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Theories of Development Piaget and Vygotsky

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Theories of Development Piaget and Vygotsky Edwin D. Bell Winston-Salem State University Topics Aspects/issues of development Piaget Vygotsky Human Development Refers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theories of Development Piaget and Vygotsky


1
Theories of Development Piaget and Vygotsky
  • Edwin D. Bell
  • Winston-Salem State University

2
Topics
  • Aspects/issues of development
  • Piaget
  • Vygotsky

3
Human Development
  • Refers to how and why people grow and adapt, and
    change over the course of their lifetimes.
  • One of the first requirements of effective
    teaching is that teachers understand how students
    think and how they view the world.

4
Issues of Development
  • Nature vs nurture is development predetermined
    at birth, by heredity and biological factors, or
    is it affected by experience and other
    environmental factors.
  • Continuous and discontinuous theories how
    change occurs.

5
Piagets Basic Assumptions
  • Children are active and motivated learners,
    i.e., they naturally curious about their world
    (Ormrod, 2008).
  • Children construct knowledge from their
    experiences (constructivism)
  • Iteractions with the physical and social
    environment is critical for cognitive growth
    (Ormrod, 2008)

6
Piaget Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Constructivism
  • Schemes (schemata) patterns of behavior and
    thinking.
  • Adaptation/learning is the process of adjusting
    schemes to the environment by means of
    assimilation and accommodation Ormrod, 2008,
    Slavin, 2003).

7
Assimilation
  • Is the process of understanding a new object or
    event in terms an existing schema Ormrod, 2008)

8
Accommodation
  • Is modifying an existing scheme in light of new
    information, or
  • Creating a a new scheme (Ormrond, 2008)

9
Equilibration
  • Situations that cannot be handled by existing
    schemes produce a disequilibrium. Restoring
    balance is called equilibration. According to
    Piaget learning depends on this process (Slavin,
    2003).

10
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
  • Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years
  • Preoperational 2 7 years
  • Concrete operational 7 11 years
  • Formal operations 11 years to adulthood
    (Slavin, 2003)

11
Issues of Piagets Stages of Development
  • reflexes inborn, automatic responses to
    stimuli.
  • object permanence the fact that an object
    exists even if it is out of sight.
  • Conservation the concept that certain
    properties of an object remain the same
    regardless of changes in other properties
    (Slavin, 2003)

12
Vgotskys View of Cognitive Development
  • It is based on two key ideas
  • Intellectual development can only be understood
    in terms of a childs historical and cultural
    context.
  • Development depends on the sign systems that
    individuals have available to them e.g., the
    cultures language, writing system, or counting
    system (Slavin, 2003).

13
Vygotskys Basic Assumptions
  • Adults convey to children through conversation
    how their culture interpret and responds to the
    world.
  • Every culture transmits physical and cognitive
    tools for daily living.
  • Thought and language become increasing
    interdependent in the first years of life
    (Ormrod, 2008).

14
Vygotskys Basic Assumptions (continued)
  • Complex mental processes begin as social
    activities, children transform the processes that
    they use in social activities into their own
    internal mental activities (Internalization).
  • A child can perform more challenging activities
    when they have assistance from a more competent
    person (Ormrod, 2008).

15
Similarities and Differences to Piaget
  • In contrast to Piaget Vgotsky believed that
    cognitive development is strongly linked to the
    input that children receive from others.
  • Similar to Piaget, Vgotsky that the development
    of the sign system was invariant for all children
    (Slavin, 2003)

16
How Development Works
  • Vgotskys theory suggests that learning precedes
    development learning involves the acquisition
    of signs by means of instruction and information
    from others. Development involves the childs
    internalizing these signs so as to be able to
    think and solve problems without the help of
    others. self-regulation (Slavin, 2003, p. 44)

17
Private Speech
  • Turns shared knowledge into personal knowledge
  • You can observe children talking to themselves
  • Later that private speech become silent and can
    be very useful in learning complex tasks (Slavin,
    2003)

18
Zone of Proximal Development
  • This is where learning occurs
  • Tasks that children cannot accomplish by
    themselves, but could do with the help of adults
    or peers (Slavin, 2003)

19
Scaffolding
  • Typically, scaffolding means providing a child
    with a great deal of support during the early
    stages of learning and then diminishing support
    and having the child take on increasing
    responsibility ( Slavin, 2003, pp. 45-46)

20
Implications of Vygotsky
  • Cooperative Learning among groups of students
    with differing levels of ability
  • Emphasis on students taking more and more
    responsibility for their own learning

21
References
  • Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Educational Psychology
    Developing Learners, 6th. Upper Saddle, NJ
  • Pearson. Merrill, Prentice-Hall.
  • Slavin, R. (2003). Educational Psychology Theory
    and Practice and Practice, 7th.
  • Boston, MA Allyn and Bacon.
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