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The Major Religions

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The Major Religions Prof. T. Patrick Burke Introduction Seriousness and Frivolity The Significance of Religion? The spiritual dimension of human life. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Major Religions


1
The Major Religions
  • Prof. T. Patrick Burke

2
Introduction
  • Seriousness and Frivolity
  • The Significance of Religion?
  • The spiritual dimension of human life.
  • Soul
  • Meaning
  • Analysis and Diagnosis
  • Hegel

3
Introduction, contd.
  • The Families of Religions
  • Indian Hinduism, Buddhism, (Jainism), Sikhism
  • The Self
  • Chinese Confucianism, Taoism, Chinese
    Buddhism
  • Nature
  • Semitic Judaism, Christianity, Islam
  • God and Revelation

4
Introduction, contd.
  • Places of Worship
  • Belief and Action
  • Some Categories
  • Universal and Particular
  • Mystical and Ethical
  • Self- and Other-Power
  • Personal and Civil

5
Introduction, contd.
  • Value Judgements
  • The Phenomenological Approach
  • Current Debate Commitment v. Anthropology
  • Our Approach in this Course
  • Description, Suspension, Discussion
  • Gender and Class Equality and the Middle
    Class.

6
Introduction, contd
  • Test Questions
  • Arrange the major religions in their families.
  • What is meant by a universal religion?
  • What is meant by a religion of
    self-liberation?
  • What is the phenomenological approach?
  • What are the reasons for and against it?

7
Part I Religions of Indian Origin
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Jainism (not covered in this course)
  • Sikhism

8
Hinduism
  • The Spirit of Hinduism
  • The story of Narada and Vishnu
  • The Hindu View of Life
  • The presence of the divine
  • Pre-Vedic Religion Harappa

9
Hinduism
  • Vedic Religion
  • The Aryans
  • The Vedas
  • Rig, Sama, Yajur, Atharva.
  • The Vedic Gods
  • Indra, Agni, Varuna, Rta
  • Sacrifice (yajna)
  • Brahman, the Power of the Sacrifice

10
Hinduism
  • The Upanishads
  • Brahman, the highest Reality
  • Nirguna Brahman
  • The Atman or Self
  • The Atman is identical with Brahman
  • The True Self and the Apparent Self

11
Hinduism, cont.
  • Monism
  • Reincarnation
  • The Law of Karma
  • The Cycle of Birth and Death
  • Moksha, Liberation
  • The Path of Sacred Knowledge,
  • Meditation and Asceticism

12
Hinduism, cont.
  • The Later Upanishads
  • Personalization
  • Saguna Brahman With Attributes
  • Ishvara, the Lord
  • Maya
  • Yoga

13
Hinduism, cont.
  • Classical Hinduism
  • The Epics, Maha-bharata, Ramayana
  • The Puranas
  • Vishnu and Shiva (and Brahma)
  • Shakti the Goddess
  • Parvati, Durga, Kali
  • Yoni and lingam

14
Hinduism, cont.
  • Lakshmi
  • Sarasvati
  • Ganesha
  • Polytheism and Monotheism
  • Puja
  • Darshana

15
Hinduism, cont.
  • The Four Varnas, or Classes
  • The Aryan or Twice-born, the Sacred Thread
  • Brahmins
  • Kshatriyas
  • Vaishyas
  • Sudras
  • Outcastes, Untouchables

16
Hinduism, cont.
  • The Many Jatis, or Castes
  • Restrictions on
  • Food
  • Marriage
  • Occupation

17
Hinduism, cont.
  • The Four Ends of Man
  • Dharma, Caste Duty
  • Sadharana Dharma
  • Artha, Power
  • Kama, Pleasure
  • Moksha, Liberation

18
Hinduism, cont.
  • The Four Ashramas, or Stages of Life
  • Brahmacarin, the celibate student
  • Grihastha, the householder
  • Vanaprastha, the forest-dweller
  • Sannyasin
  • Sadhus

19
Hinduism, cont.
  • Bhakti Hinduism The life of devotion
  • The Bhagavad-gita
  • Karma yoga
  • Do the work for the sake of the work
  • Bhakti, devotion to the Supreme Lord
  • Vishnu Krishna and Rama
  • Shiva

20
Hinduism, cont.
  • Hindu Ethics
  • Class and Caste Duties
  • Universal Duties
  • Ahimsa, non-violence
  • No doctrine of unjust war
  • But rules for conduct of war

21
Hinduism, cont.
  • Modern Developments
  • Gandhi
  • Non-violent protest, civil disobedience,
    political independence (1947)
  • Class and Caste outlawed, but preserved
  • Partition creation of Pakistan for Muslims
  • Rejection of Capitalism, and Return to it.
  • Hindutva militant Hindu nationalism

22
Test, Hinduism
  • 1. Identify Indra, Agni, Varuna, Rta, Vishnu,
    Shiva, Sarasvati, Kali.
  • Explain briefly what is meant by Brahman, Atman,
    maya, moksha, samsara, yoga.
  • Summarize in one or two sentences the worldview
    of the Upanishads.
  • What are the Four Ends of Man?
  • 5. What are the Four Varnas?

23
Test, Hinduism, cont.
  • 6. What is the chief message of the
    Bhagavad-Gita?

24
Buddhism
  • The Mustard Seed
  • The Buddhist View of Life Transience
  • "Do not cherish the unworthy desire that the
    changeable might become unchanging.
  • Siddhartha Gautama of the Shakyas
  • The Four Passing Sights
  • The Great Going Forth
  • The Great Awakening

25
Buddhism, cont.
  • Theravada Buddhism
  • The Four Noble Truths
  • Dukkha Suffering
  • Tanha Craving
  • Nirvana Extinction
  • Marga The Path

26
Buddhism, cont.
  • The Eightfold Path
  • Right Understanding
  • Right Thought
  • Right Speech, Conduct, Livelihood
  • Right Effort
  • Right Mindfulness
  • Right Concentration

27
Buddhism, cont.
  • The Ten Precepts
  • Five and Five
  • Monks and Laity
  • The Three Jewels
  • Buddhist Theory
  • Impermanence, Anicca
  • No Self, Anatta

28
Buddhism, cont.
  • The Five Aggregates
  • Matter
  • Sensations
  • Perception
  • Mental Formations
  • Consciousness

29
Buddhism, cont.
  • The Doctrine of Dependent Origination
  • Rebirth
  • The Many Buddhas

30
Buddhism, cont.
  • Mahayana Buddhism
  • The Bodhisattva
  • Nirvana and Samsara
  • The Eternal Buddha
  • Emptiness, Sunyata
  • Grace v. Merit
  • Meditation

31
Buddhism, cont.
  • Devotional Buddhism
  • Some Buddhas and Bodhisattvas
  • Amitabha, Avalokiteshvara, Maitreya
  • The Threefold Body of the Buddha
  • The historical Buddha
  • Faith
  • The Sangha
  • Festivals

32
Buddhism, cont.
  • Buddhist Ethics
  • Compassion for suffering
  • Care for life, including commerce
  • Rejection of justice, just war.
  • Modern Developments
  • Little affected by science, democracy,
    capitalism
  • Neo-Buddhism

33
Religions of Chinese Origin
  • Harmony with Nature
  • Human Nature Confucianism
  • Cosmic Nature Taoism
  • Buddha Nature and Cosmic Nature Chinese
    Buddhism

34
Traditional Chinese Religion
  • Spirit Sacrifice offered to spirits of ancestors
  • by the son.
  • Civil religion, for the good of the community.
    rather than personal.
  • A function of the head of the community
  • father, king (son of ancestors).
  • Nearest thing to a priesthood the ju, the
    learned.

35
Traditional Chinese Religion
  • Shang Dynasty, 1500-1100 BC.
  • Aristocracy and peasantry.
  • Ancestors
  • Spirits kuei and shen.
  • Gods the Tu Ti
  • the celestial administration
  • once human beings.

36
Traditional Chinese Religion
  • Shang dynasty cont.
  • Ti.
  • Divination.
  • Ritual, Li.
  • Power, Te.

37
Traditional Chinese Religion
  • Chou Dynasty, 1100-500 BC.
  • Shang Ti, the high God.
  • Heaven, Tien.
  • The Mandate of Heaven, Tien Ming.
  • Virtue, Te.
  • Filial piety, Hsiao.
  • The Son of Heaven, Tien Tzu.

38
Traditional Chinese Religion
  • Period of the Warring States, 500-221 BC.
  • Calamities
  • Shang Ti, replaced by Heaven, Tien.
  • The Five Classics
  • Changes
  • History
  • Poetry
  • Ritual
  • Spring and Autumn Annals.

39
Confucianism
  • Confucius and the Tiger
  • The Confucian View of Life Human-heartedness.
  • Kung Fu Tzu, 552-479 BC.
  • Poor but well educated.
  • Teachings compiled by his followers.
  • Response to barbarization virtue, character.
  • Religious ethics.

40
Confucianism, cont.
  • The Four Books
  • Analects
  • The Doctrine of the Mean
  • The Great Learning
  • Mencius
  • Heaven
  • The Goodness of Human Nature

41
Confucianism, cont.
  • Tao, the Way
  • Chun-tzu, the Noble Man
  • Ren, Human-heartedness
  • I, Justice
  • Hsiao and Ti, Filial Piety and Brotherly Love
  • The Five Relationships
  • Li, the Rules of Good Behavior

42
Confucianism, cont.
  • Shu, Treat others as you wish to be treated.
  • Chung, Conscientiousness
  • Te, the Power of Virtue
  • Ho, harmony
  • The Mean
  • The Rectification of Names
  • Theory of Government the Person of the Ruler

43
Confucianism, cont.
  • The Destiny of Man
  • Yang and Yin
  • Modern Developments
  • Banned under Communism on Mainland
  • Maintained in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore
  • Can it foster democracy?
  • Can it foster free markets?

44
Taoism
  • The Spirit of Taoism Who knows what is good?
  • Harmony with Cosmic Nature.
  • Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu
  • Tao, the Way of Nature
  • Wu, Non-being, Emptiness
  • Spontaneity
  • Impartial, not humane

45
Taoism, cont.
  • The Relativity of Values
  • Our ordinary values are conventional,
  • and relative to their opposites. Beauty implies
    ugliness.
  • The cosmos does not share our human values.
  • Wu Wei Inactive Action.
  • The Man of Tao
  • Government should be minimal.
  • Taoism and the arts.

46
Taoism, cont.
  • Other forms of Taoism
  • In addition to Philosophical Taoism,
  • there is also Popular Taoism,
  • which aims to produce health, wealth and long
    life through rituals.

47
Chinese Buddhism
  • The Spirit of Chinese Buddhism
  • Paradox
  • The Chinese Buddhist View of Life
  • Personal Religion
  • A Fusion of Indian Buddhism and Taoism
  • The place of the Tao is taken by the
    Buddha- nature.
  • Meditational and Devotional

48
Chinese Buddhism
  • Meditational Chan (Zen in Japan)
  • Meditation is the path to enlightenment.
  • The Buddha and the Lotus
  • Bodhidharma
  • Seeking the Buddha in Ones Own Heart
  • A Special Transmission outside the Scriptures
  • No Dependence on Words or Letters

49
Chinese Buddhism
  • Meditation Overcoming the sense of individual
    identity distinct from the world.
  • Seeing our innermost nature as the
    Buddha- nature.
  • Sudden vs. Gradual Enlightenment
  • Lin Chi
  • Shock therapy, kung an (koan).
  • Tsao Tung Reason and argument

50
Chinese Buddhism
  • Enlightenment not our doing.
  • No objective change.
  • Spontaneity and the arts.
  • Devotional Chinese Buddhism
  • Far greater numbers
  • The Pure Land
  • Kuan Yin

51
Religions of Semitic Origin
  • Judaism, Christianity, Islam
  • God
  • Personal, all-powerful, -knowing, -good.
  • Creation
  • Revelation, in writing
  • Judgement

52
Israelite Religion
  • Spirit David, Uriah, Nathan
  • Origins Unification of hill tribes.
  • Captivity in Egypt? Exodus?
  • Torah in Babylon
  • Ethical Monotheism
  • Civil religion, for this world
  • The Law

53
Israelite Religion
  • God and Creation
  • Initial henotheism
  • Pluralistic, not monistic
  • Salvific History
  • Beginning, middle, end
  • The Covenant
  • The Law of Moses

54
Israelite Religion
  • The Torah
  • Sacrifice, purification
  • Civil law
  • Priests
  • Prophets
  • Sin and punishment
  • Jeremiah individual instead of collective
    responsibility

55
Israelite Religion
  • 538 B.C. Incorporation into the Persian Empire
  • Zoroastrianism
  • Battle between Good and Evil
  • Judgement, Paradise and hell, Angels
  • The Messiah to come
  • Diaspora

56
Israelite Religion
  • The Synagogue System
  • Study, prayer
  • The Oral Torah

57
Israelite Religion
  • Religious Diversity
  • Sadducees, traditional pre-Persian beliefs
  • civil religion, sacrifices
  • Pharisees, Persian personal religion
  • Scribes of both (gt Rabbis)
  • Essenes, monastic
  • Imminent Messianism
  • Zealots

58
Rabbinic Judaism
  • The Story of Rabbi Eisik
  • The Revolts of 70, 135 AD.
  • Diaspora, Roman Citizenship
  • Elimination of Diversity
  • Christianization of the Roman Empire
  • Constantine, Theodosius
  • Changed political circumstances of the Jewish
    people
  • The Oral Law, Fences, gt Talmud
  • Mishnah Gemara
  • Enlargement of Torah

59
Rabbinic Judaism
  • Transformation of Jewish religion
  • End of sacrifices
  • End of special law enforcement
  • Festivals now religious
  • Temple replaced by Synagogue and Family
  • Continuities
  • Pharisaic conception of universal God
  • Traditional Faith

60
Rabbinic Judaism
  • An Ethnic Religion
  • The Holy Days
  • Sabbath
  • Rosh Hashanah
  • Yom Kippur
  • Sukkot
  • Hanuka
  • Purim
  • Passover (Pesach)
  • Pentecost (Shavuot)

61
Rabbinic Judaism
  • Rites of Passage
  • Circumcision
  • Bar Mitzvah
  • Shiva and Sheloshim
  • Kashrut
  • Tallit, Tefillin, Mezuzah, Kippah
  • The Divine Name Yahweh and Adonai

62
Rabbinic Judaism
  • Kabbalah
  • Hasidism
  • Branches of Modern Judaism
  • Orthodox
  • Reformed
  • Conservative
  • Reconstructionist

63
Rabbinic Judaism
  • Ashkenazim and Sephardim
  • The Holocaust
  • The Land of Israel
  • Conflict with Palestinians
  • Jewish Ethics
  • Orthodox Halakhah
  • Others Socialist, Liberal
  • Neo-conservatives

64
Islam
  • 600, 622 A.D.
  • The Spirit of Islam Voice of the Muezzin
  • Languages Urdu, from India, and Arabic
  • View of Life God, Submission, Salvation
  • Before Islam polytheism, spirits, jinn
  • Allah the high but not only God
  • Christianity, Judaism
  • hanifs

65
Islam
  • Mohammed 570-632
  • Mecca
  • Travel to Damascus
  • Revelations (see Hadith)
  • Koran
  • Hegira, 622
  • Medina

66
Islam
  • The Return to Mecca, 630
  • The Death of Mohammed, 632
  • Expansion of Islam into Persian, Roman Empires
  • The Status of Mohammed Seal of the Prophets
  • Sunna (custom) and Hadith (report)

67
Islam
  • Doctrines of Islam
  • One God There is no God but Allah
  • Angels, jinn
  • Correction of text not precisely fallen
  • Prophets and Scriptures
  • Islam views itself as the original religion
  • Resurrection and Judgement
  • Predestination

68
Islam
  • Shariah the Law
  • The Five Pillars of Islam
  • Shahadah confession of Faith
  • Salat public prayer
  • Zakat almsgiving
  • Sawm fasting
  • Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca

69
Islam
  • Jihad, internal and external
  • Polytheists conversion or death
  • People of the Book, tolerated Jews, Christians,
    Hindus, Zoroastrians.
  • Ritual Impurity
  • Circumcision
  • The Organization of Islam Ulama

70
Islam
  • Islam and Society union of religion and
    politics
  • Sunni and Shiite the problem of the succession,
    and so of authority. Abu Bakr v. Ali
  • Shiite Islam the redemptive sacrifice of
    Husayn,
  • 10th of Muharram
  • saviorism, philosophy
  • Sufism
  • Islamic Ethics

71
Christianity
  • An Incident in the Temple
  • The Christian View of Life
  • Two Roots
  • Jewish Monotheism
  • The Graeco-Roman world
  • The Humanity of God
  • God as Father

72
Christianity
  • The Jewish Community in Jesus Time
  • Pharisees
  • Universal God
  • Future Life
  • Oral Law
  • Sadducees
  • God of the Jewish People
  • Prosperity of the Jewish People in this life.

73
Christianity
  • Scribes
  • Scholars of the law
  • of both Pharisees and Sadducees
  • Essenes
  • A monastic movement, sort of
  • Common property
  • Zealots
  • Political revolutionaries, in Galilee (the
    north).

74
Christianity
  • The Gentile Background
  • The Roman Empire
  • Judaea, Galilee
  • Roman Civic Religion
  • National, polytheistic
  • The Mystery Religions
  • Personal, Participation in the life of the God

75
Christianity
  • Jesus of Nazareth in historical perspective
  • The Message of Jesus
  • The law of Moses must be kept
  • But it must be interiorized
  • The law exists for man, not man for the law
  • The Oral Law has no validity
  • No food is unclean
  • God is our Father
  • The law is kept fully by loving God and our
    fellow man

76
Christianity
  • The Kingdom of God
  • Ag. the Sadducees, there is a future life for
    soul and body
  • One day Jesus will return.
  • The Miracles of Jesus

77
Christianity
  • The Message of Paul
  • Jesus is the Savior of Mankind
  • All men are sinners, and need redemption
  • The Gentiles are immoral and do not know
  • God
  • The Jews do not keep Gods law
  • All men suffer death, the punishment for sin

78
Christianity
  • Jesus saves mankind from sin and death
  • by his death
  • and resurrection
  • To become a Christian is to participate in Jesus
  • death and resurrection

79
Christianity
  • The Further Development of Christianity
  • Jewish v. Gentile Christians
  • Destruction of Jewish Christianity in 70 AD.
  • Some meanings of terms
  • Catholic the whole church, as contrasted
    with the local church
  • Organization of the Christian Church

80
Christianity
  • The Christian Bible
  • The Hebrew Bible completed c. 100 AD
  • Accepted by Christians as the Old Testament
  • Books of New Testament settled c. 180 AD
  • The Church superior to the Bible
  • The Sacramental System
  • At first two, then five others
  • Ex opere operato

81
Christianity
  • The Church as Authority
  • The Apostolic Succession
  • Communion with the Church in Rome
  • 312, Constantine, Christianity permitted
  • Theodosius, other religions banned

82
Christianity
  • The Status of Jesus
  • Divine or human?
  • Real body? Real death?
  • Doctrines of Incarnation
  • Jesus is one person with two natures
  • and Trinity
  • God is one nature in three persons

83
Christianity
  • Philosophy and Theology
  • Evil
  • Purgatory
  • East v. West
  • The Germanic tribes

84
Christianity
  • The Reformation
  • Martin Luther, 1517
  • John Calvin (b. 1509)
  • Salvation by grace alone
  • Nature and reason are corrupt
  • Grace only through Christ
  • Salvation by faith alone

85
Christianity
  • Certainty of salvation
  • Reduction of the sacramental system
  • The church not a divine authority
  • but the Bible
  • Virtue the consequence of being saved
  • Elimination of prayers for the dead.

86
Christianity
  • The Reformation Churches
  • Lutheran
  • Calvinist
  • Presbyterian
  • Congregationalist
  • Anglican
  • Methodist

87
Christianity
  • The Radical Reformation
  • Baptist
  • Believers only, by immersion
  • Separation of church and state, religious
    liberty
  • Mennonite (Brethren)
  • Sect v. church
  • Bible alone
  • Pacifist
  • Society of Friends

88
Christianity
  • Ethics
  • Old Testament the Ten Commandments
  • New Testament love and compassion
  • Catholics Natural Law (Aquinas)
  • Protestants diverse.
  • Bible alone
  • or, Natural Law (Hooker, Locke)

89
Christianity
  • Modern Developments
  • Liberal Christianity
  • Values rather than faith
  • Social Justice
  • Equality v. No Harm

90
Comparative Analysis
  • Phenomenological without value judgements,
    initially
  • Evaluational in terms of some criterion, e.g.
    consequences
  • What are the interesting points of comparison?
  • That is, what are the interesting differences
  • and the interesting agreements?

91
Comparative Analysis
  • Aspects of Religions
  • Faith, Belief, World-view
  • Religious Practices
  • Ethics, Values
  • Consequences
  • Social existence, economics, government, family

92
Comparative Analysis
  • Example Compare and contrast Buddhism and
    Christianity.
  • Theravada Interesting Differences
  • God v. No Self, Impermanence
  • Morality v. psychology
  • Just war v. pacificism
  • Similarities Detachment, humility

93
Comparative Analysis
  • Mahayana and Christianity
  • Differences God v. Eternal Buddha-nature
  • Reality of the Phenomenal world
  • Similarities
  • Saviorist

94
Comparative Analysis
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