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Culture: management cross-culture

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Concepts & Implications Culture, Concepts & Implications Prof. Dr Majed El-Farra * 3) European model with its incorporation of several elements including, social ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Culture: management cross-culture


1
Culture management cross-culture
  • Concepts Implications

2
Questions
  • What is org. culture?
  • What is management cross-culture?
  • Which is better American or Palestinian Style of
    Management?

3
Meeting Objectives
  • 1- To know your identity better.
  • 2- To coop better with multicultural environment.
  • 3- To be aware how culture shape business
    identity.
  • 4- To realize how org. culture shape management
    behavior.

4
Internal Assessment (Contd)
  • Organizational culture can be defined as a
    pattern of behavior developed by an organization
    as it learns to cope with its problem of external
    adaptation and internal integration that has
    worked well enough to be considered valid and to
    be taught to new members as the correct way to
    perceive, think, and feel. Remarkably resistant
    to change, culture can represent a major strength
    or weakness for the firm.

5
Internal Assessment (Contd)
  • culture
  • cultural products include values, beliefs,
    rituals, ceremonies, myths, stories, legends,
    language, metaphors\images, symbols, heroes, and
    heroines.
  • Organizational culture significantly affects
    business decisions and thus, must be evaluated
    during an internal strategic-management audit.

6
What is culture?
  • A socially organized process and a collectively
    validated product.
  • How we do things around here.
  • The glue that hangs every thing together in a
    meaningful way for a particular group of people.
  • Culture for a group what personality is for an
    individual i.e. a source of identity.

7
What is culture?
  • An heritage deeply rooted in history.
  • What a group of people have in common, and that
    distinguishes them from other groups.
  • Both a differentiating device and an integrating
    device.
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    ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???.
  • ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????????
    ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???.

8
Types of Culture
  • Macro-culture, at people level
  • Organization Culture, related to the internal
    culture of the organization.
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    ???????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ???
    ????????.
  • ?? ??? ????? ????? ????????
  • ????? ?? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ???

9
Types of Org. Cultures
  • 1- Blue-type culture USA, UK, German, Canada,
    low context culture
  • 2- Green-type culture Africa, French, Spain,
    Arab countries, Asian countries. High context
    culture

10
Competencies of Blue-type
  • 1- Clarity of authority responsibility,
    communication channels.
  • 2- Transparency
  • 3- Structures processes
  • 4- Task focus
  • 5- Objectives driven
  • 6- Quick decisions decentralized
  • 8- Replaceability of individuals

11
Investigates of Blue-type criticisms
  • 1- Machine-like
  • 2- Overly structure, managed and controlled
  • 3- planning religion
  • 4- Doing thinks right gt Doing right things
  • 5- De-motivating for individuals

12
Competencies of Green-type
  • 1- Flexibility Seize opportunities
  • 2- Innovation
  • 3- People driven Relationship focus
  • 4- Long-term horizon
  • 5- Encourage cooperation and networking
  • 6- Promote commitment and loyalty

13
Pathologies of Green-type
  • 1- Confusion and chaos
  • 2- Duplication of Efforts
  • 3- Over-reliance on hierarchy and status
  • 4- Over-centralization
  • 5- Overly dependent on specific actors
  • 6- Hard to change
  • 7- Lack of concern for the short term.

14
Which culture is better (in terms of its
reflection on management?)
  • No one can claim that his culture is better from
    another, since all cultures managed to develop
    success economies corporations by practicing
    their own management styles based on their own
    culture.
  • What they should do?
  • Knowing themselves better and learn from others.
    How happens?

15
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16
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20
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21
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22
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24
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26
American perception of the French
  • Superiority Attitude
  • Class system managers are princely group-workers
    are serfs
  • The French dont manage people they just dictate.
    They never fire anyone, employees stay for life
  • They demean and insult their employees in front
    of peers

27
American perception of the French
  • They dont adhere to schedules very well.
  • No sense of urgency
  • Inability to separate personal feelings from the
    actual business.
  • Strong chain of command
  • More open about globalization
  • Lack of objectivity, reports are biased

28
American perception of the French
  • The French abide by gentlemens agreement, they
    abide by spirit and intent of the agreement.
  • Protocol is important in France,
  • In US what does it take to get the job done?
  • French use a lot of body language/facial
    expressions, sometimes interpreted negatively.

29
American perception of the French
  • French are more talkative and emotional

30
Features of Arab Management
  • 1- Status and seniority significantly outweigh
    ability and performance
  • 2- Low level of delegation
  • 3- Authoritarian management style
  • 4- Decision-making is pushed upwards
  • 5- Decisions are renegotiable at later time
  • 6- Absence of Western-style of democratic systems
  • 7- Consultative style of decision-making are
    dominant, and conducted on a person-to-person
    basis

31
Features of Arab Management
  • 8- Management is reactive and crisis oriented
  • 9- High level of uncertainty at work
  • 10- Strong preference of a person-oriented
    approach rather than a task oriented approach.
  • 11- Nepotism is regarded as natural and
    acceptable
  • 12- Value loyalty over efficiency
  • 13- Punctuality and time are of much less concern
  • 14- Patriarchy society, the dominance of the
    father

32
Palestinian Management
  • 1- Living under occupation caused uncertainty
  • 2- Manager does not plan for long periods of
    time, the focus is on daily operations
  • 3- Lack of accuracy in forecasting and analysis
  • 4- Centralized and authoritative

33
Approaches of Management
  1. The American classical school of management
    strongly emphasis on marketing, strategy, and the
    competitive model
  2. Japanese approach with its emphasis on management
    science and the disciplines of statistical
    process control, based on the practical
    experience of managing production and operations

34
Approaches of Management
  • 3) European model with its incorporation of
    several elements including, social, democratic
    practices, philosophy and political process
  • 4) The Arab management with its influenced with
    Islam, social and political life in the Arab
    world.

35
Factors influence managerial behavior in Arab
World
  1. The distinctive characteristics of Arab
    organizations bus. Size, family role, limited
    job market, its influences on employee
    advancement.
  2. The cultural dimensions Three factors

36
The cultural dimensions
  • Traditional religious values influenced
    management behavior in delegation, superiority.
  • Arab value system Aspects fatalism versus free
    well, shame versus guilt, dictation by history
    prevent searching for new models.
  • Socio-economic and political factors education
    system, role of family, politics.

37
Management characteristics in Gazas
manufacturing establishments
  • The results were based on field work
  • Question 1, how employees consider their direct
    managers?
  • (94) of subordinates perceive their bosses as
    Godfathers
  • Question 2, is there an encouragement to the
    employees at your establishment for innovation
    and initiation in order to develop work
    performance?
  • (92) said that subordinates were rarely or never
    encouraged to innovate or initiate at work. May
    be attributed to the authoritarian style of
    leadership. 84 said that there is low trust
    between management and subordinates.

38
Management characteristics in Gazas
manufacturing establishments
  • Question 3, what is the degree of management
    commitment to decisions made at the
    establishment?
  • 68 of research sample said that, all
    made-decisions are renegotiable.
  • Question 4, what is the common criteria used to
    evaluate employees performance at your
    establishment?
  • 88 of research sample believe that personal
    relations is predominant criteria in judging
    employees performance

39
Management characteristics in Gazas
manufacturing establishments
  • Question 5, how does company usually recruit its
    employees?
  • The great majority (70) of companies prefer
    relatives and friends in employment.
  • Question 6, How do you grade the value of time at
    your establishment
  • 74 of research sample do not value time and they
    were not punctual to appointments.
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