Personality - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Personality PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 5139cc-NjUzZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Personality

Description:

Personality A person s pattern of thinking, feeling and acting. The Person-Situation Controversy Traits are socially significant and influence our health, thinking ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:168
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 43
Provided by: userl9
Learn more at: http://lhswildcats.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Personality


1
Personality
  • A persons pattern of thinking, feeling and
    acting.

2
Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis
  • Freud attributes thoughts and actions to
    unconscious motives and conflicts

3
Freuds Iceberg
  • Conscious mind (our immediate awareness)
  • Preconscious (not in awareness but easily
    accessible)
  • Unconscious (hidden reservoir of unacceptable
    wishes, thoughts, and memories

4
(No Transcript)
5
Freuds Psychosexual Stages
  • Childrens development stages in which the ids
    pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct
    erogenous zones

6
Freud Terms
  • Oedipus complex (elektra complex)
  • Fixation
  • Identification
  • Freudian slip
  • Free association

7
Defense Mechanisms
  • Repression
  • Pushed out of awareness
  • Regression
  • Childlike, comforting behavior
  • Reaction formation
  • Act opposite of feelings
  • Rationalization
  • Provide acceptable reason
  • Denial
  • Flat out reject it
  • Displacement
  • Take out on something else
  • Projection
  • Accuse others of your unwanted thought/behavior
  • Sublimation
  • Channel into positive outlet

8
Neo-Freudian Psychodynamic Theories
  • Emphasize social, not sexual, tensions for
    personality development
  • Alfred Adler ? behavior driven by efforts to
    conquer childhood feelings of inferiority
    (inferiority complex)
  • Karen Horney ? disagreed w/Freuds assumption
    that women have weak superegos or penis envy

9
Psychodynamic Theory
  • Carl Jung ? agreed w/Freud that unconscious has
    powerful influence
  • BUT
  • Unconscious is more than repressed thoughts
    feelings
  • Collective Unconscious ? common reservoir of
    images derived from species universal experiences

10
Jungs Collective Unconscious
11
Assessing Unconscious Processes
  • Objective tests ? questionnaires (true/false,
    agree/disagree, etc.)
  • Projective tests ? provides ambiguous stimuli
    that triggers projection of inner unconscious
    conflicts

12
Projective Tests
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) ? given
    ambiguous picture, make up a story

13
Projective Tests
  • Rorschach Inkblot Test ? describe ambiguous
    splotch of ink

Its just a simple Rorschach ink-blot test, Mr.
Bromwell, so just calm down and tell me what each
one suggests to you.
14
Barnum Effect
  • Named after P. T. Barnum, who believed that a
    good circus had "a little something for
    everybody
  • Very general personality descriptions that apply
    to everyone
  • Horoscopes, psychic readings
  • You have a tendency to be critical of yourself.
  • At times you are extroverted, sociable, while at
    other times you are introverted, wary, reserved.
  • You have a great need for other people to like
    and admire you.

15
Humanistic - Maslows Hierarchy
Maslow added a possible level beyond
self-actualization, known as self-transcendence
(meaning, purpose beyond the self)
16
Carl Rogers Person-Centered Perspective
  • Genuineness, acceptance, empathy needed for
    growth fulfillment

17
Humanist Assessment of Sense of Self
  • Actual self

Ideal self
18
Criticism of Humanist Perspective
  • Vague subjective?
  • Naïve?
  • Can such individualism lead to self-indulgence,
    selfishness, and lack of moral restraints?

19
Social-Cognitive Perspective
  • Different people choose different environments
  • Personalities shape our interpretations
    reactions to events
  • Personalities lead to situations to which we react

20
(No Transcript)
21
Locus of Control
22
Optimism/Pessimism
23
Social-Cognitive Perspective Overview
  • The good
  • Makes researchers more sensitive to how
    situations affect, and are affected by,
    individuals
  • Builds from learning cognition research
  • The bad
  • Too much focus on situation
  • What about biologically influenced traits?

24
Trait Perspective
  • They believe that we can describe peoples
    personalities by specifying their main
    characteristics (traits).
  • Traits like honestly, laziness, ambition,
    outgoing are thought to be stable over the course
    of your lives.

25
The Ancient Greeks
26
Trait Perspective
  • Gordon Allport - identified almost 18,000 words
    representing traits
  • Central traits ? general characteristic that
    everyone has to some extent (honesty)
  • Cardinal traits ? dominates/shapes personality
  • Secondary traits ? situational, likes/dislikes
  • Raymond Cattell ? Factor analysis to find 16
    basic personality factors

27
(No Transcript)
28
Factor Analysis
  • Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality
    could be reduced down to two polar dimensions,
    extraversion-introversion and emotional
    stability-instability.

29
Trait Theories
  • The same traits can be used to describe all
    peoples personalities.
  • BIG FIVE personality traits
  • Extraversion
  • Agreeableness
  • Conscientiousness
  • Openness to experience
  • Neuroticism (Emotional Stability)

30
Endpoints
31
Questions about the Big Five
Quite stable in adulthood. However, they change
over development.
1. How stable are these traits?
Fifty percent or so for each trait.
2. How heritable are they?
These traits are common across cultures.
3. How about other cultures?
32
Evaluating the Trait Perspective
  • The Person-Situation Controversy
  • Walter Mischel (1968, 1984, 2004) points out that
    traits may be enduring, but the resulting
    behavior in various situations is different.
    Therefore, traits are not good predictors of
    behavior.

33
The Person-Situation Controversy
  • Trait theorists argue that behaviors from a
    situation may be different, but average behavior
    remains the same. Therefore, traits matter.

34
The Person-Situation Controversy
  • Traits are socially significant and influence our
    health, thinking, and performance
    (Gosling et al., 2000).

John Langford Photography
Samuel Gosling
35
MMPI 2 TEST QUESTIONS IN ORDER TRUE OR FALSE (567
QUESTIONS)
  • 1. I like mechanics magazines
  • 2. I have a good appetite
  • 3. I wake up fresh rested most mornings
  • 4. I think I would like the work of a librarian
  • 5. I am easily awakened by noise
  • 6. I like to read newspaper articles on crime
  • 7. My hands and feet are usually warm enough
  • 8. My daily life is full of things that keep me
    interested
  • 9. I am about as able to work as I ever was
  • 10. There seems to be a lump in my throat much of
    the time
  • 11. A person should try to understand his dreams
    and be guided by or take warning from them
  • 12. I enjoy detective or mystery stories

36
Exploring the Self
  • Our possible selves
  • The self you hope to become
  • The self you fear becoming
  • The self you think you are to your friends
  • The self you think you are to your family
  • The self you are at school
  • The spotlight effect ? overestimating others
    noticing and evaluating us
  • Self-serving bias ? we perceive ourselves
    favorably

37
Benefits of Self-Esteem
  • High Self-esteem
  • More sleep
  • Less pressure to conform
  • Happier
  • Predicts employment, salary, and job satisfaction
  • Low Self-esteem
  • Judgmental
  • Excessively critical
  • Floccinaucinihilipilification of others (yeahin
    simple terms, estimating others as worthless)

38
(No Transcript)
39
Individualism Collectivism
  • Individualism
  • Sense of me
  • Greater priority to personal goals
  • Define identity in personal attributes
  • Strive for personal control, individual
    achievements
  • Share human need to belong and join groups, but
    less focused on group harmony and doing their
    duty
  • Move in and out of social groups

40
Individualism Collectivism
  • Collectivism
  • Group identification
  • Priority to goals of the group
  • Greater concern for social harmony

41
Exploring the Self
42
Positive Psychology (Seligman)
  • Advancing human fulfillment based on scientific
    methods
  • Promote strength virtue, optimal human
    functioning
  • Satisfaction w/past, happiness w/present,
    optimism for future
  • Meaningful life, positive character, and positive
    groups/communities/cultures
  • http//www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/Defaul
    t.aspx (Seligmans webpage)
About PowerShow.com