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Skills and Technical Training

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... * Summary Need for skilled workers is increasing Entry-level personnel need basic and literacy training Global ... * Computer Training Introductory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Skills and Technical Training


1
Skills and Technical Training
  • Chapter 9

2
Learning objectives
  • Identify and describe basic workplace
    competencies.
  • Explain the need for remedial basic skills
    training programs.
  • Explain the role of apprenticeship programs in
    todays work environment.
  • Describe a typical technical skills training
    program.
  • Describe a typical interpersonal skills training
    program.

3
Emerging Needs in the Workplace
  • Skilled workers
  • Professional employees
  • Problem solving
  • Decision making
  • Team members
  • Interpersonal skills

4
Three Categories of Skills Training
  • Basic skills/literacy education
  • Upgrading reading, writing, and arithmetic
  • Technical training
  • Upgrading a wide range of skills
  • Interpersonal skills training
  • Communication and teamwork

5
Categories of Skills and Technical Training
Quality training
6
The Skills Gap
  • The difference between the skill requirements of
    available jobs and the skills possessed by job
    applicants
  • Some people think that the skills gap is
    perpetuated by four-year, liberal arts education

7
Factors Affecting Skills Gap
  • Declining skill levels of many high school and
    college graduates
  • Growing number of minority and non-English
    speaking immigrant workers
  • Increased sophistication of jobs

8
Basic Skills/Literacy Programs
  • Prose literacy
  • Ability to understand and use information from
    texts
  • Document literacy
  • Ability to locate and use information contained
    in non-textual materials
  • Qualitative literacy
  • Ability to apply arithmetic operations

9
In-House Literacy Programs
  • If schools dont do it, companies must.
  • Two characteristics are common
  • Aptitude tests
  • Small-group or one-on-one tutoring

10
Problems with Basic Skills Training Programs
  • HRD professionals think the lack of literacy is a
    problem that affects many people.
  • Management tends to think that lack of literacy
    is a problem, but affects only a few people.

11
Federal Support for Basic Skills Training
  • 19832000 Job Training and Partnership Act
    (JTPA)
  • Provided funding to private training institutes
    and industry
  • Problems included fraud and too focused on a
    narrow population
  • One of 150 federal programs that cost a lot of
    money and produced little

12
Federal Support for Basic Skills Training 2
  • 2000present Workforce Investment Act
  • Consolidated more than 70 existing programs
  • Gave greater control at the local level
  • Gave greater accountability to training providers

13
Federal Support for Basic Skills Training
(Malaysia)
  • Pembangunan Sumber Manusia Act (2001)
  • The purpose is to ensure employers to conduct
    training for their work to upgrade their skills
    and abilities
  • Employer are required to pay a monthly levy into
    HRDF
  • They can apply reimbursement send /organizing
    the approval training.

14
Federal Support for Basic Skills Training
(Malaysia)/2
  • The Skills Development Act 2004/The National
    Skills Development Act 2006
  • The purpose is to establish a fund for the
    purpose of granting loans to trainee who attend
    approves programmes to develop and upgrade their
    skills
  • National Occupational Skills Standards (NOSS)
    develop the curriculum
  • Trainees who achieve the required competencies
    will be awarded a certificate.

15
Technical Training Programs
  • Apprenticeship training
  • Computer training
  • Skills/knowledge training
  • Safety training
  • Quality training

16
Apprenticeship Training
  • Provide skills to meet continually changing job
    requirements
  • Regulated by the Office of Apprenticeship
    Training, Employer and Labor Services (OATELS),
    formerly called the Bureau of Apprenticeship
    Training (BAT)
  • Most require
  • 2000 hours of OJT
  • 144 hours of classroom training
  • Though there may be a lot more hours

17
Major Concerns
  • Learning based on time requirements rather than
    competency
  • Programs isolated from other programs
  • Concentrated in blue-collar occupations
  • Little concern for post-apprenticeship period

18
Computer Training
  • Introductory
  • Focuses on basic tasks
  • Overcomes fear of computers
  • Applications
  • Specific software used by company
  • Provided as needed for position

19
Computer Training Issues
  • Self-Efficacy
  • Individuals belief that he/she can successfully
    perform the task
  • Cognitive Playfulness
  • Spontaneity, imagination, and exploratory
    approach brought to learning
  • Training Format

20
Technical/Skills Training
  • Most are specific to job, process, or equipment
  • Can be general, such as new policies and
    procedures on waste disposal

21
Different Levels of Skills Training
  • Entry-level
  • Basic skills and procedures
  • Advanced Training
  • Update employee skills
  • Specific skills improvement
  • New equipment/procedure training

22
Safety Training
  • Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA)
  • Establishes safety standards
  • Conducts safety inspections
  • Grants safety variances as appropriate
  • Cites violations

23
Safety Program Needs
  • Top management support and reinforcement
  • Employee involvement
  • Regular and recurrent safety training
  • Effective safety monitoring

24
Safety Training Needs for Production Workers
  • Recognizing, avoiding and preventing unsafe
    conditions
  • How to use/handle dangerous machinery, tools, and
    substances
  • Use of protective clothing, systems, and devices
  • Controlling hazards of any type

25
Quality Training
  • Quality providing the product the customer
    needs when s/he needs it, at a cost the customer
    thinks is reasonable
  • Need to provide a continuous quality improvement
    program
  • Employees need to know basic statistics to
    implement most quality improvement programs

26
Quality Improvement Concerns

SOURCE Mandal, P., Howell, A. Sohal, A. S.
(1998). A systemic approach to quality
improvements The interactions between the
technical, human and quality systems. Total
Quality Management, 9, 7999.
27
Total Quality Management
  • Fundamental Skills
  • Employees must be able to work in teams
  • Employees must be able to collect, analyze, and
    evaluate quantitative data

28
Two Phases for Quality Training
  • Quality Awareness training managers in concept
    of quality improvement
  • In-depth Training
  • Process skills
  • Work coordination, problem solving, conflict
    resolution
  • Quality skills
  • Techniques and tools to improve quality

29
Needs for Quality Training
  • Must be comprehensive
  • Include both process and quality skills
  • Needs continual and positive follow-up
  • Training is not enough! You need management
    commitment, employee involvement, rewards, and
    integrated performance evaluation

30
Quality Training and ISO 9000
  • International quality standards
  • Three phases
  • Document writing
  • Implementation
  • Includes company-wide training
  • Systems effectiveness assessment

31
Interpersonal Skills Training
  • Skills needed to work with other people
  • Communication
  • Customer relations
  • Selling
  • Teamwork

32
Most Common Interpersonal Skills Training
  • Team building
  • Listening skills
  • Delegation skills

33
Why Interpersonal Skills Training is Needed
  • Increased use of team-based approach to
    accomplishing work
  • Entrants into workforce lack needed skills
  • High school, college and graduate-level
  • Increasingly multicultural workplace
  • Global economy

34
Sales Training
  • Goals
  • Increased team productivity
  • Lower turnover
  • Enhanced communication within and between all
    organizational levels
  • Better morale
  • Increased self-management of sales teams
  • Better customer relations

35
Customer Relations/Service Training
  • Introduce customer service training throughout
    organization
  • Train frontline personnel in interpersonal skills
    and operational practices
  • Train service managers in coaching and enforcing
    service standards
  • Provide incentives

36
Team Building/Training
  • Increased use of teams as basic organizational
    element
  • Two sets of team-related skills
  • Task Skills skills needed for accomplishing a
    teams work objectives
  • Process Skills how to work in a team and
    maintain team relationships

37
Four Models of Team Building
Interpersonal Relations
An increase in teamwork skills (mutual
supportiveness, communication, sharing ideas)  
Become involved in action planning for the
solution of problems, as well as implementing and
evaluating the solutions  
SOURCE Salas, E., Rozell, D., Mullen, B.,
Driskell, J. E. (1999). The effect of team
building on performance An integration. Small
Group Research, 30, 309329.
38
Variables to Increase Team Effectiveness
SOURCE Werner, J. M., Lester, S. W. (2001).
Applying a team effectiveness framework to the
performance of student case teams. HRD Quarterly,
12(4), 385402.
39
Role of Labor Unions in Training
  • Joint Training Programs
  • Most common are safety and health, job skills,
    communication skills, and displaced worker
    assistance
  • Many other programs are job- and company-specific

40
Professional Development and Education
  • Earning and maintaining licensure and
    certification in a field of work
  • Periodic need for continuing education

41
Providers of Continuing Education
  • Colleges and universities
  • Professional associations
  • Company-sponsored continuing education efforts

42
Colleges and Universities
  • Substantive expertise available
  • Courses might be tailored to job/profession
  • Organizations can choose instructors
  • College credit may be earned

43
Professional Associations
  • Conferences, workshops, meetings
  • Journals, magazines, newsletters
  • Pre-certification and post-certification workshops

44
Company-Sponsored Continuing Education
  • Corporate universities
  • Programs are organization specific
  • Staff can be in-house, out-of-house and retirees
  • Can incorporate latest technology into training

45
HRDs Roles in Continuing Education (CE)
  • Enabler foster effective distribution of CE
    throughout organization
  • Resource Provider tuition aid, compensation for
    travel expenses, professional fees
  • Monitor assess CE to ensure professional
    development process is working as desired

46
Summary
  • Need for skilled workers is increasing
  • Entry-level personnel need basic and literacy
    training
  • Global economy and multicultural issues need to
    be addressed
  • Professional growth must be supported
  • Need to be proactive in the face of changing
    technology
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