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Unit 1: Origins of a New Nation


Unit 1: Origins of a New Nation Chapter 1 Many Cultures Meet Chapter 2 Europeans Establish Colonies Chapter 3 The American Colonies Take Shape – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1: Origins of a New Nation

Unit 1 Origins of a New Nation
  • Chapter 1Many Cultures Meet
  • Chapter 2Europeans Establish Colonies
  • Chapter 3The American Colonies Take Shape

Activity Check
  • Royal colony
  • Belonged to the crown
  • Proprietary colony
  • Belonged to powerful individuals or companies
  • Joint-stock colony
  • Business venture founded and run by a group of
    investors who were to share in the companys
    profits and losses
  • New England colonies
  • New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode
  • Middle colonies
  • New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware
  • Southern colonies
  • North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,
    Virginia, Maryland

The Purple People Cometh
  • How are they different from us?
  • How might we greet them?
  • How might they greet us?
  • What do we think will happen now?

Columbus finds America?
  • Who was there first?
  • When and how did they get there?
  • What religion did they have?
  • Way of subsistence?
  • Was everyone the same?
  • How did they greet their newcomers?

Arrival of the first Americans
  • 10,000-40,000 years ago.
  • Crossed land bring connecting Siberia and Alaska.
  • Where is it now?
  • Why this bridge?
  • Spread in N S Amer
  • 3 most advanced civilizations in Central and
    South America.
  • Inca
  • Peru and Ecuador
  • Mayan
  • Southern coach of Gulf of Mexico
  • Aztec
  • Mexico

Sec 1 The American Indians
The American Indians
The First People of the Americas   Main Idea
Scholars believe Paleoindians, or the first
humans to live in the Americas, came from Siberia
and eventually developed permanent villages where
they practiced farming. Early American Indian
Cultures Main Idea Many Native American
cultures emerged in the Americas centuries before
the arrival of Columbus. Distinct cultures
developed in areas such as the Southwest, the
Mississippi River Valley, the Great Plains, and
the Eastern Woodlands. Common Cultural
Features Main Idea Although there was great
cultural diversity among early Native Americans,
they did share some cultural traits. These
included de-centralized political power,
spiritual beliefs, shared property and land, and
gender roles.
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Transparency Native American Dwellings
Native American Dwellings
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The Vikings
  • Came from Norway
  • 800-1000 AD
  • Eric the Red, Leif Ericson
  • True Blood anyone?
  • Why no credit?
  • No claims, little evidence.

Sec 2 The Europeans
The Europeans
Life in Europe in the 1400s Main Idea At the
start of the fifteenth century, in the wake of
the bubonic plague, Europe had several key
characteristics. The economy became centered on
agriculture, only a small minority of the
population possessed wealth and power, and
various kingdoms waged war with one another.
Europe Looks Beyond Its Borders Main Idea
Rapidly expanding trade and the religious wars
known as the Crusades exposed Europeans to
different parts of the world. A new era, known as
the Renaissance, began. The Portuguese Begin to
Explore Main Idea Due to its geographic
location and technological developments, the
Portuguese took the lead in exploring new trade
routes and areas for expansion of power.
Note Taking Reading Skill Summarizing
Reading Skill Summarizing
Transparency Renaissance Technology
Renaissance Technology
Quick Study Renaissance Changes Europe
Renaissance Changes Europe
Explorers and Colonies
  • Why go to America?
  • Renaissance
  • Religious conflict
  • Expanding trade (Marco Polo)
  • The 3 Gs!!!
  • Gold
  • A desire for wealthNew job opportunities,
    precious metals, etc.
  • Guts
  • A burning curiosityWhat is out there?
  • Glory
  • Duty to spread their religion

Follow the Leader
  • First.. Spain Portugal.
  • Then France Holland.
  • Finally Great Britain.

Why did they come?
  • Portugal water routes to India Asia
  • Claimed colonies, ie Brazil
  • Spain water routes, conquistadors
  • Land, wealth, slaves
  • Colonies sugar
  • Indian then African slaves
  • FR water routes, colonization
  • Fur trade around Great Lakes
  • Known as coureurs de bois
  • Friendly with Indians
  • Britain - Upper hand in North American and set
    the stage for.. US!

Who came? Portugal
  • Prince Henry the Navigator
  • Est. Nautical school
  • Water route to Asia
  • Made it to West Africa
  • Vasco de Gama
  • Sailed around Southern tip of Africa to India
  • Amerigo Vespucci
  • Italian mapped coast of S. America.
  • Work used to map the New World

Who came? Spain
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Italian sent by Ferdinand Isabella
    to Asia (didnt quite make it)
  • 3 ships, 90 sailors, landed San Salvador
  • Balboa
  • Sailed to Panama 1st European to
    see Pacific

Who came? Spain
  • Ferdinand Magellan
  • Sailed around S. Amer tip (straight of Magellan)
  • Called Pacific peaceful waters
  • Sailed around the world
  • Hernando Cortes
  • Conquistador
  • Sailed to Mexico with Army
  • Destroyed Aztecs, claimed Mexico

Transparency Magellans Voyage
Magellans Voyage
Hernan Cortes Francisco Pizzaro
  • Hernan Cortes
  • Sent by Spanish Governor of Cuba to conquer the
    Aztecs in Mexico.
  • Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan (present day Mexico
    city) had 400,000 people there.
  • Aztecs governed about 20 million people (twice
    the size of Spains) and Cortes could only gather
    600 soldiers.
  • Cortes learned that the Aztecs conquered many
    Native Americans and were able to enlist the help
    of 200,000 Mexicans.
  • By 1521, Cortes had conquered one of the largest
    empires in the world.
  • Francisco Pizzaro
  • Conquered the Inca (what is now Peru)

Control of the Spanish Empire
  • These new lands and people became
  • Colonies areas settled by immigrants who
    continue to be ruled by their parent country.
  • The Spanish became soooo rich!
  • Had enslaved Native Americans and Africans, mined
    silver and gold in Peru, established farms and
    ranches, etc.
  • Didnt make Indians leaveforced them to become
    part of Spanish culture.
  • Because they all lived togethera new race
  • Mestizo Mix of Spanish and Native American.

  • "With my own eyes I saw Spaniards cut off the
    nose, hands and ears of Indians, male and female,
    without provocation, merely because it pleased
    them to do it. ... Likewise, I saw how they
    summoned the caciques and the chief rulers to
    come, assuring them safety, and when they
    peacefully came, they were taken captive and

"The Spaniards took babies from their mothers'
breasts, grabbing them by the feet and smashing
their heads againt rocks. ...They built a long
gibbet, low enough for the toes to touch the
ground and prevent strangling, and hanged
thirteen natives at a time in honor of Christ
Our Saviour and the twelve Apostles. ...Then,
straw was wrapped around their torn bodies and
they were burned alive."
Who came? Spain
  • Ponce de Leon
  • Sought the fountain
    of youth
  • Claimed Florida
  • Land of Flowers
  • Spanish Empire caused inflation to rise in Europe
  • San Salvador, Mexico, Florida, etc.

Section 4 Spain looks to the West
  • Spain Looks to the West
  • Main Idea In the late 1400s the Spanish, seeking
    expansion of wealth and power, began to turn
    westward over the Atlantic.
  • The Voyage of Christopher Columbus
  • Main Idea With hopes for power and wealth across
    the Atlantic, Spain turned to an Italian sailor
    named Christopher Columbus. Columbus hoped to
    find a route to China in order to convert the
    Chinese to Christianity.
  • Other Voyages of Exploration
  • Main Idea Between 1497 and 1522, John Cabot,
    Pedro Alvarez Cabral, Amerigo Vespucci, and
    Ferdinand Magellan conducted significant voyages
    that helped form an increasingly detailed picture
    of the Earth.
  • The Spanish Expand Their American Empire
  • Main Idea In the early 1500s Spanish
    conquistadors like Hernán Cortés expanded Spains
    empire throughout North and South America.
  • The Trans-Atlantic Exchange of Plants and Animals
  • Main Idea By introducing new plants, animals and
    microorganisms to the region, European colonizers
    started an ecological revolution in the
    Americans. This became known as the Columbian

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Note Taking Reading Skill Understand Effects
Reading Skill Understand Effects
Who came? France
  • Jacques Cartier
  • Looking for Northwest Passage,
    explored St. Lawrence River
  • Samuel de Champlain
  • Founded colony of Quebec in 1608
  • Robert LaSalle
  • Followed Mississippi River, claimed it
  • Named Louisiana after King Louis XIV
  • Great location!

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Who came? Britain
  • Sir Francis Drake
  • Sea Dog, sent by Queen Elizabeth I
  • Mission pillage Spanish America and ships
  • Defeated Spanish Armada
  • Huuuge fleet 130 ships 27,000 sailors
  • Ensured GBs naval dominance in North Atlantic

  • Henry Hudson
  • British but sailed for Dutch
  • Explored NY Harbor settled New Amsterdam (later
  • Had patroonships feudal estates

Important terms
  • Scurvy
  • Disease caused by lack of fresh fruit and vegs
  • Plagued sailors
  • Line of Demarcation
  • N/S line in Atlantic drawn by Pope
  • Catholic church to Christianize both sides of it
  • Encomienda system
  • Plantation system set up by Spanish in America
  • Grew sugar, used slave labor
  • Presidios
  • Forts built to protect Spanish settlements from
    Indians and other countries

Sec 3 The West Africans
The West Africans
West African Kingdoms   Main Idea Various
kingdoms, such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
flourished in West Africa. With the arrival of
Portuguese explorers in the 1400s, the kingdoms
became important trade centers. West African
Life Main Idea West African civilizations were
diverse and well developed. Religious beliefs
varied but contributed to strong communal ties,
as did family bonds. Slavery in Africa Main
Idea Slavery was common in West Africa. West
African rulers commonly sold conquered or
captured people as slaves to traders, including
Arabs and the Portuguese.
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Details
Reading Skill Identify Details
Transparency Education at Timbuktu
Education at Timbuktu
Now lets talk
  • The
  • British
  • Colonies

3 types of colonies
  • Joint stock
  • Have a charter from the King
  • Begun as a profit-making venture
  • Owned and financed by various investors
  • Proprietary
  • Land in America given by the King to an
    individual as payment for a debt
  • Royal
  • Colony owned and operated/governed by the King

Jamestown Englands first permanent colony
  • Est. by the VA Comp.
  • 144 settlers came and settled on James River
  • No women
  • Only 4 carpenters

Hardships for Jamestown
  • Diseases (Malaria)
  • Not used to hard work
  • Starvation
  • Dependent on supplies from GB and Natives
  • 1st year only 38 survivors
  • 800 more came only 60 survived starving time
    of winter 1609.
  • Ate rats, mice. Even resorted to cannibalism

Governing Jamestown
  • John Smith
  • Forceful leader
  • John Rolfe
  • Est. tobacco
  • industry
  • Slavery introduced
  • Pocahontas
  • Rolfes wife
  • Helped with Indian
  • relations

Jamestown in peril
  • Tobacco successfully cultivated
  • Slavery introduced, but
  • VA Co. goes into debt
  • Charter is revoked
  • VA becomes first Royal Colony
  • Appointed a Governor Sir William Berkeley
  • Berkeley
  • Policies favored large planters, antagonized
    backwoods farmers on VAs western frontier
  • Burned to ground b/c Bacons Rebellion

Bacons Rebellion
  • Many settlers instead of buying land, tried to
    take it from the Indians.
  • In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon raised an army to fight
    the Indians.
  • Rebelled against Berkeleys govt too
  • Governor declared him a rebel gathered an army
  • Berkeley died of dysentery and rebels army
  • Bacon burned J-town.
  • He controlled VA, but died.

Importance of Bacons Rebellion
  • 1.) Sharp class differences between wealthy
    planters and landless/poor farmers
  • 2.) Colonial resistance to royal control

Early VA characterized by
  • Growth of tidewater aristocracy
  • Arrival of the cavaliers
  • Misrule of Governor Berkeley
  • Cultivation of tobacco

The Roanoke Disaster
  • Walter Raleigh tried twice to start a colony on
    Roanoke Island (1580s).
  • Along coast of North Carolina
  • 1st attempt settlers facing starvation returned
  • 2nd attempt settlers disappeared
  • Were they defeated by the Indiansdid they join
    themno one knows.

Plymouth Colony
  • Joint Stock
  • Jamestown est. for economic reasons, Plymouth
    est. by religious separatists
  • The PILGRIMS, came on the .
  • MAYFLOWER (1620)
  • Signed Mayflower Compact
  • First written governing doc. of our nation!
  • Laws made by majority all would obey

Plymouth Colony, cont.
  • ½ settlers died by Spring
  • Squanto corn
  • Deep faith and determination helped them
  • Leader
  • William Bradford
  • Became part of Mass. Bay Colony.

Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Started as joint stock, 1630
  • Many came b/c of GREAT MIGRATION
  • Home to many Puritans, City on a Hill
  • Wanted to purify Church of England
  • Under Calvinist leaders, became a theocracy
    (whats that)?
  • Church is paramount in all decisions, political
    and religious.

Mass Bay, cont.
  • Ironic - Religious intolerance
  • Banished if dont agree
  • Dissident founded many other colonies
  • First English Colony to est. basis of
    representative govt
  • No ______ without ______!

Other colonies Connecticut New Hamp
  • New Hampshire Maine
  • 2 Englishmen given a govt grant to areas north
    of Mass., divided land
  • New Hampshire
  • Founder John Wheelwright (expelled)
  • Joint stock, then royal
  • Maine part of Mass Bay Colony until 1820.
  • Joint stock
  • Founder Thomas Hooker
  • Religion less imp. Than commerce
  • First to write a Constitution

Other Colonies Rhode Island
  • Joint Stock
  • Founder Roger Williams
  • Banished from Mass b/c wanted sep. of church
  • Est. Providence (later RI)
  • Bought land from Indians!
  • Was unique
  • Recognized rights of N. Americans and paid them
    for land
  • Complete religious toleration all allowed to come
    and worship
  • Religious refugees came
  • 1663, Parliament granted free religion charter

Halfway Covenant
  • Mid 17th cent, a generation has gone by since
    first Puritans came to NE.
  • New generation seemed less committed to religion
    more interested in .
  • Halfway Covenant offered by some clergymen to
    those who professed limited religious commitment.
  • People could now participate without declaration
    their total belief in JC.

New England Confederation
  • Plymouth, Mass Bay, Connecticut New Haven
  • Formed a military alliance from threat of
  • Lasted until 1684
  • Crown ended it.
  • Est. a precedent to take unified action against

King Phillips War
  • Metacom (King Philip, in Eng.)
    leader of the Algonquin people.
  • United many tribes in Southern
    New England against English
  • Vicious War (1675-76)
  • Thousands killed on both sides
  • Dozens towns/villages burned
  • English struck back.
  • Metacom was caught and killed
  • Head placed on display in Boston.
  • Significance
  • Virtually ended Indian resistance
    in New

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The Middle and Southern Colonies
Middle Colonies
  • Included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and
  • In middle of the Atlantic coast of North America.
  • New York was very diverse

The Middle Colonies New York
  • Est. by Dutch Joint Stock
  • Then GB Proprietary, became English colony
    through conquest
  • England Holland in war over N.Amer fur trade
  • Duke of York given a fleet by brother King
    Charles II to capture New Netherland
  • Did in 1664 named for him after capture
  • Ethnically diverse area

Middle Colonies New Jersey Delaware
  • New Jersey
  • Also Dutch Joint Stock then GB proprietary
  • Originally owned by Duke York too, gave it to
    other rich guys
  • Delaware
  • Proprietary
  • Started by Swedes, taken by Dutch, then taken by
  • Also owned by Duke of York, later purchased by
    William Penn
  • Scared Penn was land-locked

Middle Colonies Pennsylvania
  • Proprietary William Penn given grant for
  • Founded as sanctuary for Quakers
  • Passive resistance
  • Non-paid clergy
  • Equality for women
  • Simple meeting houses
  • Very democratic
  • No military service
  • Anti-slavery
  • No paid clergy
  • No swearing oaths to King
  • Most successful and diverse of all 13 colonies
  • Philly City of Brotherly Love

Southern Colonies
  • Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas, Georgia
  • Maryland (Proprietary)
  • Refuge for Catholics by Lord Baltimore
  • Bicameral legislature est.
  • Religious probs b/t Cath and Christians
  • 1649 Maryland Toleration Acts
  • Freedom of worship for Christians

Southern Colonies Carolinas
  • Carolinas (Proprietary)
  • Land reward for those who restored monarchy after
    English Civil War
  • Religious and political freedom but slavery?
  • Tobacco Tarheels
  • Not indentured servitude
  • Proprietors had investments in slave trade
  • 1729 Split in two
  • SC thought better than NC
  • Better harbors grew sugar, rice indigo

Southern Colonies Georgia
  • Proprietary
  • Started as a Penal colony by James Ogelthorpe
  • Rum, Catholics and Slaves prohibited!
  • In the beginning
  • Originally a haven for those who had been jailed
    in England b/c they couldnt pay their debts.
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