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European Education Policies


European Education Policies Gaby Hostens 16th AEEE Conference Ghent, August 23rd 2006 Introduction A new era in educational policymaking in Europe A European area of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: European Education Policies

  • European Education Policies
  • Gaby Hostens
  • 16th AEEE Conference
  • Ghent, August 23rd 2006

  • Introduction
  • A new era in educational policymaking in Europe
  • A European area of education. A Europe of
  • Education and training tools to achieve, to
    implement sectoral policies, f.e. employment,
    innovation, social cohesion, economic growth,
  • - Greater centrality of education and training

  • Maastricht Treaty (1992)
  • G8 The Cologne Charter (1999)
  • EU The Lisbon Summit (March 2000)
  • Open Method of Coordination
  • The Objectives Report (2001)
  • Detailed Work Programme (2002)
  • Benchmarks and Benchmarking
  • Barcelona Summit (March 2002)
  • Enhanced Cooperation in VET (Copenhagen Process)

  • 10. Key Competences
  • 11. The European Indicator of Language Competence
  • 12. A European Area of Education
  • 13. A larger Playing Field for Educational

  • Maastricht Treaty (1992)
  • a. A new treaty for the EU focus on monetary,
    fiscal, economic, budgetary policies
  • b. Education (art. 149)
  • The Community shall contribute to the
    development of quality education by encouraging
    cooperation between Member States and, if
    necessary, by supporting and supplementing their
    action, while fully respecting the Member States
    for the content of teaching and the organisation
    of education systems and their cultural and
    linguistic diversity.

  • Europes role limited !
  • Contribute to the development of quality
  • Support and supplement actions
  • Fully respect the responsability of the
    member states

  • Community actions aiming at
  • Development of a European dimension
  • Mobility of teachers and students
  • Foreign language teaching
  • Exchange of experience and information
  • Cooperation between educational
  • ? Socrates programme - Erasmus
  • - Comenius
  • - Lingua
  • - Grundtvig
  • - Arion
  • - Etc.

  • c. Vocational training (art. 150)
  • The Community shall implement a vocational
    training policy which shall support and
    supplement the action of the Member States,
    while fully respecting the responsibility of
    the Member States for the content and
    organisation of vocational training
  • Europes role limited !
  • Support and supplement the actions of
    member states

  • Community actions aim to
  • Facilitate adaptation to industrial changes
    through vocational training and retraining
  • Improve initial and continuing vocational
  • Facilitate access to vocational training and
    encourage mobility of institutions and
  • Stimulate cooperation on training between
    educational or training establishments and
  • Etc.

  • d. Subsidiarity in governance
  • Whatever can be decided and executed at a
    lower shall be decided and executed at that
  • ? The Council () shall adopt incentive
    measures, excluding any harmonisation of
    the laws and regulations of the member
    states to contribute to the achievement of
    the objectives

  • Meeting of G8 The Cologne Charter. Aims and
    Ambitions for Lifelong Learning (1999)

  • The challenge every country faces now is how
    to become a learning society and to ensure
    that its citizens are equipped with the
    knowledge, skills and qualifications they will
    need in the next century.
  • Economies and societies are increasingly
    knowledge-based. Education and skills are
    indispensable to achieving economic success,
    civic responsibility and social cohesion. The
    next century will be defined by flexibility and
    change, more than ever there will be a demand
    for mobility

  • Essential elements of Lifelong Learning
  • - Early years
  • - Primary education
  • - Secondary education
  • - Vocational education
  • - Higher education
  • - Adult education

  • At all stages emphasis should be given to the
    importance of creativity, entrepreneurship and
    education for democratic citizenship, including
    respect for the political, civil and human
    rights of all people, the value of tolerance and
    pluralism, and an understanding and respect for
    the diversity of different communities, views
    and traditions

  • Effective strategies to modernize education
    and training
  • - Teachers are the most vital resource
  • - Increased public and private investment
  • - Modern and effective ICT networks
  • - International tests to benchmark student
  • achievement
  • - Promotion of foreign languages

  • The Lisbon Summit (March 2000)
  • a. A strategic objective for the next decade
  • To become the most competitive and dynamic
    knowledge- based economy in the world capable of
    sustainable economic growth with more and better
    jobs and greater social cohesion
  • b. An overall strategy aimed at modernising the
    European social model
  • - By investing in people
  • - By building an active welfare state
  • - By combating social exclusion

  • c. Invitation to education ministers
  • Undertake a general reflection on the future
    objectives of education
  • Focus on common concerns and priorities
  • Respect national diversity
  • Report to the European Council in spring

  • 4. Open method of coordination
  • a. Definition an instrument to monitor and
    follow-up on the implementation of commonly
    agreed objectives goal by spreading best
    practice and achieving convergence towards these
  • b. How does OMC work ?
  • Fixing guidelines and timetables to achieve
    the strategic goal
  • Establishing quantitative and qualitative
    indicators and benchmarks
  • Periodic monitoring, evaluation, peer review
    as mutual learning processes
  • European guidelines are translated into
    national and regional targets

  • OMC helps countries in
  • Developing their own policies
  • Sharing good practice
  • Reviewing the outcomes of their policies

  • The objectives report (2001)
  • a. General aims for education and training
  • Development of the individual realise his
    potential and live a good life
  • Development of the society foster
    democracy, reduce disparities and inequities,
    promote cultural diversity
  • Development of the economy ensure that
    skills of the labour force correspond to the
    economic and technological evolution

  • b. Challenges for Europe in this decade
  • Changes in working life
  • Society, demography and migration
  • Equal opportunities and social cohesion
  • Enlargement (access of new countries)
  • c. Ambitious agenda for education and training
    systems improved quality, facilitation of
    universal access, opening-up to the wider world

  • d. 3 strategic objectives
  • I. Increasing the quality and effectiveness
    of education and training systems in the EU
  • II. Facilitating the access of all to
    education and training systems
  • III. Opening up education and training
    systems to the wider world

  • e. 13 associated objectives
  • I. Increasing the quality and effectiveness
    of resources
  • 1. Improving education and training for
    teachers and trainers
  • 2. Developing skills for the knowledge
  • 3. Ensuring access to ICTs for
  • 4. Increasing the recruitment to
    scientific and technical studies
  • 5. Making the best use of resources

  • II. Facilitating the access of all
  • 6. Open learning environment
  • 7. Making learning more attractive
  • 8. Supporting active citizenship, equal
    opportunities and social cohesion

  • III. Opening up education and training to the
    wider world
  • 9. Strengthening the links with working
    life and research and society at large
  • 10. Developing the spirit of enterprise
  • 11. Improving foreign language learning
  • 12. Increasing mobility and exchanges
  • 13. Strengthening European cooperation

  • Detailed work programme (2002)
  • a. An ambitious agenda
  • For the benefit of citizens and the Union as a
    whole the following should be achieved in
    education and training by 2010
  • - The highest quality will be achieved in
    education and training and Europe will be
    recognised as a world-wide reference for the
    quality and relevance of its education and
    training systems and institutions
  • - Education and training systems in Europe will
    be compatible enough to allow citizens to move
    between them and to take advantage of their

  • - Holders of qualifications, knowledge and
    skills acquired anywhere in the EU will be
    able to get them effectively validated
    throughout the Union for the purpose of
    career and further learning
  • - Europeans, at all ages, will have access to
    lifelong learning
  • - Europe will be open to cooperation for
    mutual benefits with all other regions and
    should be the most-favoured destination of
    students, scholars and researchers from other
    world regions

  • b. A single format for discussions on each
    associated objective
  • Rationale
  • Key issues to be addressed
  • Organisation of follow up
  • - Timeline
  • - Quantitative tools indicators to measure
  • - Qualitative tools themes for exchange of
    good practice and peer review

  • c. f.e. Improving education and training
    teachers and trainers
  • Key issues
  • - Professional profile which skills do
    teachers need in the knowledge society
  • - Professional development initial and
    in-service-training in a lifelong learning
  • perspective
  • - Adequate supply of effective teachers by
    making the career more attractive
  • - Attracting recruits with professional
    experience in other fields

  • Indicators to measure progress
  • - Shortage/surplus of qualified teachers
  • - Number of applicants for training
  • programmes
  • - of teachers who follow in-service- tra
  • Themes for exchange of good practice and
    organisation of peer review
  • - Evaluation of training programmes for
  • - Conditions for becoming a teacher

  • - Inclusion of ICT, foreign languages,
    European dimension in study and
    training plans of teachers
  • - Improvement of working conditions

  • Benchmarks and benchmarking
  • a. Policy rationale soft pressure, moral
  • Open method of Coordination
  • b. Setting benchmarks is
  • a crucial, to monitor progress effectively
  • a sensitive setting benchmarks
  • and is highly political
  • a difficult technically difficult
  • issue

  • c. 5 benchmarks to be achieved by 2010
  • - Early school leavers An EU average of no
    more than 10 early schoolleavers should be
  • - Mathematics, science and technology The
    total number of graduates in mathematics,
    science and technology should increase by at
    least 15 while at the same time the level
    of gender imbalance should decrease
  • - Completion of upper secondary education
  • At least 85 if 22-year-olds should have
    completed upper secondary education

  • - Basic skills The percentage of
    low- achieving 15-years-olds in reading
    literacy should have decreased by at least 20
    compared to the year 2000
  • - Lifelong learning The average level of
    participation in lifelong learning should be
    at least 12,5 of the adult working age
    population (25-64 age group)
  • P.S. No benchmark for investment in human
    resources !

  • Reaching the European benchmarks in the field
    of education would imply in 2010
  • 2 million fewer young people would have left
    school early
  • 2 million more would have graduated from
    upper secondary education
  • 200.000 less 15 years old would be low
    performers in reading literacy
  • 4 million more adults would participate in
    lifelong learning
  • All students leaving school would be able to
    communicate in two foreign languages
  • (from Progress towards the Lisbon Objectives in
    Education and Training. Commission staff working
    document, Brussels, 16.05.2006)

  • 8. Barcelona EU summit (March 2002) calls for
    further action
  • - Introduction of instruments to ensure
    transparency of diplomas and qualifications
    (ECTS, diploma and certificate supplements,
    European CV)
  • - Closer cooperation in the context of the
    Bologna process
  • - Simular action in the area of vocational
    training (Copenhagenprocess)
  • - Improved mastery of basic skills by teaching
    at least two foreign languages from a very early
    age establishment of a linguistic competence
    indicator in 2003 (sic !) development of
    digital literacy generalisation of an Internet
    and computer users certificate for secondary
    school pupils (ECDL)

  • 9. Enhanced cooperation in VET Copenhagen
  • a. The Bologna process paving the way
  • Ante European higher education area
  • - Lack of transparancy in structures
  • - No quality assurance mechanism
  • - No recognition of qualifications, credits
  • Post The answer
  • - Bachelor Master
  • - Accreditation
  • - ECTS

  • b. Rationale for enhanced cooperation in VET
  • Current situation
  • - Highly fragmented VET school- based,
  • - No transfer of credits
  • - Uneven quality across countries
  • - New providers
  • The answer
  • - Greater transparency of structures
  • - Recognition of qualifications and
  • - Minimum standards in VET

  • c. Work programme development of
  • Tools to support transparency
  • European Qualification Framework
  • Instrument for credit transfer
  • Criteria and principles for quality in

  • 10. Key competences
  • a. Objectives report and detailed work programme
  • - Numeracy and literacy (foundation skills)
  • - Basic competences in mathematics, science and
  • - Foreign languages
  • - ICT skills and use of technology
  • - Learning to learn
  • - Social skills
  • - Entrepreneurship
  • - General culture

  • b. Key competences for lifelong learning. A
    European Reference Framework, November 2004
  • - Key competences are crucial for
  • Personal fulfilment and development
    throughout life (cultural capital)
  • Active citizenship and social cohesion
  • (social capital)
  • Employability (human capital)
  • - Key competences are
  • Transferable applicable in many
    situations and contexts

  • Multifunctional can be used to achieve
    several objectives, to solve different kinds
    of problems
  • Applicable across all levels of education
    and training contexts throughout lifelong
  • - Overall definition
  • Key competences represent a transferable,
    multifunctional package of knowledge, skills
    and attitudes that all individuals need for
    personal fulfilment and development,
    inclusion and employment. These should have
    been developed by the end of compulsory
    schooling or training, and should act as a
    foundation for further learning as part of
    lifelong learning

  • - List of key competences
  • Communication in the mother tongue
  • Communication in foreign languages
  • Mathematical literacy and basic
    competences in science and technology
  • Digital competence
  • Learning to learn

  • Social and civic competences
  • Sense of initiative and entrepreneursh
  • Cultural awareness and expression

  • - Definition of selected key competences
    Communication in the mother tongue
  • Communication in the mother tongue is the
    ability to express and interpret concepts,
    thoughts, feelings, facts and opinions in
    both oral and written form (listening,
    speaking, reading and writing), and to
    interact linguistically in an appropriate
    and creative way in the full range of
    societal and cultural contexts education
    and training, work, home and leisure

  • Learning-to-learn
  • Learning-to-learn is the ability to pursue and
    persist in learning. Individuals should be
    able to organise their own learning, including
    through effective management of time and
    information, both individually and in groups.
    Competence includes awareness of ones
    learning process and needs, identifying
    available opportunities, and the ability to
    handle obstacles in order to learn
    successfully. It means gaining, processing and
    assimilating new knowledge and skills as well
    as seeking and making use of guidance.
    Learning to learn
  • engages learners to build on prior learning
    and life experiences
  • in order to use and apply knowledge and skills
    in a variety of contexts at home, at work,
    in education and training. Motivation and
    confidence are crucial to an individuals

  • Sense of initiative and entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurship refers to an individuals
    ability to turn
  • ideas into action. It includes creativity,
    innovation and risk-taking, as well as the
    ability to plan and manage projects in order
    to achieve objectives. This supports
    individuals, not only in their everyday lives
    at home and in society, but also in the
    workplace, in being aware of the context of
    their work and being able to seize
    opportunities. It is a foundation for the
    more specific skills and knowledge needed by
    individuals establishing social or commercial



  • 11. The European Indicator of Language
  • a. Barcelona (March 2002)
  • Action is needed
  • To improve the mastery of basic skills, in
    particular by teaching at least two foreign
    languages from a very early age establishment
    of a linguistic competence indicator in 2003
    (sic !)

  • b. 2006 Council document
  • - Context
  • The need for reliable comparative data
    on the outcomes of foreign language teaching
    and learning
  • The development of the indicator must
    fully respect the responsibility of Member
    States for the organisation of their
    education systems

  • - Terms of reference
  • Testing of competences in first and
    second foreign languages Isced level
    2 (or Isced level 3 if a second foreign
    language is not taught before the end of
    Isced 2)
  • Assessment of competences in the four
    productive and receptive skills listening,
    reading, writing, speaking). First round
    not speaking !
  • - Advisory board

  • 12. A European area of education
  • a. Driving forces who is at the steering wheel
  • Setting the agenda
  • Enhance ownership of European education
  • Avoid a democratic deficit ! Involvement of a
    great many stakeholders

  • b. Subsidiarity
  • Striking a delicate balance between
  • - European soft law
  • - National policymaking cultural and
    linguistic diversity
  • Objectives report impact on national
    curricula, organisation of education and
    training, mobility of teachers, etc.

  • 13. A larger playing field for educational
    policymakers ?
  • a. Greater centrality for education and training
    in knowledge- based societies
  • b. New global players
  • New providers of education and training
  • New certifiers of competences
  • Trade in educational services