, education, and prospects
    for the future.
  • Tier 3 In the role of a political candidate,
    create a persuasive speech proposing actions to
    address the concerns of the Dust Bowl farmers
    during the Great Depression. Incorporate
    information about the farmers economic, social
    and political problems and propose how the
    government can and cannot assist them. Support
    your plan with evidence from both primary and
    secondary sources.

35
Same task, 3 different SOURCES OF INFORMATION
Choose one of the primary sources below. Examine
both the information about the item and the item
itself. Take notes of important details that will
help you answer the following question WHAT
WERE SOME OF THE ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND POLITICAL
EFFECTS OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION ON PEOPLE?
36
Tier 1 Dorothea Lange Photograph of the Migrant
Mother, 1936
37
Tier 2 Mrs. Mary Sullivan-August, 1940
A Travelers Line
38
Tier 3 American Life Histories, Manuscript from
the Federal Writers Project, North Carolina, 1938
Nina Boone-North Carolina
39
  • Entry points-based on Gardners Theory of
    Multiple Intelligences
  • Begin topic with overview for whole class
  • Allow students to select entry points for
    investigation

40
Entry Points
  • Middle Ages
  • Math
  • Language Arts
  • Biology

41
Academic/Learning Contracts
  • Written agreements between students and teachers
  • What students will learn
  • How they will learn it
  • Time period for learning experience
  • How they will be evaluated
  • Usually opportunity for student choice

Grapes of Wrath Environment
42
Compacting
  • Requires pre-assessment before beginning unit of
    study or development of a skill
  • Students who do well on the pre-assessment should
    not have to continue work on what they already
    know
  • A plan for meaningful and challenging use of
    student time will be developed
  • Can also be used in giving homework
    assignments

43
http//www.montgomeryschoolsmd.org/curriculum/enri
ched/giftedprograms/docs/ppts/compactingfixed.ppt
44
  • General Compacting Example
  • The Crusades
  • Web Quests http//webquest.org/ Students
    complete an online quest
  • Think Quests www.thinkquest.org Students create
    an online quest or complete one posted by other
    students

45
Getting Started.
  • Start small
  • Start with your favorite unit/lesson plan
  • Begin by teaching all students an anchor
    activity-meaningful work done individually and
    silently
  • Early on, you may want to ask some students to
    work with anchor activity and others to work on a
    different task which also requires no
    conversation or collaboration
  • Try a differentiated tasks for only a small block
    of time
  • Grow slowly, but grow

46
  • Assess students before you begin to teach a skill
    or topic
  • Try creating one differentiated lesson per unit
  • Differentiate one product per semester
  • Find multiple resources for a couple of key parts
    of your curriculum
  • Give students more choices about how to work, how
    to express learning or which homework assignments
    to do
  • Develop and use a two day learning contract, then
    a 4 day, etc.

47
  • You cannot differentiate everything for everyone
    every day!
  • Differentiation is an organized yet flexible way
    of proactively adjusting teaching and learning to
    meet kids where they are and help them to achieve
    maximum growth as learners.
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