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THE CELL

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THE CELL * * Animal Cell nucleolus chromatin nucleoplasm ribosome lysosome mitochondrion cell membrane cytoplasm rough endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Golgi ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE CELL


1
THE CELL
2
Animal Cell
rough endoplasmic reticulum
nucleolus
Golgi apparatus
nuclear membrane
Golgi vesicle
nucleus
chromatin
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
nucleoplasm
ribosome
lysosome
vacuole
mitochondrion
cell membrane
centrioles
cytoplasm
3
Plant Cell
vacuole
chloroplast
cell wall
rough endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondrion
chromatin
ribosome
cell membrane
nucleoplasm
cytoplasm
nucleolus
4
Structures of a CellHow many do you
remember?Close all books and notes )
cell wall
ribosomes
cilia / flagellum
nuclear membrane
large vacuole
cell membrane
cytoskeleton
cytoplasm
small vacuole
centrioles
nucleolus
secretory vesicles
mitochondria
lysosome
Golgi apparatus
chloroplast
nucleoplasm (chromosomes)
nuclear pores
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
rough endoplasmic reticulum
5
ANIMAL CELL
PLANT CELL
6
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  • 8. 18.
  • 9. 19.
  • 10. 20.

nucleolus
ribosomes
nucleoplasm (chromosomes)
cytoskeleton
nuclear pores
cell membrane
nuclear membrane
cell wall
small vacuole
centrioles
secretory vesicles
large vacuole
lysosome
Golgi apparatus
chloroplast
mitochondria
cilia / flagellum
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
cytoplasm
rough endoplasmic reticulum
7
VIDEO
8
The Cell Membrane (also called Plasma Membrane)
  • The cell membrane is made up of two layers of
    phospholipids.
  • One Phospholipid Molecule
  • polar head (dissolve in water or soluble in
    water)
  • non polar tails (do not dissolve in water or
    insoluble in
  • water)
  •  
  • Therefore, the head is attracted to water and the
    tails are not attracted to water.

9
The Cell Membrane
  • Aside from phospholipids, the cell membrane also
    contains many other molecules such as
    carbohydrates and proteins.

protein channel - tunnels that allow water or
specific small ions in/out of cell
10
Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane
  • The cell membrane is a mosaic because it is made
    up of many pieces, just like a mosaic. It is
    fluid because of the phospholipid structure.

carbohydrate
integral protein
peripheral protein
phospholipid
phopholipid bilayer
fatty acid tails
phosphate head
protein channel
11
The Cell Membrane
The plasma membrane regulates what enters and
leaves the cell.
12
General Structure of a Cell
Cells are the basic structural and functional
units of life. Cells are bathed in an aqueous
solution called extracellular fluid. There are
many different kinds of cells, which are
specialized to carry out particular functions. In
spite of this, cells have many common features.
September 4, 2020
12
13
Cell Part Plant, animal or both Function
cell membrane semi-permeable controls what enters/leaves composed of phospholipid bilayer, proteins, carbohydrates
cell wall tough rigid outer boundary protection
cytoplasm fluid that the cell organelles are suspended in
make proteins

both
plant


both
ribosomes

both
14
Cell Part Plant, animal or both Function
smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) canals throughout cytoplasm to transport materials make fats
canals with ribosomes attached (area for protein synthesis)
Golgi apparatus stacks of membranes which modify protein for secretion (export) packages them into vesicles
lysosomes contain enzymes (proteins) that can break down molecules (food, bacteria, wastes, the cell itself)
both

both
rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)


both

animal
15
Cell Part Plant, anim or both Function
mitochondria powerhouse of the cell produces energy (cellular respiration)
chloroplast free-floating membrane-bound sac where photosynthesis occurs
large (plants), small (animals) membrane-bound sacs filled with water turgor pressure

both
plant

vacuoles

both
genetic material contains instruction for what proteins to make
both
DNA/chromatin/chromosome

16
Cell Part Plantanimal or both Function
control centre of the cell directs all of the cells activities
nuclear membrane (1.) porous double membrane separates nucleus from cytoplasm
nucleoplasm (2.) a mixture of chemicals that stores information rich in nucleic acids
nucleolus (3.) dense body in the centre of the nucleus thought to make ribosomes
nucleus
both


both
both

both

17
Organelles and Digestion
There are several organelles involved in the
process of digestion. Some vesicles formed in
the Golgi apparatus are called lysosomes.
Lysosomes are found only in animal cells.
Lysosomes contain special proteins called enzymes
which help them digest food by breaking it down
into its building blocks. Food particles brought
into the cell (through the cell membrane) from
extracellular fluid may be digested this way.
Potentially harmful microorganisms, such as
bacteria and viruses can force themselves into a
cell. Lysosomes can digest the harmful organisms
so the cell is not harmed. When an animal cell
gets old, lysosomes break open and decompose the
entire cell. The organism then uses the
resulting compounds to build new cells.
18
Organelles and Cellular Respiration
There is one main organelle involved in the
process of cellular respiration. Many important
chemical reactions occur in the mitochondria.
These reactions contribute to cellular
respiration, a series of chemical changes that
produce compounds that cells use as a source of
energy. Cells that require large amounts of
energy, such as muscle cells in animals and root
tip cells in plants, usually contain large
numbers of mitochondria. Cells that do not
require large amounts of energy, such as most fat
cells in animals and leaf cells in plants, have
smaller numbers of mitochondria.
19
Organelles and Protein Synthesis
There are several organelles involved in the
process of protein synthesis. Ribosomes are
organelles used by the cell to produce proteins
(protein synthesis). Ribosomes are either
floating in the cytoplasm or attached to
membranes (ER). Free-floating ribosomes produce
proteins that are used inside the cell, and
membrane-attached ribosomes manufacture proteins
for use outside the cell. Ribosomes are so small
that they appear as small fuzzy dots under the
microscope. The endoplasmic reticulum is a
complicated system of membranous tubes and canals
that connect with the nuclear envelope. There are
two types of endoplasmic reticulum rough
endoplasmic reticulum (RER), containing attached
ribosomes, and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
(SER), with no ribosomes. Because the RER
contains ribosomes, many proteins are
manufactured in it.
20
General Structure of a Cell
  • Homework
  • page 15 2, 3, 4, 6
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