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Chemical Bonding

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Chemical Bonding combining of atoms of elements to form new substances ability to bond depends on valence e-bonding occurs if the bond will give both atoms stability ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chemical Bonding


1
Chemical Bonding
  • combining of atoms of elements to form new
    substances
  • ability to bond depends on valence e-
  • bonding occurs if the bond will give both atoms
    stability (8 valance e- or 2 valence e-)
  • atoms will gain/lose or share e-

2
IONIC BONDING
  • involves a transfer of electrons
  • by gaining/losing e-, atoms become or
  • formed between a metal and a nonmetal

3
IONIC BONDING
4
COVALENT BONDING
  • bonding that shares e-
  • occurs between nonmetals
  • neither want to lose e-, both want to gain e- to
    be stable

5
Lewis Dot/Electron Dot Notation
  • Na
  • B
  • C
  • O
  • F

6
Ionic Bonding
  • NaCl
  • KF
  • CsI

7
Covalent Bonding
  • H2
  • F2
  • O2
  • N2

8
POLAR COVALENT BOND
  1. the electrons shared by the atoms spend a greater
    amount of time closer to one particular atom
  2. This creates a partial negative end and a partial
    positive end

9
Electronegativity Bond Type
Electronegativity Bond Type Example
0.0-0.49 Nonpolar covalent H-H (0.0)
0.5-1.69 Polar covalent H-Cl (0.9)
gt1.7 Ionic Na-Cl (2.1)
10
METALLIC BOND
  • formed between 2 or more metal atoms
  • metals give up e-, no atoms wants to take the e-
    so they end up forming a common e- cloud

11
METALLIC BOND
  • This common electron cloud is what gives metals
    the properties of
  • malleabilitymakes into sheets
  • conductivity
  • high melting point
  • strong bond
  • ductilemakes into thin wire
  • metallic luster

12
NUMBER OF BONDS BETWEEN ATOMS
  • Single bonds one pair of electrons longest
    bond length weakest bond
  • O H O
  • Double bonds two pairs of electrons
  • OCO
  • Triple bonds three pairs of electrons shortest
    bond length strongest bond

N N
13
INTERMOLECULAR FORCES
  • London Dispersion Forces (Van der Waals Forces)
  • 1. weakest of all intermolecular forces
  • 2. the attractive or repulsive force between
    molecules (or between parts of the same
    molecule)
  • Dipole-Dipole Interactions
  • 1. between polar molecules
  • Hydrogen Bonds
  • 1. strongest of all intermolecular forces
  • 2. hydrogen bonded to a very electronegative
    atom (O,N,F)
  • H F

N N
14
VSEPR
  • Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion
  • A. predicts the shape of individual molecules
    based upon the extent of electron-pair
    electrostatic repulsion
  • B. Double bonds count as one pair of electrons

15
Bond Angle atoms e- pairs unshared e- pairs Example
Linear 180 3 2 0 BeCl2 CO2
Bent 104.5? 3 4 2 H2O
Trigonal Pyrimidal 107 4 4 1 NH3
Tetrahedral 109.5? 5 4 0 CH4
Trigonal Planar 120 4 3 0 BF3
16
SO2
Bent 104.5
17
CO2
Linear 180
18
CF2Cl2
Tetrahedral 109.5
19
NH4
Tetrahedral 109.5
20
O3
Bent 104.5
21
BeCl2
Linear 180
22
H2O
Bent 104.5
23
SO42-
Tetrahedral 109.5
24
NH3
Trigonal Pyrimidal 107
25
CH4
Tetrahedral 109.5
26
BCl3
Trigonal Planar 120
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