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SW Project Management Project Charter and Plan


SW Project Management ... and deliverables Keeps the project focused on the goal Since the sponsor is outside the development ... Software Project Management Author: – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SW Project Management Project Charter and Plan

SW Project ManagementProject Charter and Plan
  • INFO 420
  • Glenn Booker

Digging deeper
  • So far weve looked at projects from a fairly
    high level or strategic perspective
  • The business case provided a high level
    justification of the project
  • Now its time to focus on a single project in
    more detail, and start fleshing out the details
    needed to make it a reality

Project charter and plan
  • The second phase of the project life cycle
    develops the project charter and baseline project
  • These are the foundation for guiding the project
    through its implementation
  • A major role is to define subplans that,
    together, will achieve the projects goals

  • Subplans help manage specific aspects of the
    overall project
  • Scope, schedule, budget, quality, risk, and
    people could each be the basis for a subplan
  • Combined with the projects methodology,
    processes, and tools, they define the projects
    infrastructure and framework

Project planning overview
  • Much of the course will focus on the details of
    these various subplans
  • For now, introduce the project planning process
    and how it connects to the PMBOK
  • And well link the MOV to the projects scope,
    budget, and schedule

Project planning overview
  • Ultimately the project plan will answer the basic
  • Who is involved in the project?
  • How much will it cost?
  • How long will it take?
  • What will the finished product be able to do?

Project processes
  • A process is a set of activities to achieve a
    particular purpose
  • Just like a kitchen recipe, or a programming
  • A project uses two types of processes
  • Project management processes
  • Product-oriented processes

Project processes
  • Project management processes help run the project
  • Initiation, execution, closing, managing, etc.
  • Product-oriented processes are those that
    actually create the system or product
  • System development life cycle (SDLC) processes
    mostly fit in this category
  • You need both kinds of processes!

PM process groups
  • The five project management process groups in the
    PMBOK define a project by the kinds of work to be
  • They often overlap different project phases
  • They are
  • Initiating
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Monitoring and Controlling
  • Closing

Initiating process group
  • Processes typically include
  • Developing a business case
  • Initializing a project
  • Getting approval of the business case
  • Preparation of the project charter

Planning process group
  • Processes typically include
  • Planning of individual phases within a project,
    as well as planning the overall project
  • Planning project scope, activities, resources,
    costs, schedule, and procurement
  • Scope of processes should be consistent with the
    size of the project
  • Includes updating plans during the project

Executing process group
  • Processes typically include
  • Matching people and resources to carry out the
  • Develop the system (software engineering
    processes, testing, etc.)
  • QA, risk management, and team development

Monitoring and Controlling process group
  • Processes typically include
  • Balancing project scope, schedule, budget, and
    quality objectives
  • Monitor variances between planned actuals
  • Take corrective action when needed
  • Scope, change, schedule, cost, quality control
    processes and communications plan

Closing process group
  • Processes typically include
  • Getting customer approval for final deliverables
  • Contract closure
  • Administrative closure
  • Evaluate project against its MOV
  • Document lessons learned

Project integration management
  • Project integration management (PIM) coordinates
    the other eight knowledge areas throughout a
    project life cycle
  • Includes deciding where to concentrate resources
    day to day
  • Proactive risk management
  • Coordinating work, and making tradeoffs among
    competing needs

Project integration management
  • In many ways, PIM is a key role of the project
  • How do you keep the project on track in spite of
    personnel issues, resource issues, technical
    problems, etc.?
  • Understanding PIM processes is key to producing a
    good project plan

PIM processes
  • Define the project charter
  • Gives the project manager authority to allocate
  • Develop the preliminary scope statement
  • This is part of the business case the broad
    scope of what is and isnt part of the system
  • Develop project management plan

PIM processes
  • The subplans mentioned earlier need to be
    integrated within the overall PMP
  • Direct and manage project execution
  • The project manager integrates all the processes
    into one coherent project. Hopefully.
  • Monitor and control project work
  • Critical are corrective actions when project
    strays from the plan

PIM processes
  • Preventative actions can be a good part of risk
  • Defect repair and rework are needed to maintain
  • Integrated change control
  • Changes to the system need to be documented,
    reviewed, and approved

PIM processes
  • Need to ensure all affected parties are aware of
    changes before approval is given
  • Close the project
  • This could include premature closure of the
    project, if needed
  • In any event, closure should be orderly

Project management culture
  • Some organizations beg for trouble by pretending
    that project management isnt really useful
  • To help instill a sense of the overall project
    management approach, follow these six principles

Project management culture
  • Define the job in detail know the scope and
    boundaries precisely
  • Get the right people involved
  • Estimate time and costs, including allowances for
    risks and scope assumptions

Project management culture
  • Break the job down into a SOW
  • The SOW is a contract of project objectives
  • Establish and follow a change procedure
  • Agree on acceptance criteria when are you done
    with each deliverable?

Project sponsor
  • The project sponsor is a critical role for the
    success of any project
  • Its someone outside the development team who is
    not only paying for the project, but also acts as
    a champion to support the project and protect it
    from outside threats

Project sponsor
  • The sponsor
  • Empowers the project manager
  • Maintains project support (buy-in) from other
    key stakeholders
  • Clears political and organizational roadblocks
  • Ensures availability of resources
  • Monitors project status and progress

Project sponsor
  • Approves plans, schedules, budgets, and
  • Keeps the project focused on the goal
  • Since the sponsor is outside the development
    team, the project manager doesnt control them
  • Loss of a sponsor can kill a project

Project charter
  • The project charter is a high level agreement
    between the project sponsor and the project team
  • Documents the MOV, which may have been refined
    since the business case
  • Define project infrastructure
  • What resources, technology, methods, and PM
    processes will support the project?

Project charter
  • Identify key personnel, facilities and tools
  • Summarize the project plan
  • Scope, schedule, budget, and quality objectives
  • Deliverables, major milestones
  • Define roles and responsibilities
  • Identify project sponsor, manager, key leads, and
    how they will communicate and make decisions

Project charter
  • Express commitment to the project
  • Describe the resources committed to the project
  • Who will take ownership of the final product?
  • Define project control mechanisms
  • What processes will be followed for requesting,
    reviewing, and approving changes to project
    scope, cost, or schedule?

Charter contents
  • A charter typically can contain
  • Project identification, such as the name or
    acronym or logo by which its known
  • Critical for your team coffee mugs
  • Project stakeholders
  • Who are they?
  • What roles do they play?
  • Who reports to whom?

Charter contents
  • Project description
  • Give a nice overview of the project, for someone
    whos never heard of it
  • Might include the projects vision or overall
  • Measurable organizational value
  • Yes, its important enough to get its own section
  • Project scope
  • Could be a formal SOW, or less formal narrative

Charter contents
  • The project scope is less detailed than the
    project plan, but outlines the major features of
    the project, and what is not part of the project
  • Project schedule at a high level, such as major
    phases and overall duration
  • Project budget at least the totals
  • Quality issues, such as the standards to be
    followed, or other overall quality objectives

Charter contents
  • Resources who is providing people, technology,
    facilities, etc. to support the project
  • You dont want an office in your daughters dorm
  • Assumptions and risks
  • Key people availability
  • Events that could change project scope, budget,
    or duration

Charter contents
  • External constraints on the project, e.g. project
    interfaces to existing systems
  • Internal constraints, such as resource
  • Project impact on other parts of the organization
  • Environmental, political, economic, or other
  • Project administration
  • What plans will be developed to support this
    project? Scope mgmt, communications, quality
    mgmt, quality mgmt, change mgmt, HR, etc.

Charter contents
  • Acceptance and approval
  • Who signs off on this puppy?
  • References
  • Terminology
  • Particularly helpful if the project scope spans
    many technical specialties, who dont know each
    others acronyms and phrases

Project planning framework
  • Now that the overall picture of the project has
    been defined (its charter), the detailed planning
    process can begin
  • The project planning framework describes the
    planning process
  • We start with the MOV

Project planning framework
  • The project plan seeks to answer our pet
    perennial management questions
  • What needs to be done?
  • Who will do it?
  • When will they do it?
  • How long will it take?
  • How much will it cost?

Project planning framework
Adapted from Fig 3.4 of text
  • We start with the MOV, which hopefully was agreed
    upon by all key stakeholders
  • The MOV also connects to your organizations
    strategic goals and mission, so making the
    project happy will also support your organization

Define the projects scope
  • Now we need to establish what the scope of the
    project really is
  • What features will be implemented?
  • Might help to look at broad categories of
    features (manufacturing, sales, HR management,
    etc.) then get more detailed in each category
  • What systems are/are not being replaced?
  • What job roles will be affected?

Define the projects scope
  • The planning stage of this defines the scope in a
    requirements document, or SOW, or use cases, or
  • Then the definition stage groups the scope into
    work packages, each with a set of related
    features (both in functionality and priority)

Define the projects scope
  • Then verification must occur to make sure the MOV
    will be satisfied by the chosen scope
  • The change control process is critical to manage
    adjustments to the scope

Divide project into phases
  • The project development needs to be broken into
    phases of some kind
  • Waterfall life cycle phases?
  • RUP iterations?
  • n spirals, then another life cycle?
  • The phases are very SDLC-dependent, and a key
    source for assumptions

Divide project into phases
  • Each phase needs to have clearly defined
  • Phases also need decision points milestones
  • How do you know when the phase is done?
  • Give the sponsor a chance to approve the work,
    and start the next phase

Task sequence, time resources
  • Once the phases have been defined, need to define
    the tasks within each phase, both for product
    development and for project management processes
  • Thats key to include both types of activities!
  • Tasks can be sequential, or parallel, or have to
    start or stop together

Task sequence, time resources
  • Resources needed for a task might include
    development tools, facilities, test equipment,
    external system interfaces,
  • and people
  • Cost for labor needs to include overhead costs,
    which typically totals 2.0 to 2.5 times their
    salary (roughly 100k to 300k/yr)

Task sequence, time resources
  • Time for a task to be accomplished is the
    calendar time
  • Not everyone is devoted to a project 100 of the
  • Some tasks might require many people at once
  • Some tasks can be done in parallel, other require
    sequential action

Baseline schedule and budget
  • So all of the tasks, their costs, and other
    resources comprise the baseline plan for the
  • From that plan, you can determine the overall
    schedule (calendar months) and cost for the
  • This baseline plan is the basis for all planned
    vs actual measurements during the project

Baseline schedule and budget
  • EVERYONE should review the baseline plan for
    consistency, completeness, and make sure it will
    really result in a system that will achieve its
  • Remember, can only control two of cost, schedule,
    and scope which one can you give up?

Kick-off meeting
  • Many projects start with a formal event to start
    them, a kick-off meeting
  • It provides a clear start to the project, helps
    introduce the major players (front line
    managers), and builds team morale

  • Weve examined the key processes, both to develop
    a product and to manage a project
  • Reviewed the role of project integration
  • Outlined a project charter and the process for
    developing the baseline project plan
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