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Sustaining Community Projects: Logic Model Construction and Implementation


Sustaining Community Projects: Logic Model Construction and Implementation CYFAR Evaluation Team CYFAR, 2005 Introduction Across the United States there are a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustaining Community Projects: Logic Model Construction and Implementation

Sustaining Community Projects Logic Model
Construction and Implementation
  • CYFAR Evaluation Team
  • CYFAR, 2005

  • Across the United States there are a multitude of
    programs designed to improve the quality of life
    for individuals, families, and communities.
  • Evaluation is essential for successful
    programming to document what happens in the
    program, demonstrate which strategies work best,
    and assess the short-term and long-term outcomes
    of the program.

  • Understanding how a program achieves results is
    critical to determine if program elements should
    be modified and provide stakeholders with
    evidence that the program is effective.
  • Evaluation theory provides the basic conceptual
    framework for thinking about problems and how
    change should occur.
  • Logic models provide valuable ways to organize
    that thinking around evaluation theory.

Logic Model
  • Program theory articulates program impact and
    program processes.
  • Logic models provide a visual picture of program
    theory in action (Mancini, Huebner, McCollum and
    Marek, 2005).
  • Of primary importance in developing logic models
    is establishing and maintaining a focus on
    results rather than on activities.

  • Logic models help program professionals,
    evaluators and stakeholders reach consensus about
    which elements are essential to the program
    (Millar, Simeone, Carnevale, 2001 Orthner
    Bowen, 2004).
  • Consequently program professionals and
    researchers are more able to identify faulty or
    implausible links early on.

SCP Logic Model
  • The logic model you are asked to complete
    includes five elements Identified needs and
    assets, Desired results (short-term and
    long-term), Indicators (short-term and
    long-term), Activities, and Resources.
  • These are found on the Logic Model Template

  • Desired Results Worksheets are provided to help
    you detail information necessary to describe
    anticipated results.
  • An Analysis column is included on the Desired
    Results Worksheets that allows you to discuss how
    you will analyze the data that are collected.
  • To assist you in completing your Program Logic
    Model, please refer to the sample logic model of
    the After School Program.

Step 1 Identified Needs and Assets
  • The first step is to identify needs and assets in
    the community which allow program personnel to
    clearly identify and understand the issues.
  • Because this is the basis for the entire program,
    it is important to use accurate and valid
    information rather than uninformed hunches.
  • Be sure to look at needs and assets at many
    levels, from the community systems such as
    health, education, legal, etc. to families and to

  • Needs and assets analysis is a systematic way of
    gathering information that helps set priorities
    for action while also recognizing the assets that
    already exist in a community.
  • In the logic model process the information that
    evaluators are gathering to understand severity
    of a problem also assists them in determining
    program priorities, and results that accrue from
    program activities.
  • Census data, observations, records and existing
    data bases, and literature reviews are sources of
    existing information to identify needs and assets
    (Witkin Altshuld, 1995).

Step 2 Desired Results
  • The second step in the logic model process is to
    articulate the desired result or change you
    expect to see because of your program.
  • This is arguably the most important aspect of a
    logic model because it provides the focus that
    all successful programs need.
  • At the completion of the program, what will be

  • Results should be defined as short-term and long-
  • Specifying results is useful because it enables
    program professionals to have a more realistic
    sense of how parts of the program theory fit, and
    what can reasonably be expected to change over a
    specific time period.
  • Demonstrated results are not expected to be
    documented by following the same participants for
    five years, but rather are focused on all
    participants, or each group, as they complete
    participation in programs.

Short-Term Results
  • Changes in knowledge, attitudes, and/or behaviors
    that are anticipated as a result of participating
    in programs can be considered short-term results.
  • These results should be reported at the end of
    each of the five years.

Long-Term Results
  • System change or changes in organizations,
    community capacity, program support, and/or
    program sustainability may be considered
    long-term results.
  • Progress toward long-term results can be reported
    for each or any of the five years but MUST be
    reported in year 5.

Step 3 Indicators
  • Indicators flow logically from the desired
    results. How will you know if the results have
    been achieved, with what evidence?
  • By determining program indicators, program
    activities and results can be measured and
    tracked. Consequently notions, hunches, hearsay,
    and anecdotes are not good indicator candidates.

  • Indicators can be far-ranging, including results
    from surveys and focus groups, agency
    administrative data, population data, as well as
    other measures (DeVellis, 2003 McKillip, 1998).
  • Evaluation Work Sheets are included to help you
    specify program indicators for each of your
    program goals.

Step 4 Activities
  • Activities describe programs that are implemented
    to achieve the desired results.
  • Program activities become important only when
    they are linked to desired results (Bowen et al.,
  • Attention to the choice of programs, research
    upon which it is based, population to be served
    and critical elements of successful programs must
    all be considered.
  • By referring to the Guiding Principles for the
    National Outcome that you have chosen for your
    project, you will be assisted in determining
    appropriate activities for your projects based
    upon the desired results that you have determined.

Step 5 Resources
  • Resources include the people, stakeholders,
    curricula, spaces, approvals, funds and anything
    else needed to conduct the activities to achieve
    the desired results to meet the identified needs
    and capitalize on the available assets.

Monitoring and Evaluation
  • An important part of the logic model is how the
    intervention will be monitored and evaluated,
    including program implementation and its intended
  • Monitoring and evaluation permeate all parts of a
    logic model.

  • There are multiple objectives for monitoring and
  • to identify the initial extent of need
  • to track how the need may change over time
  • to document how well program implementation
    protocols are being followed
  • to mark progress toward achieving results
  • to know when results have been met and
  • to discern how resource use has supported
    particular program efforts and subsequent results.

Logic Model Work Sheets
  • The Logic Model Work Sheets allow you to put your
    Program Logic Model to work for you.
  • These worksheets are provided to help you
    identify the anticipated results (short-term and
    long-term) for your program as well as
  • You will also need to detail the data collection
    process sources of data, time of collection, and
    method of collection.
  • Finally, you will also note the analyses you
    anticipate conducting.

  • Please refer to the Program Logic Model Example
    for more detail on how you can complete these
    sheets for your project.
  • For example, in the sample logic model, the
    Short-Term Desired Result Work Sheet shows the
    indicators or evidence for knowledge, attitude,
    and/or behavior change.
  • The work sheet clearly shows what data are
    needed, when it will be collected, by whom, and
    how it will be analyzed.
  • Completion of these evaluation work sheets will
    guide the entire data collection, analysis and
    reporting processes over the course of the

Logic Model Template
Identified Needs and Assets
Indicators Short Term Long-term
Results Short Term Long-term
Note Monitoring and evaluation activities
permeate all aspects of the logic model.
Example of Logic Model and Work Sheets
  • The following provides an illustration and
    application of the logic model using an after
    school program as the example.
  • This example is designed to stimulate your
    thinking about how to most effectively integrate
    your plan with this results-oriented logic model
  • We anticipate that your logic model will contain
    more detail and be more comprehensive.

  • The Logic Model is based upon the School-Age
    (K-8) national outcome.
  • The example shows the relationships between the
    identified needs and assets, the short-term and
    long-term desired results, indicators, activities
    and resources.
  • The following work sheets for the Short-Term and
    Long-Term Desired Results provide further details
    regarding the indicators, including the sources
    of data, times and methods of data collection,
    followed by planned analyses.

Step 1 Identified Needs and Assets
  • Lack of parental monitoring after school
  • Many children in park and on streets in groups
    after school
  • Church building available for program use
  • Low homework completion rates among 3rd to 5th

Step 2 Desired Results
  • Short-Term
  • Homework completion rates for children in grades
    3-5 will increase
  • Parents will gain knowledge of after school
  • Parents will gain knowledge of the importance of
    parental monitoring

Step 2 Desired Results
  • Long-Term
  • Community support for after school programs will
    be sustained
  • Parents will monitor their children

Step 3 Indicators
  • Short-Term
  • Attendance rate at after school program
  • Increased rates of homework completion
  • Increased parental requests for after school
  • Long-Term
  • Community collaboration and support for space
    rental, staff training, recruitment, parent
    education and funding
  • Fewer children on streets in park after school

Step 4 Activities
  • Develop and implement a structured tutoring
  • Develop and implement a multi-component after
    school program, including recreation
  • Develop community media campaign on importance of
    parental monitoring and after school care
  • Educate school, faith and business communities
    about importance of after school programs through
    information sessions

Step 5 Resources
  • School, faith business community leaders
  • Parents
  • Children in K-5
  • Staff time of existing organizations
  • Local media cooperation
  • Grant funds

Work Sheet Completion Short-Term Desired
  • Homework completion rates for children in grades
    3-5 will increase.
  • Short-Term Indicator Homework completion rates
    in grades 3, 4, 5.
  • Source of Data Teachers classroom records.
  • Time of Collection These records are currently
    kept and reported quarterly to parents.
  • Methods of Collection
  • Individuals will be coded for confidentiality.
  • Enrollment in the after school program will be
    coded yes or no, and homework completion rate
    will be reported as percentage of assignments
    turned in.
  • Teachers will report to evaluator each quarter.
  • Data Analysis
  • Completion rates for each participant will be
    compared to the rate for the previous year using
    paired t-tests.
  • Completion rates for children who are and are not
    in the after school program will be compared.

Work Sheet Completion Long-Term Desired Results
  • Community support for after school programs will
    be sustained.
  • Long-Term Indicators
  • Increased community collaboration membership
  • Increased sources of fiscal responsibility for
  • Source of Data Collaboration meeting minutes,
    Annual budget and financial sources for program,
    Administrator interviews
  • Time of Collection Prior to program
    implementation and annually thereafter.
  • Media and other relevant materials to be
    collected or documented in a portfolio as they
  • Methods of Collection
  • Project evaluator and director will work together
    to document and collect minutes of collaboration
    meetings and other key events that influence
    system change and stakeholder involvement.
  • Portfolios will be used to document progress.
  • Data Analysis
  • Formative evaluation during the first two years
    of the program will help refine and direct
    efforts at building community support.
  • Evaluator will report at least bi-annually to the
    collaboration on progress made and key areas that
    need to be strengthened.