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Six Sigma Quality Engineering

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Six Sigma Quality Engineering Week 3 Define Phase Topics Six Sigma Project Team The team must: Understand the organizational context for process improvement projects ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Six Sigma Quality Engineering


1
Six Sigma Quality Engineering
  • Week 3
  • Define Phase

2
Topics
  • Six Sigma Project Team
  • Six Sigma Team Charter
  • Project Management
  • Structure of the Define Phase
  • Define Metrics
  • Problem Statement Exercise
  • SIOPC Analysis
  • Voice of the Customer Analysis
  • Class Exercise

3
Six Sigma Project Team
  • The team must
  • Understand the organizational context for process
    improvement projects
  • Know the basic elements of the team charter and
    review any questions you have about the charter
    for your own project
  • Understand the basics of estimating the business
    impact of a project and be able to relate them to
    your own project
  • Be able to identify key players and stakeholders
    and incorporate them into the communication plan
    for your own project

4
Six Sigma Team Charter
  • A team charter is an agreement between
    management and the team about what is expected.
  • The charter
  • A project charter is a form that has key
    information about your project. It is used to
  • Better define your project
  • Define what is Critical to Quality (CTQs) to the
    Customer
  • Write a business case (links project to business
    goals)
  • Write a problem and goal statement
  • Scope a project
  • State the problem or opportunity
  • Establish the project goal(s)
  • Identify criteria for success
  • List assumptions, risks and obstacles
  • Communicate the above
  • Obtain management support

5
Six Sigma Project Charter Example
  • Process
  • Process in which opportunity exists
  • Project Description
  • Projects purpose and scope
  • Project Scope
  • Define the part of the process that will be
    investigated
  • Objectives
  • Define the baseline, goal target
  • Business Case
  • Define the improvement in business performance
    anticipated and when
  • Team Members
  • Who are the full time team members
  • Expected Customer Benefits
  • Who is the final customer?
  • What benefit will they see and what are their
    most critical requirements?

6
Six Sigma Project Charter Example
  • Schedule
  • Give the key milestones/dates
  • Define completion date
  • Measure completion date
  • Analyze completion date
  • Improve completion date
  • Control completion date
  • Support required
  • Support needed for any special capabilities

7
Project Management
  • Problem Statement ? Objectives ? Measures
  • Problem Statement
  • Should focus the team on a process deficiency
  • Communicate the significance to others
  • Objectives
  • Should address the problem statement
  • Quantify performance improvement
  • Measures
  • Primary Metric(s)
  • Used to measure success
  • Consistent with problem statement and objectives
  • Secondary Metric(s)
  • Tracks potential negative consequences

8
Project Management
  • Project Problem Statement
  • A problem is the unsatisfactory result of a job
    or process
  • So what? What is the impact on the customer?
  • What problem or gap are you addressing?
  • What impact will closing the gap have on the
    customer?
  • How will you know things are better?
  • It should not include theories about solutions

To help give more focus on the problem, ask the
following questions
  • What are the symptoms? What happens when the
    problem appears?
  • Where do symptoms appear? Where dont they
    appear?
  • When do symptoms appear? Where dont they appear?
  • Who is involved? Who isnt?

9
Project Management
Project Problem Statements
  • A poor problem statement
  • Product returns are too high and will be reduced
    by analyzing first and second level pareto charts
  • A better problem statement
  • Product returns are 5 of sales resulting in a
    business unit negative profit impact of 5M and
    reduced market share of 10

10
Project Management
  • Project Objectives
  • Should address the problem statement
  • Quantify performance improvement
  • Should also identify timing
  • Needs to be Measurable, Actionable and Realistic
  • Quality / Quantity / Time / Cost
  • A poor objective
  • Reduce product returns by implementing
    performance measures and objectives
  • A better objective
  • Reduce product returns of product line abc from
    5 to 2.5 by the year end, to reduce overall
    returns by 1 and saving 1M

11
Project Management
  • Measures
  • Should be consistent with the problem statement
    and objectives
  • Primary Metric(s) - used to measure success
  • Needs to include 3 series, plotted as a function
    of time
  • Baseline performance (average over past 12
    months)
  • Actual performance
  • Objective / target performance
  • Secondary Metric(s) - drives the right behaviour
  • Tracks potential negative consequences
  • More than one may be required

12
Structure of the Define Phase
13
Define Completion Checklist
  • By the end of Define, you should be able to
    describe for your Champion
  • What key process is involved (including its
    Suppliers, Inputs, Outputs, and Customers)
  • What about the process output is important to
    customers
  • What customers currently think of the process
    and its output
  • Why this project is important to your
    organization and what business goals the project
    must achieve to be considered successful
  • Who the players are on the project (sponsors,
    advisors, team leader, team members)
  • What limitations (budget, time, resources) have
    been placed on this project

14
Six Sigma Problem Statements
  • A problem statement has the form
  • WHAT is wrong
  • WHERE it happened
  • WHEN it occurred
  • TO WHAT EXTENT and
  • I KNOW THAT BECAUSE
  • A problem statement
  • Does not include causes of the deficiency.
  • Does not include likely actions or solutions.
  • Is clear and concise and specific.

A good problem statement is essential to a good
start.
15
What is Wrong and Where Does it Happen?
  • A good problem statement will clearly define WHAT
    is wrong. Examples
  • Customers are not satisfied with my product
  • Yields are suffering
  • Reliability is insufficient
  • A good problem statement will clearly define
    WHERE the problem occurs. Examples
  • Customers in the Midwest Region are not
    satisfied with my ordering service
  • Equipment availability for Urgent Care is poor
  • Document correctness is insufficient in Billing

16
When Was This Seen?
  • A good problem statement will clearly explain
    WHEN the problem occurred.
  • Customers in the Midwest Region are not
    satisfied with my ordering service. Starting in
    January
  • Equipment availability for Urgent Care is poor.
    Since the consolidation of services
  • Document correctness is insufficient in Billing
    after the introduction of flexi-forms

17
How Widespread is the Problem?
  • A good problem statement will clearly explain the
    EXTENT of the problem.
  • Customers in the Midwest Region are not
    satisfied with my ordering service. Starting in
    January, complaints have increased 15
  • Equipment availability for Urgent Care is poor.
    Since the consolidation of services, delays
    caused by lack of availability have increased by
    40
  • Document correctness is insufficient in Billing
    after the introduction of flexi-forms. Errors
    have increased 28

18
What is the Standard?
  • A good problem statement will clearly explain HOW
    I KNOW there is a problem. Examples
  • Customers in the Midwest Region are not
    satisfied with my ordering service. Starting in
    January, complaints have increased 15 at a time
    when complaint rates from other regions have
    remained static
  • Equipment availability for Urgent Care is poor.
    Since the consolidation of services, delays
    caused by lack of availability have increased by
    40 when the patient traffic has increased by
    only 5
  • Document correctness is insufficient in Billing
    after the introduction of flexi-forms. Errors
    have increased by 28 when the goal of the
    project was to reduce errors by 90

19
Primary Metric
  • Primary Metric (used to measure process
    performance)
  • The gage used to measure your success
  • It must be consistent with the problem statement.
    It is used to track progress towards your goals
    and objectives.
  • It is usually reported as a time series graph of
  • Baseline data averaged over a year, if
    available
  • Target performance goal or objective
  • Actual (current) performance
  • Examples
  • Rolled throughput yield (RTY) versus FTY
  • Process Sigma Level or Ppk
  • Defects per unit (DPU) versus Proportion
    Defective

The Primary Metric is how the success of your
project will be measured
20
Sample Primary Metric
21
Secondary Metrics
  • Secondary Metrics
  • Measurements of key input/output features, cycle
    time, or process resource usage that may improve
    as a result of meeting objectives using the
    primary metric
  • Can be Drivers or Riders i.e. Vital Xs
    impacting the project (Primary Metric) or Good
    Consequential Metrics
  • Examples
  • Primary Metric Cycle Time
  • Secondary Metric Reduced backorders
  • Primary Metric Defects per Unit
  • Secondary Metric Available Floor Space

22
Sample Secondary Metric
23
Problem Statements Exercise
  • Break out into your groups. Using the guidelines
    of this module, each group will rewrite these
    problems statements to make them better
  • The complaint rate for our customer service group
    is too high, probably due to all of the new
    people in the department.
  • Food Services order errors are too high. They
    must be reduced.
  • Reduce measurement errors by cleaning the
    instruments more often.
  • Consumable use is increasing too fast. Reduce
    consumable cost.
  • Long term rolled throughput yield for Accounts
    Payable billing this year is 83 versus a past
    RTY of 95.
  • Long wait time for phone service. It takes
    customers about 30 minutes to get an order
    completed.

24
What is a SIPOC?
  • A high-level map of your process that includes
  • Approximately 4-7 process steps
  • Inputs that feed the process
  • The Suppliers (sources) of those Inputs
  • Outputs that result from the process
  • The Customers (recipients) of those Outputs
  • Keep it simple, and think carefully about the
    scope

25
Why Create a SIPOC Map?
  • SIPOC helps your team to
  • Define process boundaries (starting and ending
    points)
  • Identify data collection opportunities
  • Clarify who are the true customers of the process
  • To avoid scope creep.
  • To identify likely sources of performance
    problems
  • To expose fundamental issues early in the project
    that could change the direction of the team

26
When to Create a SIPOC
In the Early Stage of Any Project!
  • All work can and should be considered as a
    process

27
Questions to Help with SIPOC
  • From the Input/Supplier End
  • What items or information gets worked on?
  • Where do the items or information come from?
  • What effect do the inputs have on the process and
    on the outcome?
  • How does this process start?
  • From the Middle Inside the
    Process
  • What major steps happen to convert inputs into
    outputs?
  • What people or resources perform those steps?
  • From the Output/Customer End
  • Why does this process exist?
  • What products, services or outcomes does this
    process produce?
  • How does this process end?
  • Who uses the outputs or experiences the results
    from this process?
  • Who provides funding or staffing for the process
    activities, and who cares about the quality of
    outcome?

28
SIPOC - Process Development Example
29
SIPOC Workshop
  • Instructions
  • Prepare a SIPOC for the process of baking your
    cake. Use the guidelines on the following page.
  • Be prepared to share your work with the class.
  • 15 minutes to prepare 2 presentations (5
    minutes each)

30
How to Create a SIPOC Map
  • Name the process
  • Identify, name, and order the major process steps
    (approximately 4-7 steps)
  • Clarify the boundaries of the process where it
    starts and where it stops
  • List key outputs and customers
  • List key inputs and suppliers

31
SIPOC a Foundation for Next Steps
  • The list of Customers from your SIPOC are the
    starting point for the Voice of the Customer
    (step 3)
  • The major process steps (macro map) from your
    SIPOC are the overview for later detailed process
    mapping
  • The Inputs, Process Steps, and Outputs on your
    SIPOC generates ideas for what can and should be
    measured, which feeds the Data Collection Plan in
    the Measure phase
  • The SIPOC contains clues about potential root
    causes that drive performance.

32
Voice of Customer
  • Understand why the Voice of the Customer (VOC) is
    critical
  • Know how to create a plan for gathering VOC data
  • Know both reactive and proactive ways to gather
    VOC information
  • Know how to analyze data through the use of
    affinity diagrams and Kano diagrams
  • Be able to use a CTQ tree diagram to identify
    customer requirements and set specifications for
    them

33
What Is the Voice of the Customer?
  • The term Voice of the Customer (VOC) is used to
    describe customers needs in a process
    improvement effort and their perceptions of your
    product or service.

34
Why VOC Is Critical
  • VOC data helps an organization and a project to
  • Decide what products and services to offer
  • Identify critical features and specifications for
    those products, process outputs and services
  • Decide where to focus improvement efforts
  • Get a baseline measure of customer satisfaction
    to measure improvement against
  • Identify key drivers of customer satisfaction

35
Why Collect VOC Data
  • Customer requirements change constantly
  • Specifications tend to focus on technical data
    only

36
VOC Process
1. Identify customers and determine what you
need to know
2. Collect and analyze reactive system data then
fill gaps with proactive approaches
3. Analyze data to generate a key list of
customer needs in their language
4. Translate the customer language into CTQs
5. Set specifications for CTQs
  • Outcomes
  • A list of customers and customer segments
  • Identification of relevant reactive and proactive
    sources of data
  • Verbal or numerical data that identify customer
    needs
  • Defined Critical to Quality requirements (CTQ)
  • Specifications for each CTQ

Based on Rath Strong
37
VOC Step 1 Identify Customers Determine What
You Need to Know
1. Identify customers and determine what you
need to know
2. Collect and analyze reactive system data then
fill gaps with proactive approaches
3. Analyze data to generate a key list of
customer needs in their language
4. Translate the customer language into CTQs
5. Set specifications for CTQs
  • Goal
  • Identify your customers
  • Decide what you need to know about their needs
  • Decide when and how you will get this information

38
Who Are Your Customers?
  • What are the outputs of your process? Who are the
    customers of that output?
  • Are there particular groups of customers whose
    needs are especially important to your
    organization and project success?

39
Common Customer Segments
  • Customer status Former Customers, Current
    Customers, Customers of Competitors, Substitute
    Customers
  • Where they are in the customer chain
  • Internal user ? Distributor? End user
  • Geography
  • Industry, Division or Department
  • Demographics

40
Do You Have Customer Segments?
  • If your customers seem to have similar needs
    across the board, you dont necessarily have to
    divide them into segments
  • If you suspect that different groups will have
    significantly different needs, and that these
    differences will influence how you structure your
    process, product, or service, then it will be
    worthwhile to think in terms of segments

41
Deciding the What and Why
  • Revisit your charterwhat is the purpose of your
    project?
  • How does your purpose relate to customer needs?
  • What do you need to know about the needs of the
    customers youve identified to make sure your
    projects purpose stays on track?

42
Sample Questions
  • For all customers, you should ask questions such
    as
  • 1. What is important to you about our
    process/product/service? (Ask them to rank each
    of these needs in order of importance.)
  • 2. What do you think of as a defect?
  • 3. How are we performing on the areas you
    consider important?
  • 4. What do you like about our product/service?
  • 5. What can we improve about our
    process/product/service? What can we do to make
    your job easier?
  • 6. What specific recommendations would you make
    to us?

43
VOC Step 2 Collect and Analyze Reactive and
Proactive Data
1. Identify customers and determine what you
need to know
2. Collect and analyze reactive system data then
fill gaps with proactive approaches
3. Analyze data to generate a key list of
customer needs in their language
4. Translate the customer language into CTQs
5. Set specifications for CTQs
  • Reactive systems
  • Information comes to you whether you take action
    or not
  • Proactive systems
  • You need to put effort into gathering the
    information

44
Typical Reactive Systems
  • Customer complaints (phone or written)
  • Problem or service hot lines
  • Technical support calls
  • Customer service calls
  • Claims, credits, contested payments
  • Sales reporting
  • Product return information
  • Warranty claims
  • Web page activity
  • Reactive systems generally gather data on
  • Current and former customer issues or problems
  • Current and former customers unmet needs
  • Current and former customers interest in
    particular products, process outputs or services

45
Proactive VOC Systems
  • Interviews
  • Focus groups
  • Surveys
  • Comment cards
  • Data gathering during sales visits or calls
  • Direct customer observation
  • Market research, market monitoring
  • Benchmarking
  • Quality scorecards

46
VOC Plan Final Touches
  • The last step to finishing your data collection
    is to decide specifically how you will obtain the
    information, within what time frame the data
    gathering should take place, and how you will
    record the data

47
VOC Step 3 Analyzing Customer Data
  • Goal is to generate a list of key customer needs
    in their language.
  • It is helpful to summarize this information in a
    meaningful way.

1. Identify customers and determine what you
need to know
2. Collect and analyze reactive system data then
fill gaps with proactive approaches
3. Analyze data to generate a key list of
customer needs in their language
4. Translate the customer language into CTQs
5. Set specifications for CTQs
48
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