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The Industrial Revolution 1750-1914

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Title: The Industrial Revolution 1750-1914


1
The Industrial Revolution 1750-1914
2
The Industrial Revolution
  • Why was Great Britain so successful?

3
The Industrial Revolution
  • Began in Great Britain in the late 18th century
  • The Industrial Revolution is defined as a basic
    change in the methods of producing goods, using
    power drive machinery

4
Why did Britain develop first?
  • Capital a rich merchant class to invest
  • Markets home colonial empire
  • Raw Materials coal, iron ore, cotton from
    colonies for textiles
  • Man Power Large Population excess unskilled
    labor
  • Merchant Marine Largest Best Fleet
  • Stable Government Good for business

5
Results of the Industrial Revolution
6
Economic Changes
  • Factory System- Standardized Parts
  • Industrial Capitalism
  • Increased Standard of Living
  • Unemployment problems, slums
  • Expansion of World Trade
  • Unequal Distribution of Wealth

7
Exhibition of 1851
  • On display, the works of industry of all
    nations.
  • Theme of the expo was progress.
  • Held inside the Crystal Palace.
  • 6,000 exhibits from around the world were on
    display.
  • Britain was seen as the workshop of the world.

8
The Agricultural Revolution
  • A revolution in agriculture spurred the
    Industrial Revolution.
  • Changes in farming
  • the amount and types of food produced
  • potatoes and corn (Americas)
  • New ways to use the land
  • Crop rotation
  • Charles Townshend- proposed farmers rotate crops
    being planted in their fields.
  • Example- Wheat and barley for a season or two,
    then clover and turnips for a season or two.
  • Certain crops would replenish nutrient used by
    others.
  • Clover and turnips were good feed for animals,
    which led to farmers raising cattle and sheep.

9
The Agricultural Revolution
  • New Equipment
  • Seed drill- invented by Jethro Tull, planted
    seeds in a straight row.
  • Iron plows- during the 1700s they take the place
    of wooden ones.
  • Mechanical reapers and thrashers- made harvesting
    easier and increased production.
  • The Enclosure Movement
  • The wealthy started to claim public land during
    the 1500s.
  • Spread even more during the 1700s. Public land
    was fenced off.
  • Wealthy landowners farmed more land and
    experimented w/ new crops.

10
Results of the Agricultural Revolution
  • More food for the people.
  • Diets and health improve.
  • Small farmers forced off land they had been on
    for years.
  • Tenant farmers
  • Rapid population growth.
  • Led to demand for manufactured goods.
  • New technology and the enclosure movement led to
    fewer workers needed to work the land
  • Unemployment led to a larger labor force.

11
The Textile Industry
  • Inventions led to the need for a larger labor
    force.
  • domestic system- raw wool and cotton was sent to
    farm women and men, they earned money by
    spinning the wool or weaving the cloth in their
    own cottages, this bypassed guild regulations.
  • Domestic system could not keep up with demand.
  • 1733- John Kay, invented the flying shuttle
    replacing the hand held shuttle used in weaving.
  • 1764- James Hargreaves, invented the spinning
    jenny. Spin several threads at the same time
  • 1769- Richard Arkwright, invented the water
    frame. 100 threads at the same time
  • 1779- Samuel Crompton, invented the spinning
    mule.
  • All of these inventions increased the production
    of cotton thread.

12
The Textile Industry
  • 1785- Edmund Cartwright, invented a water powered
    loom.
  • 1793- Eli Whitney, invented the cotton gin
    (actually there were cotton gins before his,
    first to patent it)
  • Interchangeable parts

13
The Factory System
  • Gradually replaced the domestic system.
  • New machines required more space and need to be
    located near a river.
  • Expensive
  • Required a water wheel to power them.
  • Many workers to work the machines.
  • Factory system- workers and machines were brought
    together in one place to manufacture goods.
  • Each worker had to work a set number of hours
    each day, workers were paid daily or weekly wages.

14
Steam Engine
  • Early inventions were powered by water. Steam
    soon became a source of energy in the textile
    industry.
  • 1698- Thomas Savery built a steam driven pump.
  • Had problems with pressure.
  • During the early 1700s Thomas Newcomen developed
    a safer engine.
  • Suffered frequent breakdowns and needed to much
    coal.
  • James Watt
  • Repaired Newcomens engine and made it more
    efficient.
  • 4Xs the power on the same coal.

15
Iron Coal
  • Britain had large deposits of both iron and coal.
  • Better methods of production boosted the output.
  • Abraham Darby- developed a way to use coke (a
    form of coal) in place of charcoal to heat iron
    ore.
  • Henry Cort- developed a puddling process that
    made iron stronger.
  • Created a method to produce iron sheets
  • Between 1788 and 1806 Britain quadrupled its iron
    production.
  • There was also a high demand for coal to make
    iron and power steam engines.

16
Iron Coal
  • Henry Bessemer
  • Developed a method that produced steel and other
    materials.
  • Bessemer process- blasts of cold air were blown
    through heated iron to remove impurities.
  • Steel more readily available.
  • Spurred growth in other industries.

17
Transportation Communication
  • Boom in industry created the need for a way to
    transport materials and goods.
  • 1759- Duke of Bridgewater built a canal to
    connect his coal mines and factories.
  • Canals then began to pop up all over Britain.
  • John McAdam- a Scottish engineer who invented a
    road surface out of crushed stone that made roads
    usable in all weather.
  • Railroads
  • There was still a need for good transportation
    and this lead to the development of the
    railroads.
  • 1829- George Stephenson invents the Rocket, the
    1st steam powered locomotive.
  • Could travel up to 36 mph.
  • Between 1840 and 1850 the British built over
    5,000 miles of track.
  • Steel rails would replace iron rails speed
    increase (60 mph)

18
Transportation Communication
  • Britain was a leader in railroad and
    shipbuilding.
  • Robert Fulton- developed a way to use steam power
    for ships.
  • 1807- tested the Clermont on the Hudson River.
  • 1850s- steamships regularly crossed oceans.

19
Transportation Communication
  • 1837- Samuel F.B. Morse invented the telegraph.
  • Messages now delivered in minutes or seconds
    instead of days.
  • 1851- underwater telegraph cable installed under
    the English Channel.

20
Why did Britain lead the Industrial Revolution?
  • Agricultural Revolution- increased food
    production freed up workers to move on to
    industry.
  • Britain had large coal and iron supplies.
  • Developed an excellent transportation system.
  • British entrepreneurs had the capital to invest
    in industry.
  • Britain had a large colonial empire.
  • Supplied Britain w/ a large amount of natural
    resources.
  • Colonials bought British finished goods.
  • British govt encouraged growth.

21
Spread of Industrialization
  • Britain was being challenged during the late
    1800s.
  • Belgium
  • Had large coal and iron supplies.
  • Long manufacturing tradition.
  • Textiles
  • Had a skilled labor force ready to work.
  • Belgian entrepreneurs had the capital to invest.
  • France
  • Had a strong textile industry.
  • Inventions of its own.
  • Joseph Marie Jacquard- developed the 1st power
    loom to weave complex patterns.
  • Placed high tariffs on imported textiles to
    encourage buying French goods.
  • Govt backed building programs.

22
Spread of Industrialization
  • United States
  • Had vast natural resources.
  • Europeans invested in the new nation.
  • Railroad spurred economic growth.
  • 1869- had a transcontinental railroad
  • By 1870 the U.S. was putting out more iron and
    steel than Britain.
  • Germany
  • Hurt by divisions among individual German states.
  • After Germany became a unified nation they were
    able to compete with the U.S. and Britain.
  • Southern and Eastern Europe
  • Remained mainly agricultural during the 1800s.

23
Science and Technology
  • William Perkins- invented a dye that could be
    made cheap from coal.
  • German chemists also produced dyes.
  • Replaced more expensive dies like indigo.
  • 1800- Alessandro Volta an Italian physicist built
    the 1st electric batteries.
  • Michael Faraday- led to the construction of
    electronic generators.
  • 1866- workers complete the 1st underwater
    telegraph line across the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone 10
    years later.
  • Guglielmo Marconi- invented the radio or the
    wireless as it was called in England.

24
The Wizard of Menlo Park
  • Thomas Alva Edison
  • b. 1847 d. 1931
  • Born in Milan, Ohio.
  • New Jersey inventor.
  • Workshop was in Menlo Park West Orange.
  • Edisons Inventions
  • Phonograph
  • Incandescent light bulb
  • Designed an electric generating plant that
    provided power to NYC.
  • Received 1,093 patents for his inventions.

25
Thomas Edison Cont.
  • Menlo Park known as the invention factory
  • Most known for his light bulb improvements.
  • 1893- Edisons West Orange lab became the 1st
    motion picture studio.
  • Kinetoscope- an early film projector.
  • Phonograph- a device that recorded and played
    back sound.

26
Transportation Revolution
  • 1886- Internal combustion engine
  • Invented by Gottlieb Daimler.
  • German scientist
  • Fueled by gasoline.
  • Used the engine to build one of the 1st
    automobiles.
  • 1886- Diesel engine
  • Invented by Rudolf Diesel.
  • German engineer
  • Fueled by petroleum oil or fuel.
  • Used to power larger vehicles.
  • Trucks, locomotives, and ships.
  • The combustion engine led to advances in other
    industries such as petroleum, steel, and rubber.

27
Production
  • Productivity- the amount of goods a worker can
    put out in a specific time.
  • Interchangeable parts- identical components that
    can be used in place of one another in
    manufacturing.
  • Introduced by Eli Whitney.

28
Assembly Line
  • Used by Henry Ford _at_ his automobile factory.
  • Highland Park, MI
  • Workers performed 1 or 2 tasks along a conveyer
    belt and the automobile was built along the line.
  • This was a more efficient way to produce goods.
  • Allowed goods to be sold at lower prices.
  • More people could afford goods such as
    automobiles so demand for these products rose.
  • Mass production was used to meet demand.
  • Turning out large quantities of identical goods.

29
Financing Industry
  • was needed to pay for new machines.
  • This lead to the development of the corporation.
  • Corporation- a business owned by many investors.
  • Investors buy one or more shares.
  • Corporations would often establish a monopoly.
  • Monopoly- total control over the market of a
    particular product.
  • Standard Oil Co.- John D. Rockafeller

30
Population Explosion
  • Industrial Revolution took place during a
    population increase in Europe.
  • Between 1750 and 1914 population soared from 140
    million to 463 million.
  • Agricultural Revolutionimproved diets and
    healthier people.
  • Medical discoveries and public sanitation
    decreased disease.
  • 1815 to 1914 no large scale wars fought.

31
Cities During the Industrial Rev.
  • Located along trade routes. (water and land)
  • Served mainly as markets.
  • Cities popped up fast.
  • People looking for jobs.
  • Living conditions got worse.
  • Manchester
  • 1750- Population of 16,000.
  • Iron and coal was nearby.
  • Result was textile factories were built here.
  • 1855- Manchester was the center of the British
    cotton industry.
  • Population of 455,000.

32
Manchester Cont.
  • Rapid growth caused major problems.
  • Overcrowded houses.
  • Inadequate water system.
  • No sanitation.
  • Pigs were the only garbage collectors.
  • Disease
  • Not a real city?
  • No charter.
  • Couldnt tax to raise .
  • Couldnt pass certain laws.

33
The Social Structure
  • Before Industrialization
  • Landowning Aristocracy
  • Small Middle Class
  • Skilled Workers
  • Small farmers or farm workers.
  • Made up the majority of the population.
  • After Industrialization
  • Middle Class expands and challenges the
    aristocracy.
  • Wealthiest of the middle class were factory and
    mine owners, bankers, and merchants.
  • Professionals joined them such as lawyers and
    doctors.
  • Artisans and business clerks made up the lower
    portion of the new middle class.

34
Social Structure
  • New Social Class
  • Factory Workers
  • Majority were unskilled.
  • Lowest class in society.
  • Workers knew they were a separate class.
  • Had little political and economical power.
  • They were aware of this.
  • By mid-century workers came together to improve
    their working and living conditions.

35
The Role of Women
  • Women helped farm the land and/or earned money
    through the domestic system.
  • Servants to the wealthy.
  • Women worked in the factories and the mines.
  • Families often worked together.
  • Work added to a womens responsibility.
  • Worked 12-16 hours but still had to cook and
    clean for her family.

36
The Role of Women Cont.
  • Housewives
  • Improved wages allow families to live on 1
    income.
  • Men start to become the wage earners while women
    tend to the home.
  • Single Women
  • Take jobs as servants.
  • Cooks, maids, and nurses.
  • Made up about 1/3 of the female work force.

37
Work Reform
  • Factory Act of 1833- limited the working day for
    children ages 9-13 was no more then 8 hours,
    14-18 no more then 12 hours
  • Mines Act-barred women and girls from working in
    mines and made 13 the minimum age for boys
  • Combination Acts- outlawed labor unions

38
  • What type of power replaced waterpower as a
    source of energy in Britain in the mid-1700s?
  • What was the main advantage of crop rotation?
  • Where did Britain get its labor force from for
    industry?
  • Identify the improvements in farming during 18th
    century England.
  • How did Britains colonies contribute to the
    Industrial Revolution?
  • What did Britains rapid population growth lead
    to?
  • What were consequences of the enclosure system?
  • What developments marked the beginning of the
    Industrial Revolution?
  • What did scientific farming include?
  • What conditions favored Great Britain in being
    the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution?
  • James Hargreaves
  • Richard Arkwright
  • What was the purpose of the cotton gin?
  • When did the Railroad Age begin in Britain?
  • Why was the Industrial Revolution slow to spread
    to other countries?
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