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THE AFTER ACTION REVIEW PROCESS

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THE ARMY LESSONS LEARNED ... why it happened and how to improve Orient the discussion to their application of doctrine to the tactical ... That means taking the time ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE AFTER ACTION REVIEW PROCESS


1
THE AFTER ACTION REVIEW PROCESS
  • DOCTRINE
  • Major R. Kennedy

2
AIM
TO DEVELOP A COMMON UNDERSTANDING OF THE AFTER
ACTION REVIEW PROCESS, ITS INTENT, KEY ELEMENTS
AND THE APPLICATION OF THE PROCESS TO TRAINING
AND OPERATIONS
3
MAIN TEACHING POINTS
  • What is an After Action Review (AAR)
  • Terminology
  • The Army Lessons Learned Process
  • Why Conduct AAR
  • Key Elements of the AAR Process
  • The AAR Process and Confirmation
  • Steps of the AAR Process

4
REFERENCES
  • Annex E to the Army Strategic Planning Process
    The Army Lessons Learned Process
  • CFP 300-8, Training Canadas Army, Chapter 7
  • After Action Review Aide-Memoire

5
TERMINOLOGY
  • Critique The critique is characterized by
    mainly one-way flow of feedback about an
    individuals or teams performance. While the
    participants will often be offered the
    opportunity to identify their own strengths and
    weaknesses, it is clearly understood that the
    senior person involved in the critique stands
    ready to fill in any gaps . The critiques only
    advantages are that it takes less time to conduct
    and is useful when the participants ability to
    analyze their own performance may be limited due
    to inexperience. Critiques should be the
    exception rather than the norm.

6
TERMINOLOGY
  • Debrief The process of retrieving information
    from returning patrols and aircrew. Also used
    commonly in the Army to describe the process of
    providing feedback to an individual or a team
    about their performance. This term and critique
    are interchangeable.
  • Hot Wash-up - The quick and dirty attempt after
    a training event to capture lessons. Normally
    does not allocate sufficient time or resources to
    permit a focussed discussion of what happened,
    why it happened and how to improve.

7
THE ARMY LESSONS LEARNED PROCESS
The Army Lessons Learned Process is the process
by which the Army collects, analyzes, assimilates
and distributes Army, CF and Allied experiences
as lessons. The intent of the process is to
enable the Army to profit from its own
experiences and those of the CF and our Allies,
with a view to avoiding the duplication of costly
errors, particularly those involving death or
injury, of emulating success and consistently
improving its performance.
8
MAJOR ACTIVITIES - ALLP
  • Determine Information Requirements (Lessons) for
    Future Activities
  • Collect, Analyze, Develop Lessons and Coordinate
    Staff Action
  • Provide Direction to Assimilate Lessons Into
    Doctrine, Trg, Acquisition of Equipment, etc
    Archive and Disseminate Lessons, Provide
    Feedback, Follow-up
  • Incorporate Existing Lessons Into Planning for
    New Activities

9
THE AFTER ACTION REVIEW PROCESS
  • It is the process by which After Action Reviews
    are planned, prepared, conducted and followed-up.
    Its intent is to allow the participants of a
    training event or an operation to QUICKLY and
    CONSISTENTLY LEARN the most from their
    experiences.

10
WHAT IS AN AFTER ACTION REVIEW?
An After Action Review is a professional
discussion of a training or operational event
that focuses on identifying what happened, why it
happened and ways to improve.
11
TYPES OF AAR DOCTRINAL CHANGE!!!
  • AAR will not be identified by type.
  • Once the requirement for an AAR has been
    identified, the timing, location, duration and
    the resources to be allocated, will be based on
    availability, tempo, the complexity of the
    learning objectives and the optimum number of
    participants.

12
WHY CONDUCT AAR?
13
LEARN MORE FROM OUR TRAINING
There are two major objectives of training in
Canadas Army. The first is to leverage the
greatest amount of learning and improvement from
any training event. The second is to develop
in Canadian soldiers, at all levels, the ability
to learn quickly during operations and to use
that knowledge to not only improve performance
but to seize the initiative. Chapter 7, Section
2, CFP 300-8 Training Canadas Army
14
LEARN TO LEARN FROM EXPERIENCE
Increased tempo and dispersion on the
battlefield generate an increased requirement to
learn quickly, without direct supervisionsoldiers
and teams need processes that allow them to
objectively analyze their experiences and the
factors that effected them those processes must
enhance their ability to predict or influence
future events in their favour, thus enabling them
to seize the INITIATIVE. The ability of a team
to analyze its own performance and to develop the
means to improve must be honed during
training. Chapter 7, CFP 300-8, Training
Canadas Army

15
IN OUR BUSINESS, WE DONT ALWAYS GET A SECOND
CHANCE TO LEARN!!!
16
KEY ELEMENTS
  • TIMELY FEEDBACK. Troops need feedback as soon as
    possible so that they can begin using that
    information to begin learning and improving. The
    more objective and accurate the feedback, the
    easier it is for them to determine what happened
    and why it happened (ground truth).

17
FACTORS EFFECTING TIMELY FEEDBACK
  • Tempo. When is the right time to pause to
    provide feedback?
  • Source. The more objective the source, the more
    readily the soldiers and the team will accept the
    feedback. Potential sources include
  • Chain of command
  • Observer/Controllers
  • OPFOR
  • Weapons Effects Simulation and audio-visual
    equipment

18
FACTORS EFFECTING TIMELY FEEDBACK
  • Opportunity to utilize the feedback to improve.
    If no time or resources are allocated to make use
    of the feedback, then it will be wasted.

19
KEY ELEMENTS
  • ACTIVE PARTICIPATION. People learn more quickly
    when they are actively involved in identifying
    their own problems and developing their own
    solutions. In order for active participation to
    occur, time must be available and the
    participation must be encouraged.
  • An atmosphere must exist within the team that
    encourages active participation. If team members
    believe that their input is not welcome, will not
    be acted upon or that disagreement equals
    disloyalty, then it will be difficult to
    generate active participation.

20
WAYS TO ENCOURAGE ACTIVE PARTICIPATION
  • Make sure there is lots of time for discussion
  • Include as many members from the team in the AAR
    as possible.
  • Ask open ended questions
  • Share the discussion time
  • Let the team do the talking. If the
    Observer/Controller is talking more than the team
    members, its probably a critique, not an AAR!

21
KEY ELEMENTS contd
  • FOCUSSED DISCUSSION. The discussion must be
    focussed on what happened, why it happened and
    how to improve. The AAR must focus on solutions,
    not just problems. Improvements must be based on
    doctrine.

22
WAYS TO FOCUS THE DISCUSSION
  • Avoid using the question So, how did you think
    that went? Use a key event and look at what
    happened, why it happened and how to improve
  • Orient the discussion to their application of
    doctrine to the tactical situation
  • Keep the discussion focused on the teams
    performance, not that of others

23
KEY ELEMENTS
  • FOLLOW-UP. The participants must be provided
    with the opportunity to put the solutions that
    they have developed into practice so they can
    demonstrate to themselves and their chain of
    command that they have learned and improved.
    This builds confidence and team cohesion.

24
THE AAR AND CONFIRMATION??
  • The AAR and confirmation are EXCLUSIVE
    activities.
  • Active participation will not occur if the
    participants feel that their remarks will be used
    against them or their leaders.
  • If the intent is to learn from a confirmation
    event as well as to assign a grade or mark, the
    grade or mark will be assigned prior to the start
    of the AAR.

25
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26
THE AFTER ACTION REVIEW PROCESS
27
AFTER ACTION REVIEW
  • DEMONSTRATION
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