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The Characteristics of Living Things

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Title: The Characteristics of Living Things


1
The Characteristics of Living Things
2
The Characteristics of Living Things
  • Great Complexity Organization
  • Composed of Cells
  • Reproduction Development
  • Mechanism for Inheritance
  • Metabolism Homeostasis
  • Interaction with the Environment
  • Evolution (Adaptation)

3
Great Complexity and Organization
  • Living things are made of the same materials as
    everything else in the universe
  • are assembled into molecules
  • Living things are more organized , more complex
  • Living things require energy to carry out life
    processes

4
The Hierarchy of Life
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Organelles
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organ Systems
  • Organisms
  • Populations
  • Communities
  • Ecosystems
  • Biosphere

5
Atoms
proton
neutron
electron
hydrogen atom
helium atom
carbon atom
1p, 0n, 1e-
2p, 2n, 2e-
6p, 6n, 6e-
6
Some Elements
7
Simple Inorganic Molecules
  • Water (H2O)
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Molecular Oxygen (O2)
  • Ammonium (NH3)
  • Sodium Chloride (NaCl)

8
Biological Compounds
Categories
Lipids
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
9
Organic Building Block Molecules
Simple Sugars (e.g., glucose C6H12O6) Amino
Acids (e.g., glycine C2H5O2N) Nucleotide
Bases (e.g., adenine C5H5N4)
10
Cell Organelles
nucleus
smooth ER
mitochondria
rough ER
golgi
11
Cells
Nerve cell
Osteocyte
Muscle cell
Blood cell
12
Levels of Body Organization
13
Organisms
14
Populations
15
Communities
16
Ecosystems
17
The Biosphere
18
Levels of Sturctural Organization
19
Prokaryotic Cell
20
Eukaryotic Animal Cell
21
Eukaryotic Plant Cell
22
Classification Six kingdom system

Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
E. coli
Cyanobacteria
Protista
Paramecium
Diatom
Slime mold
Plantae
Fungi
Animalia
23
Asexual Reproduction
Coral polyp budding
24
Sexual Reproduction
25
Both Sexual Asexual
26
Development
27
DNA
Contains information for almost all cell
activities
28
Metabolism
  • The sum total of the chemical processes that
    occur in living organisms, resulting in growth,
    production of energy, elimination of waste
    material, etc.
  • Anabolism- build up of complex molecules
  • Catabolism- break down of complex molecules

29
Cellular Respiration
  • C6H12O6 6O2 ? 6H2O 6CO2 energy

30
Photosynthesis
  • 6H2O 6CO2 light ? C6H12O6 6O2

31
  • Autotrophs
  • Organisms that make their own food (like plants,
    some protists, and some bacteria)
  • Plants capture energy from the sun, use water and
    carbon dioxide to make sugars and starches

Photosynthesis
Chemosynthesis
32
  • Heterotrophs
  • Organisms that take in food to meet their energy
    needs
  • Animals must consume autotrophs (plants), and
    other heterotrophs to meet their energy needs

33
Is a Coral a Heterotroph or Autotroph?
34
(No Transcript)
35
Homeostasis
  1. Maintenance of constant internal conditions in
    varying environments
  2. Adaptation of organisms to specific environments

36
Homeostasis
Three big problems
  1. Obtaining energy and nutrients
  2. Maintaining temperature
  3. Obtaining and holding onto water

37
Body Temperature Regulation
38
Temperature Control
  • Ectotherms (Poikilotherms)
  • Generate body heat metabolically, but cannot
    maintain constant internal body temperature
  • Body temperature mimics the surrounding
    environment

39
Ectotherms
  • Most ectotherms regulate their body temperature
    by
  • basking
  • moving between shade/sun
  • being active at certain times of day

40
Temperature Control
  • Endotherms (homeothermic)
  • Generate body heat metabolically and body
    temperature does not match the temperature of the
    surrounding environment
  • These organisms retain metabolic heat and can
    control metabolism to maintain a constant
    internal temperature

41
Interaction with the environment
  • Living things interact with each other and with
    the environment
  • Ecology the study of these interactions
  • Hawaiian Monk seals eat fish
  • Humans eat fish
  • What if something happened to the fish?

42
Interaction with the Environment
43
Evolution
Change in the genetic composition of a population
through time
44
Evolution
  • Inherited change in the characteristics of
    organisms over time
  • Living things are slowly changing
  • Process of natural selection results in change
    over time
  • Organisms with favorable genes are more likely to
    survive, reproduce, and pass on those favorable
    genes

45
Mechanisms Contributing to Evolutionary Change
  • Production of heritable variations
  • Natural Selection
  • Chance

46
Heredity
  • Transmission of characteristics from parent to
    offspring
  • Instructions from parent to offspring are passed
    on in the form of genes

47
Heritable variations
Banding pattern
Dwarfism
Eye color
Beak Depth
Blood type
48
Adaptations
The structural, functional, and behavioral
features that contribute to the success of a
species.
49
Natural Selection
  • Peppered Moths study in England 1800s More
    light than dark moths
  • Industrial pollution turned trees dark
  • Population shifted to mostly dark moths

Peppered Moth Exercise http//www.techapps.net/int
eractives/pepperMoths.swf
50
Natural Selection
51
Inquiry
1. Define Homeostasis, photoautotroph,
chemoautotroph, heterotroph 2. What is a group
of different organisms living in the same
geographic are called? 3. What 3 features do
plant cells have that animal cells dont? 4.
Which 4 elements make up living things? 5. What
is the equation for photosynthesis?
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