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Project Management Professional, PMP


Advisor Dr. Yeong-Sung Lin Student Chiu-Han Hsiao Department of Information Management National Taiwan University Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C. * Time Management ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Project Management Professional, PMP

Project Management Professional, PMP
  • AdvisorDr. Yeong-Sung Lin
  • StudentChiu-Han Hsiao
  • Department of Information Management
  • National Taiwan University
  • Taipei, Taiwan, R. O. C.

The Project Management Framework
  • PMP?????????.htm

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)
  • The sum of knowledge within the profession of
    project management.
  • The knowledge of (both published and unpublished)
    widely applied, proven traditional practices and
    knowledge of less frequently used innovative and
    advanced practices.

  • ???????? (Project Management Body of
  • PMBOK five process group
  • Initiating
  • Planning
  • Executing
  • Controlling
  • Closing

PMI Standards Background
  • 1969 PMI founded
  • 1983 PMI Special Report on Ethic, Standards,
    and Accreditation the Standards portion was The
    Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)
  • 1987 PMBOK Standard was published
  • 1996 A Guide to the Project Management Body of
    Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) first edition was
  • 1999 PMI accredited as a Standards Development
    Organization (SDO) by ANSI
  • 2000 The PMBOK Guide - 2000 Edition
  • 2007 The PMBOK Guide 4th Edition
  • 2010 The PMBOK Guide 5th Edition

Project Versus Operations
  • Work Involves either operations or projects.
  • A Project is a temporary (Start and Stop points)
    endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or
  • Projects are a means for organizations to respond
    to those requests that cannot be addressed within
    the organization's normal operational limits.
  • The objective of a project is to attain the
    objective and close the project.

Unique Product/Service/Result
  • A product or service resulting from a project may
    be unique even if the category to which it
    belongs is large.
  • A projects outcome (deliverable) product or
    service typically continue even though the
    project ends.
  • The presence of repetitive elements within
    project completion does not change the
    fundamental uniqueness of the project work.

Progressive Elaboration
  • Because the product of each project is unique,
    the characteristics that distinguish the product
    or service must be progressively elaborated.
  • Progressively means "proceeding in steps
    continuing steadily by increments."
  • Elaborated means "worked out with care and
    detail e.g. developed thoroughly.
  • Progressive elaboration of product
    characteristics must be carefully coordinated
    with proper project scope definition,
    particularly if the project is performed under

Project Management
  • Project management is the application of
    knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to
    project activities to meet project requirements.
  • Use of PM knowledge, skills, tools, and
    techniques to lead a project from start to finish
  • Project management is accomplished through the
    use of the processes such as initiating,
    planning, executing, controlling, and closing.
  • The project team manages the work of the projects.

Work of the Projects
  • Competing demands for scope, time, cost, risk,
    and quality.
  • Stakeholders with differing needs and
  • Identified requirements.

Project Management Knowledge Areas
The Project Management Context
Project Life Cycle
  • The collection of phases that are performed in
    completing a project.
  • Each project phase is marked by completion of one
    or more deliverables.
  • The conclusion of a project phase is generally
    marked by a review of both key deliverables and
    project performance to date.
  • Determine if the project should continue into its
    next phase.
  • Detect and correct errors.
  • The project life cycle defines the beginning and
    the end of a project.
  • Project life cycles generally define
  • What technical work should be done in each phase.
  • Who should be involved in each phase.

Typical Project Life Cycle
Project Phase Deliverables
  • A deliverable is a tangible, verifiable work
    product such as a feasibility study, a detail
    design, or a working prototype.
  • Deliverables from the preceding phase are usually
    approved before work starts on the next phase.

Project Stakeholders
  • Project stakeholders are individuals and
    organizations that are actively involved in the
    project, or whose interests may be positively or
    negatively affected as a result of project
    execution or project completion they may also
    exert influence over the project and its results.
  • Key Stakeholders
  • Project managerthe individual responsible for
    managing the project.
  • Customerthe individual or organization that will
    use the project's product or service.
  • Performing organizationthe enterprise whose
    employees are most directly involved in doing the
    work of the project.
  • Project team membersthe group that is performing
    the work of the project.
  • Sponsorthe individual or group within or
    external to the performing organization that
    provides the financial resources, in cash or in
    kind, for the project.
  • Stakeholder expectations must be carefully
    managed since stakeholders often have very
    different and conflicting objectives for the

Organizational Influences to Projects
  • Organizational Systems.
  • Organizational Cultures and Styles.
  • Organizational Structure.
  • Project Office.

Project-based Organizations
  • Project-based organizations are organizations
    whose operations consist primarily of projects.
  • Organizations that derive their revenue primarily
    from performing projects for others.
  • Organizations that have adopted management by
  • Nonproject-based organizations often lack
    management systems designed to support project
    needs efficiently and effectively.

Organizational Cultures/Styles
  • Organizational culture is reflected in their
    shared values, norms, beliefs, and expectations
    in their policies and procedures in their view
    of authority relationships etc.

TB07 Tiwana, A. and Bush, A. A., A Comparison
of Transaction Cost, Agency, and Knowledge-Based
Predictors of IT Outsourcing Decisions A
U.S.-Japan, Cross-Cultural Field Study, Journal
of Management Information Systems, Vol. 24, No.
1, Summer 2007, pp.259-300.
Organizational Structure
  • Functional Structure
  • Matrix Structure
  • Projectized Structure

Matrix Organizational Structure
  • Matrix organizations are a blend of functional
    and projectized characteristics.
  • Weak matrices maintain many of the
    characteristics of a functional organization, and
    the project manager role is more of a coordinator
    or expediter than a manager.
  • Strong matrices have many of the characteristics
    of the projectized organizationfull-time project
    managers with considerable authority and
    full-time project administrative staff.

HBK07 He, J., Butler, B. S., and King, W., R.,
Team Cognition Development and Evolution in
Software Project Teams, Journal of Management
Information Systems, Vol. 24. No.2, Fall 2007,
Organizational Structure Influences on Projects
Key General Management Skills
  • Finance and accounting, sales and marketing,
    research and development, and manufacturing and
  • Strategic planning, tactical planning, and
    operational planning.
  • Organizational structures, organizational
    behavior, personnel administration, compensation,
    benefits, and career paths.
  • Managing work relationships through motivation,
    delegation, supervision, team building, conflict
    management, and other techniques.
  • Managing oneself through personal time
    management, stress management, and other

  • Establishing directiondeveloping both a vision
    of the future and strategies for producing the
    changes needed to achieve that vision.
  • Aligning peoplecommunicating the vision by words
    and deeds to all those whose cooperation may be
    needed to achieve the vision.
  • Motivating and inspiringhelping people energize
    themselves to overcome political, bureaucratic,
    and resource barriers to change.

  • Communicating involves the exchange of
  • Communicating Dimension Examples
  • Written and oral, listening and speaking.
  • Internal (within the project) and external (to
    the customer, the media, the public, etc.).
  • Formal (reports, briefings, etc.) and informal
    (memos, ad hoc conversations, etc.).
  • Vertical (up and down the organization) and
    horizontal (with peers and partner organization).

  • Negotiating involves conferring with others to
    come to terms with them or reach an agreement.
  • Negotiation Item Examples
  • Scope, cost, and schedule objectives.
  • Changes to scope, cost, or schedule.
  • Contract terms and conditions.
  • Assignments.
  • Resources.

Problem Solving
  • Problem solving involves a combination of problem
    definition and decision-making.
  • Problem definition requires distinguishing
    between causes and symptoms to determine the
    essential reasons for a problem.
  • Decision-making includes analyzing the problem to
    identify viable solutions, and then making a
    choice from among them.

Influencing the Organization
  • Influencing the organization involves the ability
    to "get things done."
  • Influencing the organization also requires an
    understanding of the mechanics of power and
  • Power is the potential ability to influence
    behavior, to change the course of events, to
    overcome resistance, and to get people to do
    things that they would not otherwise do.
  • Politics is about getting collective action from
    a group of people who may have quite different

  • A standard is a "document approved by a
    recognized body, that provides, for common and
    repeated use, rules, guidelines, or
    characteristics for products, processes or
    services with which compliance is not mandatory."

  • A regulation is a "document, which lays down
    product, process or service characteristics,
    including the applicable administrative
    provisions, with which compliance is mandatory."

  • Culture is the "totality of socially transmitted
    behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions,
    and all other products of human work and thought.

Project Management Processes
Project Processes
  • A process is "a series of actions bringing about
    a result.
  • Project processes typically consist of project
    management processes and product-oriented
  • Project management processes describe, organize,
    and complete the work of the project.
  • Product-oriented processes specify and create the
    project's product.
  • Project management processes and product-oriented
    processes overlap and interact throughout the

Project Management Processes
  • Initiating processesauthorizing the project or
  • Planning processesdefining and refining
    objectives and selecting the best of the
    alternative courses of action to attain the
    objectives that the project was undertaken to
  • Executing processescoordinating people and other
    resources to carry out the plan.
  • Controlling processesensuring that project
    objectives are met by monitoring and measuring
    progress regularly to identify variances from
    plan so that corrective action can be taken when
  • Closing processesformalizing acceptance of the
    project or phase and bringing it to an orderly

Process Group Linkages
  • The process groups are linked by the results they
    producethe result or outcome of one often
    becomes an input to another.
  • Among the central process groups, the links are
    iteratedplanning provides executing with a
    documented project plan early on, and then
    provides documented updates to the plan as the
    project progresses.
  • Project management process groups are not
    discrete, one-time events they are overlapping
    activities that occur at varying levels of
    intensity throughout each phase of the project.
  • Process group interactions also cross phases such
    that closing one phase provides an input to
    initiating the next.

Process Group Links within a Project Phase
Arrows Depict Information Flows
Overlap of Process Groups within a Project Phase
Process Group Interaction between Project Phases

Previous Phases
Subsequent Phases

Process Elements
  • Inputsdocuments or documentable items that will
    be acted upon.
  • Tools and techniquesmechanisms applied to the
    inputs to create the outputs.
  • Outputsdocuments or documentable items that are
    a result of the process.

Initiating Processes
  • Authorizing the project or phase (part of project
    scope management).
  • Project or phase initiation is the process
    wherein a suggestion or idea is transformed into
    an actual project.

Planning Processes
  • Planning processes include core processes and
    facilitating processes.
  • Planning is an ongoing effort throughout the life
    of the project.

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Core Planning Processes
  • Scope Planningdeveloping a written scope
    statement as the basis for future project
  • Scope Definitionsubdividing the major project
    deliverables into smaller, more manageable
  • Activity Definitionidentifying the specific
    activities that must be performed to produce the
    various project deliverables.
  • Activity Sequencingidentifying and documenting
    interactivity dependencies.
  • Activity Duration Estimatingestimating the
    number of work periods that will be needed to
    complete individual activities.

Core Planning Processes
  • Schedule Developmentanalyzing activity
    sequences, activity durations, and resource
    requirements to create the project schedule.
  • Risk Management Planningdeciding how to approach
    and plan for risk management in a project.
  • Resource Planningdetermining what resources
    (people, equipment, materials, etc.) and what
    quantities of each should be used to perform
    project activities.
  • Cost Estimatingdeveloping an approximation
    (estimate) of the costs of the resources required
    to complete project activities.
  • Cost Budgetingallocating the overall cost
    estimate to individual work packages.
  • Project Plan Developmenttaking the results of
    other planning processes and putting them into a
    consistent, coherent document.

Planning Facilitating Processes
  • Quality Planningidentifying which quality
    standards are relevant to the project and
    determining how to satisfy them.
  • Organizational Planningidentifying, documenting,
    and assigning project roles, responsibilities,
    and reporting relationships.
  • Staff Acquisitiongetting the human resources
    needed assigned to and working on the project.
  • Communications Planningdetermining the
    information and communications needs of the
    stakeholders who needs what information, when
    will they need it, and how will it be given to
  • Risk Identificationdetermining which risks are
    likely to affect the project and documenting the
    characteristics of each.

Planning Facilitating Processes
  • Qualitative Risk Analysisperforming a
    qualitative analysis of risks and conditions to
    prioritize their effects on project objectives.
  • Quantitative Risk Analysismeasuring the
    probability and impact of risks and estimating
    their implications for project objectives.
  • Risk Response Planningdeveloping procedures and
    techniques to enhance opportunities and to reduce
    threats to the project's objectives from risk.
  • Procurement Planningdetermining what to procure,
    how much to procure, and when.
  • Solicitation Planningdocumenting product
    requirements and identifying potential sources.

Executing Processes
  • Executing processes include core processes and
    facilitating processes.
  • Project Plan Executioncarrying out the project
    plan by performing the activities included
  • Quality Assuranceevaluating overall project
    performance on a regular basis to provide
    confidence that the project will satisfy the
    relevant quality standards.
  • Team Developmentdeveloping individual and group
    skills/competencies to enhance project
  • Information Distributionmaking needed
    information available to project stakeholders in
    a timely manner.
  • Solicitationobtaining quotations, bids, offers,
    or proposals as appropriate.
  • Source Selectionchoosing from among potential
  • Contract Administrationmanaging the relationship
    with the seller.

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Controlling Processes
  • Controlling processes include core processes and
    facilitating processes.
  • Integrated Change Controlcoordinating changes
    across the entire project.
  • Scope Verificationformalizing acceptance of the
    project scope.
  • Scope Change Controlcontrolling changes to
    project scope.
  • Schedule Controlcontrolling changes to the
    project schedule.
  • Cost Controlcontrolling changes to the project
  • Quality Controlmonitoring specific project
    results to determine if they comply with relevant
    quality standards and identifying ways to
    eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.
  • Performance Reportingcollecting and
    disseminating performance information. This
    includes status reporting, progress measurement,
    and forecasting.
  • Risk Monitoring and Controlkeeping track of
    identified risks, monitoring residual risks and
    identifying new risks, ensuring the execution of
    risk plans, and evaluating their effectiveness in
    reducing risk.

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Closing Processes
  • Contract Closeoutcompletion and settlement of
    the contract, including resolution of any open
  • Administrative Closuregenerating, gathering, and
    disseminating information to formalize phase or
    project completion, including evaluating the
    project and compiling lessons learned for use in
    planning future projects or phases.

Mapping Of Project Management Processes and PMBOK
Knowledge Areas
  • Project Management Body of Knowledge
  • sum of knowledge within the profession of project
  • used to document and standardize generally
    accepted project management information and
  • produced by the Project Management Institute
  • revised and reprinted every 4 years fourth
    edition is expected to be released shortly

The 9 Things
  • an area of project management defined by its
    knowledge requirements and described in terms of
    its associated process, practices, inputs,
    outputs, tools and techniques
  • identified knowledge areas (the things)
  • Project Integration Management
  • Project Scope Management
  • Project Time Management
  • Project Cost Management
  • Project Quality Management
  • Project Human Resource Management
  • Project Communications Management
  • Project Risk Management
  • Project Procurement Management

1. Project Integration Management
  • effective integration of the processes required
    to accomplish project objectives
  • processes include
  • project charter development
  • preliminary project scope statement development
  • project management plan development
  • project execution
  • monitoring and control of project work

2. Project Scope Management
  • defines and controls what is and is not included
    in the project
  • processes include
  • scope planning
  • scope definition
  • creation of a Work Breakdown Schedule
  • scope verification
  • scope control

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3. Project Time Management
  • includes processes required for the timely
    completion of a project
  • processes include
  • defining activities
  • sequencing activities
  • estimating resource activities
  • estimating duration of activities
  • developing the project schedule
  • controlling the project schedule

4. Project Cost Management
  • planning, estimating, budgeting and controlling
    costs to ensure the project can be completed
    within the approved budget
  • processes include
  • cost estimating
  • cost budgeting
  • cost control

Schedule Development
5. Project Quality Management
  • all activities that determine quality policies,
    objectives and responsibilities for the project
    to satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken
  • processes include
  • quality planning
  • performing quality assurance
  • performing quality control

6. Project Human Resource Management
  • processes that organize and manage the project
  • processes include
  • human resource planning
  • acquiring the project team
  • developing the project team
  • managing the project team

7. Project Communications Management
  • activities to ensure project information is
    timely and appropriately generated, collected,
    distributed, stored, retrieved and disposed of
  • processes include
  • communications planning
  • information distribution
  • performance reporting
  • managing stakeholders

8. Project Risk Management
  • processes to increase the probability and impact
    of positive events and decrease the probability
    and impact of negative events
  • updated throughout the project
  • processes include
  • risk management planning
  • risk identification
  • qualitative risk analysis
  • quantitative risk analysis
  • risk response planning
  • risk monitoring and control

????? ??? ??? An proactive approach to prevent
risk factors in IS projects
SLK01 Schmidt, R., Lyytinen, K., Keil, M., and
Cule, P., Identifying Software Project Risks An
International Delphi Study, Journal of
Management Information Systems, Vol. 17, No. 4,
Spring 2001, pp.5-36.
9. Project Procurement Management
  • processes to purchase/acquire the products,
    services or results needed to perform the project
  • includes contract management and change control
    processes to administer contracts or purchase
  • processes include
  • planning purchases and acquisitions
  • contract planning
  • requesting seller responses
  • selecting sellers
  • contract administration
  • contract closure

Rai, A., Maruping, L., M., and Venkatesh, V.,
Offshore Information Systems Project Success
The Role of Social Embeddedness and Cultural
Characteristics, MIS Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 3,
September 2009, pp.617-A7.
PM Knowledge Areas Process Groups
PM Process Groups / Knowledge Area Processes Initiating Process Group Planning Process Group Executing Process Group Monitoring Controlling Process Group Closing Process Group
Project Management Integration Develop Project Charter Develop Prelim Project Scope Statement Develop Project Management Plan Direct and Manage Project Execution Monitor and Control Project Work Integrated Change Control Close Project
Project Scope Management Scope Planning Scope Definition Create WBS Scope Verification Scope Control
Project Time Management Activity Definition Sequencing Resource Estimating Duration Estimating Schedule Development Schedule Control
Project Cost Management Cost Estimating Cost Budgeting Cost Control
Project Quality Management Quality Planning Perform Quality Assurance Perform Quality Control
Project HR Management Human Resources Planning Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team
Project Communications Management Communications Planning Information Distribution Performance Reporting Manage Stakeholders
Project Risk Management Risk Management Planning Risk Identification Qualitative / Quantitative Risk Analysis Risk Response Planning Risk Monitoring and Control
Project Procurement Management Plan Purchases and Acquisitions Plan Contracting Request Seller Responses Select Sellers Contract Administration Contract Closure
Future Research
Vision of 4G
What is 4G? Technical Evolution
Driving Force of 4G
  • Total daily traffic in 2012 will be double up to
    250 TB, and will be 5750 TB in 2020 (i.e. Total
    traffic/subscriber/day of 495 Mbytes) in Western

Forum, 2005
Migration Paths Toward 4G
  • Global Evolution Trends
  • 3G Evolution
  • 802.11n, Gigabit
  • WLAN
  • Broadband wireless Access
  • 4G standard body

Expected 4G Features
  • In addition to the development of a total new
    system, 4G network should integrate the existing
  • From users viewpoint
  • High usability
  • Anytime, anywhere with any technologies
  • Support multimedia services at low cost
  • In addition to telecomm and datacomm
  • Personalization
  • Users in different location, occupation, and
    economic classes
  • Integrated services
  • Multiple services from multiple providers

Strong Market Forces.
4G Market Trend
The proliferation of mobile broadband
Resulting in serious challenges for service
  • The facts
  • Telcos Facts
  • Business transformation from Network providers to
    Service Providers
  • Introduce new competitive Value Added Services in
    a timely manner
  • Reduce their costs (OPEX/CAPEX) and provide the
    best Quality of Service
  • Consequences
  • Performance data diversity and volume will keep
  • Customer SLA is a must
  • All types of Automation are welcome
  • Increasing operational efficiency is welcome
  • Femtocell applied for traffic load sharing

Femtocell Network Architecture
Source Femto Forum
Femtocell Service
Source Femto Forum
Radio Resource Management
An Adaptive Resource Allocation Algorithm in
OFDMA Networks
Resource Allocation Algorithm
4G-Research IPECC
  • Radio Resource Management(Femtocell SON)
  • Fix-Mobile Convergence- Home Application(Femtocell
  • Heterogeneous Radio Access Technology
    Management(WiFi, LTE, WiMAX)(WiFi, LTE-A, WiMAX2)
  • Operation Management(Business model development)

Source http//
Thank You
  • Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)
  • V.Liberzon /Spider Management Technologies/
  • IT Project Office
  • Project Management Institute, Newtown Square,
    Pennsylvania USA
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