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Heart Notes

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Cardiac Biomedical Technician specialist with 2-4 years of formal training who maintains and repairs equipment used to diagnose/treat heart problems. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Heart Notes


1
Heart Notes
2
Common Cardiac Diagnostics
  • Blood enzymes
  • CPK-MB (Creatine Phosphokinase) found in brain
    and muscle tissue. Elevated in MI 2-3 hours after
    infarction peaks in 12-24 hours.
  • LDH (Lactic Dehydrogenase) produced during
    Krebs cycle. Elevated in MI 12-48 hours after
    infarction.
  • SGOT (Serum Glutamic-oxaloacetic Transamine)
    produced during Krebs cycle. Elevated up to 72
    hours after infarction.

3
Wave Form Measurements
  • ECG/EKG record of electrical activity produced
    by heart with each heartbeat. Shows damage to
    heart muscle and/or conduction.
  • Holter Monitor ECG recorded over extended time
    (24-48 hours). Correlated to activity via patient
    diary.
  • Stress ECG ECG recorded during exercise
    purposely stress heart.

4
Imaging Techniques
  • CXR Image of heart, lungs and great vessels
    using gamma rays. Shows size and shape of heart.
  • ECHO Image of myocardium, chambers, valves, and
    blood flow using sound waves. Shows these
    structures in action.
  • MRI Image of myocardium, chambers and valves
    using magnetism. Shows soft tissue best.

5
More Imaging Techniques
  • PET Image of metabolic heart activity. Shows
    areas of necrotic tissue.
  • Cardiac Catheterization (Heart Cath) Image of
    coronary arteries using contrast medium and
    fluoroscopy. Shows patency and/or occlusion of
    heart arteries. May lead to angioplasty or CABG.

6
Common Cardiac Diseases
  • CAD
  • Arteriosclerosis hardening of coronary arteries
  • Atherosclerosis - hardening of coronary arteries
    with deposits of plaque (fat and cholesterol)

7
More Cardiac Diseases
  • Angina heart pain due to ischemia. Usually not
    present when patient is resting.
  • Myocardial Infarction (MI) Interruption in
    blood supply to a part of the heart leading to
    necrosis of the area.

8
Valve Disorders
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease inflammation and damage
    to the mitral valve caused by toxins from
    streptococci.
  • Stenosis narrowing of the opening of a valve
    due to inflammation and calcium deposits.
  • Insufficiency/prolapse blood leaks backwards
    thru valve due to inflammation, trauma, or
    congenital defect.

9
More Cardiac Disease
  • Cardiomyopathy inability of the heart muscle to
    contract fully. The cause is usually idiopathic,
    but may be due to toxins, viruses, malnutrition
    or endocrine disorders.
  • CHF inability of the heart chamber(s) to empty
    completely due to kidney disease (chronic) or MI
    (acute).

10
Common Treatments
  • Medications
  • Cardiotonics strengthen and slow heart beat.
    Lanoxin
  • Vasodilators dilate coronary arteries to
    relieve ischemia. Nitroglycerin
  • Antiarrhythmics interfere with extra conduction
    sites. Lidocaine
  • Diuretics decrease volume of blood by removing
    extra fluid via the kidneys. Lasix

11
More Medications
  • Anticoagulants increase clotting time. Heparin
    (parantal) or Coumadin (PO)
  • Clot Dissolvers dissolve clots within 8 hours
    of formation. Streptokinase, TPA.
  • Antibiotics kill microorganisms (not viruses).
    PCN, Tetracycline, Bactrin, Septra, Cipro,
    Gentamycin
  • ASA increase clotting time. Given as
    prophylactic daily or 1st Aid for MI.

12
More Treatments
  • Surgery
  • Angioplasty decrease size of coronary
    obstruction by inflating balloon at site during
    Heart Cath. Keep open with a stint.
  • CABG use veins or artery from other sites to
    bypass blocked coronary areas.

13
More Surgery
  • Heart Transplant replace all or part of heart
    from donor. Must be on immunosuppressive drugs
    for life. Cyclosporin
  • Valve Replacement replace damaged heart valve
    with manmade device or one from pig, or cadaver.

14
Cardiac Specialists
  • Cardiologist MD who dx and tx cardiac/coronary
    disease/disorders medically. Does stress test,
    heart cath and angioplasty procedures.
  • Cardiac Surgeon MD who does heart and coronary
    surgery. CABG and transplant.

15
More Specialists
  • CCU RN nurse who cares for critically ill heart
    patients.
  • Cath Lab RN nurse who assists Cardiologist
    during heart caths.
  • Cardiac Biomedical Technician specialist with
    2-4 years of formal training who maintains and
    repairs equipment used to diagnose/treat heart
    problems.

16
More Specialists
  • ECG Technician on-the-job trained person who
    operates ECG machine.
  • ECHO Technician ECG tech who has specialized
    training in ultrasonography of the heart.
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