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Qualitative Data Analysis

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Strauss, A.L. and Corbin, J. (1990) Basics of Qualitative Research, ... And er, Margaret's engagement ring and she says – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Qualitative Data Analysis


1
Qualitative Data Analysis
  • With QSR NVivo
  • Graham R Gibbs

2
QSR NVivo
  • Developed by Lyn and Tom Richards in Australia.
  • Started as NUD.IST in 1980s. Now NVivo v. 10.

3
NVivo at Huddersfield
  • The University now has a site licence for NVivo.
  • NVivo now on all HHS PC lab computers, classroom
    computers and staff office computers.
  • NVivo available for staff to install on their own
    computer at home. Go to the IT help desk in the
    Library, you will be able to borrow the install
    disk.
  • on the University UniDesktop. NVivo generally
    works well but video playback is far too slow to
    be useable. Other media, such as audio, pdf and
    Word docs are OK

4
(No Transcript)
5
Getting help
  • QSR website
  • Tutorials (also on YouTube)
  • Help system (also from the program)
  • Discussion lists (answered by QSR staff)
  • CAQDAS Networking project, U. Surrey
  • For advanced uses
  • Online QDA
  • For info on basic qualitative data analysis

6
Types of Qualitative analysis
  • Ethnography
  • Analytic Induction
  • Content analysis.
  • Thematic analysis
  • Grounded Theory
  • Phenomenology
  • Narrative and biography
  • Conversation analysis
  • Discourse analysis

7
Induction vs. Deduction
  • Induction - theories and explanations derived
    from the data. Data led
  • Deduction - theories and explanations derived
    from theories and then tested against the data.
    Theory led.
  • Most qualitative analysis approaches are
    inductive (e.g. Grounded Theory, Analytic
    induction).
  • But we can also test theories against our data.

8
Preparation
9
Transcription
  • Kvale warns us to beware of transcripts.
  • Dangers
  • superficial coding
  • decontextualization
  • missing what came before and after the
    respondents account
  • missing what the larger conversation was about
  • Transcription is a change of medium

10
Format of transcript
  • Names. Use capitals for speakers
  • MARY C
  • MARY
  • I
  • or IV
  • or INT
  • In NVivo, keep name of speaker in separate
    paragraph.

11
Anonymisation
  • Names and contextual names (places etc)
  • Keep original with real names, but keep secure.
  • Publish only anonymised versions

12
Prepare text
  • Check for accuracy.
  • Use for missing text
  • Use bribery? for words you are not sure about.
  • Print with wide margins (for next stage, coding)

13
Levels of transcription
  • People dont speak in sentences
  • Repeat themselves
  • Hesitate, stutter
  • Use contractions (dont, coz, etc)
  • Use filler words (like, yknow, er, I mean)
  • Options
  • Just the gist
  • Verbatim
  • Verbatim with dialect
  • Discourse level.

14
Just the gist
  • 90 of my communication is with the Sales
    Director. 1 of his communication is with me. I
    try to be one step ahead, I get things ready,
    because he jumps from one project to another.
    This morning we did Essex, this afternoon we did
    BT, and we haven't even finished Essex yet.(
    indicates omitted speech)

15
Verbatim
  • I dont really know. Ive a feeling that theyre
    allowed to let their emotions show better. I
    think bereavement is part of their religion and
    culture. They tend to be more religious anyway.
    Im not from a religious family, so I dont know
    that side of it.

16
Verbatim with dialect
  • s just that one o staff they wind
    everybody up, I mean, cos I asked for some
    money out o the safe, cos they only keep
    money in the safe s our money so I asked for
    some money and they wouldnt give it me an
    I snatched this tenner what was mine.

17
Conversation analysis
  • Bashir Did you ever (.) personally assist him
    with the writing of his book. (0.8)
  • Princess A lot of people.hhh ((clears throat))
    saw the distress that my life was in. (.) And
    they felt it was a supportive thing to help (0.2)
    in the way that they did.

18
Sources in NVivo
  • Can add
  • Word documents (doc, docx) and editable
  • RTF files (.rtf) and editable
  • PDF files (.pdf)
  • Audio files (.mp3, .wav)
  • Movie files (.wmv, .mp4)
  • Web pages (as pdf via NCapture in IE or Chrome)
  • Survey data (spreadsheet format)

19
Variable data
  • Called attributes in NVivo
  • Attached to cases (normally people)
  • E.g. occupation, gender, age, birth town
  • i.e. categorical data or measurements
  • Sort out cases
  • Put data into a spreadsheet (first column case
    names, first row attribute names, cells
    values)
  • Import as a Classification Sheet.

20
Analysis
21
Thematic Coding
  • Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss Corbin
    Charmaz)
  • Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
    (Jonathon Smith)
  • Template analysis (Nigel King)
  • Framework analysis (Ritchie and Lewis)
  • All are types of thematic analysis.

22
Bryman suggests these stages
  • Stage 1
  • Read the text as a whole, Make notes at the end
  • Look for what it is about
  • Major themes
  • Unusual issues, events etc
  • Group cases into types or categories (may reflect
    research question e.g. male and female)

23
Stage 2. Read again
  • Mark the text (underline, circle, highlight)
  • Marginal notes/ annotations
  • Labels for codes
  • Highlight Key words
  • Note Analytic ideas suggested.

24
Stage 3. Code the text
  • Systematically mark the text
  • Indicate what chunks of text are about themes
    Index them.
  • Review the codes.
  • Eliminate repetition and similar codes (combine)
  • Think of groupings
  • May have lots of different codes (Dont worry at
    early stage can be reduced later)

25
Stage 4. Relate general theoretical ideas to the
text.
  • Coding is only part of analysis
  • You must add your interpretation.
  • Identify significance for respondents
  • Interconnections between codes
  • Relation of codes to research question and
    research literature.

26
Coding in NVivo
  • Codes are known as Nodes
  • Coding to nodes by
  • Select text, then
  • Drag and drop
  • Fast coding bar (with menu of nodes)
  • Menu and dialog box (can code at multiple nodes)

27
How is coding done?
Text
In a village like this ... the young fellows in the village don't seem to have much difficulty when they're out of work a fortnight and they're back again word of mouth, I'd say. Its a different, tricky situation that I'm in I just can't say, Oh, I heard there's a job going on building site, Ill go and have a go for it. I wouldn't be able to do that.
Code

Age contrast
Residence focus
Young find work easily
Word of mouth
Contrast situation
Constrained
28
Applying the codes to the data
  • Need to take code and its definition and apply in
    standard way to the text.
  • Identify chunks of text to which code applies
  • Can be phrases, sentences, several sentences or
    even paragraphs
  • Coded passages may overlap

29
Questions to ask
  • "What is going on?
  • What are people doing?
  • What is the person saying?
  • What do these actions and statements take for
    granted?
  • How do structure and context serve to support,
    maintain, impede or change these actions and
    statements?"
  • (Charmaz 2003 94-95)

30
Coding supports 2 forms of analysis
  • Retrieval
  • Using the coding frame

31
1. Retrieval
  • Retrieve all the text coded with the same label
    all passages about the same phenomenon, idea,
    explanation or activity - Literally cut and paste
  • Used envelopes/files - Now done using software
    retrieval very fast.
  • Enables cross case comparison on same theme.

32
2. Using the coding frame
  • Use the list of codes to examine further kinds of
    analytic questions, e.g.
  • relationships between the codes (and the text
    they code)
  • grouping cases

33
Data driven or concept driven?
  • Inductive or deductive
  • Most qualitative analysis does both
  • i.e. start with some theoretical ideas
  • these derived from literature, research
    brief/questions, interview schedule
  • and
  • discover new ideas, theories, explanations in the
    data.

34
Code list, scheme, frame, template
  • List of codes with definitions
  • Separate from the documents
  • May be hierarchical
  • Used
  • To apply the code in a consistent way.
  • To share codes with others, especially in a team

35
Code Definitions
  • Typically records
  • The label or name of the code.
  • The name of the researcher. (Not needed if you
    are working alone.)
  • Date when coding was done or changed.
  • Definition of the code. Analytic idea it refers
    to.
  • Other notes about the code, e.g.
  • ideas about how it relates to other codes
  • a hunch that the text could be split between two
    different codes.

36
Coding hierarchy
  • Codes can be arranged in a hierarchy
  • e.g. with these codes from a study of friendship
  • Close, generalised friendships
  • Sporting friendships
  • Sports club members
  • Work friends
  • Making new friends - same sex
  • Making new friends - different sex
  • Losing touch with friends
  • Becoming sexual relationships

37
Example code hierarchy
  • Friendship types
  • Close, generalized
  • Sporting
  • Club
  • Non-club
  • Work
  • Changes in Friendship
  • Making new friends
  • New same sex friends
  • New different sex friends
  • Losing touch
  • Becoming sexual relationships

38
Memos
  • Theorizing and commenting about codes as you go
    along
  • Notes to yourself
  • the theorizing write-up of ideas about codes
    and their relationships as they strike the
    analyst while coding it can be a sentence, a
    paragraph or a few pages it exhausts the
    analysts momentary ideation based on data with
    perhaps a little conceptual elaboration.
  • Glaser, B.G. (1978) Theoretical Sensitivity
    Advances in the methodology of grounded theory.
    Mill Valley CA Sociology Press.

39
An Example Memo
  • Word of mouth was mentioned by Harry as important
    for him in searching for work. Several other
    respondents talked about this as a method they
    have used. Two thoughts occur to me.
  • To what extent is this a separate method of
    looking for work, tapping into a network outside
    the formal one of job centres, agencies etc. or
    does it overlap? E.g. is some of the word of
    mouth information about the formal job finding
    agencies?
  • Does it refer to a specific kind of network -
    mates and relatives finding work for those
    looking for it, or is it simply a passing on of
    information that could have been found by those
    looking in newspapers ads etc?
  • Above all it raises issues about networking as a
    way of finding work. Is this an important method?
    Is it effective? Is it more important in certain
    areas of work than others? (e.g. in manual work.)
    Do those with wider social networks have more
    success in finding work this way?
  • Graham Gibbs Friday, April 28, 2000

40
Descriptive vs Analytic/theoretical
  • Descriptive
  • Just what the people said
  • What happened
  • Their terms
  • Analytic
  • Use social science theory
  • Groups codes together
  • Use terms the respondents dont or wouldnt

41
Example of coding
Dancing, Indoor bowling, Dances at works
club, Drive together
Descriptive codes
Joint activities ceased, Joint activities
continuing
Categories
Loss of physical co-ordination, Togetherness,
Doing for, Resignation, Core activity
Analytic codes
42
Example showing coding marks
43
Line-by-line coding
  • Force analytic thinking whilst keeping you close
    to the data
  • Pay close attention to what the respondent is
    actually saying
  • Construct codes that reflect respondent's
    experience of the world

44
Example of line-by-line coding
45
Grounded Theory
  • a qualitative research method that uses a
    systematic set of procedures to develop an
    inductively derived grounded theory about a
    phenomenon.
  • Strauss, A.L. and Corbin, J. (1990) Basics of
    Qualitative Research, Grounded Theory Procedures
    and Techniques. London Sage. p 24

46
Stages of Coding
  • Open Coding,
  • Axial Coding,
  • Selective Coding

47
1. Open Coding
  • the text is read reflectively to identify
    relevant categories or themes,
  • Open, because we have not decided already what we
    are going to find - keep an open mind.
  • In vivo
  • e.g word of mouth, Level 7

48
Constant comparison
  • Newly gathered data are continually compared with
    previously collected data and its coding
  • Compare analytic ideas with other circumstances
  • Used to
  • Refine the development of theoretical categories
  • Test emerging ideas
  • Think about what is different, what is the same,
    what metaphors, ideas, theories, might explain
    the patterns.

49
Constant comparison
  • Example- Back of house used in describing
    working in the hotel trade.
  • Theatre Metaphor
  • Performance, roles, scripts, learning lines
  • Out of sight
  • Untidy, unclean, grimy backstage
  • People pay for performance as well as food
  • Curtain divides public from private.
  • Use of space, division of space by doors,
    notices, décor,

50
Constant comparison, cont.
  • Stars get well paid, stage hands poorly paid.
  • Star chefs, poorly paid waiters. - casual labour
  • Where the backstage is not hidden.
  • MacDonalds - signs, lack of mystery,
    predictability, cleanliness.

51
2. Axial Coding
  • categories are refined, developed and related or
    interconnected

Causal conditions
Phenomenon
Strategies
Context
Intervening conditions
Action/ Interaction
Consequences
52
3. Selective coding
  • Central phenomenon
  • the core category, or central theme
  • It ties all other categories/themes/codes in the
    theory together into a story
  • It is identified and related to other themes.

53
Example showing analysis
  • One of a set of interviews by Wendy Hollway and
    Tony Jefferson.
  • On fear of crime
  • Will use some of this for a group work exercise.
  • Part of interview with
  • Barbara 65, F, White,Retired nursing
    auxiliary, Interview covered, Husband's death,
    ill health, sister - prison, stealing drug
    taking, tenants association. From low crime area.

54
  • INT So you say - well 2 of those things happened
    after - when you've been talking to this
    accountant friend of yours. How did it come up?
    I mean that's er, you'd been alone for quite a
    while ....
  • BARBARA They'd been burgled.
  • INT Right.
  • BARBARA And they got through a little window like
    this. Actually 'e'd got a young lad with 'im.
    And er, Margaret's engagement ring and she says
    "that was the one thing - that was the one thing,
    it grieved me more than anything" she said.
    "They could 'ave the television, the lot" she
    said. But the fact that they took 'er engagement
    ring
  • INT Yeah.
  • BARBARA That upset 'er. And er, we were just
    talking in general and - and it came up and I
    says er, "I've got a chain on my door." And 'e
    says er, "it's not strong enough that, Barbara."
    He says "you really want something else on" and
    'e went - his daughter lived up Stokebridge and
    'e went to a little shop up there, or something.
    And got me that chain

55
  • BARBARA And 'e put it on and you can lock it.
    If you put it on as you're going out, er, its
    'ook, and then you 'ave to unlock it to let it
    drop.
  • INT Ah ha.
  • BARBARA When you come in.
  • INT Oh right.
  • BARBARA You know, you can push the door and it -
    oh and it is strong as well.
  • INT Ah ha. And the 4 locks on the back? Do they
    date back further?
  • BARBARA Oh God, yeah.
  • INT So you had lots of security even when your
    husband was alive?
  • BARBARA Oh yeah, mmm. Mmm. Em, I've got one of
    those dead locks at the top.
  • INT Yeah.
  • BARBARA You know, they're just a hole in the door
    and they're not from outside, they're only from
    inside. And even that locks wrong way. You 'ave
    to turn it that way to unlock it. (laugh).

56
Notice
  • Interviewer and respondent names are in capitals
  • Wide margins and space and a half between lines
  • Use of contractions
  • Place names and peoples names anonymised

57
Read through
  • About neighbour being burgled
  • Lost TV etc. and engagement ring
  • Old and new security on front door.
  • Replaced by friend.

58
Mark up text
  • Annotations and codes.

59
(No Transcript)
60
(No Transcript)
61
Coding Frame
  • Crime experienced (the type of crime participants
    discuss having experienced themselves or by their
    friends and neighbours).
  • Burglary
  • Vandalism
  • Violence
  • But these descriptive. Be analytic. E.g.
  • Low level (not reported etc.)
  • Significant (with emotional impact)

62
Coding Frame, cont.
  • Security measures (What measures people have
    taken to protect themselves, their property etc.
    both in the past and more recently).
  • Chain
  • Dead lock
  • Burglar alarm
  • Safe
  • Car alarms
  • Personal Alarm
  • Stay in
  • Walk with others

63
Coding Frame, cont.
  • But these descriptive. Be analytic. E.g.
  • Physical, technology
  • Behavioural
  • Psychological (lights on timer etc.)

64
Coding Frame, cont.
  • Feelings about experience of crime
  • Frightened
  • Hurt by loss (especially personal items)

65
NVivo video
  • http//youtu.be/oelXFnJ-7Ms
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