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Module 15

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Module 15 Motivation THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Motivation refers to the various physiological and psychological factors that cause us to act in a specific way at a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Module 15


1
Module 15
  • Motivation

2
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  • Motivation
  • refers to the various physiological and
    psychological factors that cause us to act in a
    specific way at a particular time
  • Instincts
  • innate tendencies or biological forces that
    determine behavior
  • Fixed action pattern
  • innate biological force that predisposes an
    organism to behave in a fixed way in the presence
    of a specific environmental condition

3
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (CONT.)
  • Brain reward/pleasure center
  • includes several areas of the brain, such as the
    nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area,
    and involves several neurotransmitters,
    especially dopamine
  • makes up a neural circuitry that produces
    rewarding and pleasurable feelings

4
p330 REWARD PLESURE CENTER
5
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (CONT.)
  • Incentives
  • goals, that can be either objects or thoughts,
    that we learn to value and that we are motivated
    to obtain
  • incentives have two common features
  • first can be thoughts
  • second can be objects

6
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (CONT.)
  • Cognitive factors
  • Extrinsic motivation
  • involves engaging in certain activities or
    behaviors that either reduce biological needs or
    help us obtain incentives or external rewards
  • Intrinsic motivation
  • involves engaging in certain activities or
    behaviors because the behaviors themselves are
    personally rewarding or because engaging in these
    activities fulfills our beliefs or expectations

7
BIOLOGICAL SOCIAL NEEDS
  • Biological needs
  • physiological requirements that are critical to
    our survival and physical well-being
  • Social needs
  • needs that are acquired through learning and
    experience
  • Satisfying needs
  • Maslows hierarchy of needs
  • ascending order, or hierarchy, in which
    biological needs are placed at the bottom and
    social needs at the top

8
p333 MASLOW HIERARCHY NEEDS
9
HUNGER
  • Optimal weight
  • ideal weight results from an almost perfect
    balance between how much food an organism eats
    and how much it needs to meet its bodys energy
    needs
  • calorie
  • a measure of how much energy food contains
  • Overweight
  • means that a person is 20 over the ideal body
    weight
  • obesity
  • means that a person is 30 or more above the
    ideal body weight

10
HUNGER (CONT.)
  • Three hunger factors
  • Biological hunger factors
  • come from physiological changes in blood
    chemistry and signals from digestive organs that
    provide feedback to the brain, which in turn,
    triggers us to eat or stop eating

11
HUNGER (CONT.)
  • Three hunger factors
  • instructions determine the number of fat cells or
    metabolic rates of burning off the bodys fuel,
    which push us toward being normal, overweight, or
    underweight
  • Biological hunger factors
  • peripheral cues
  • come from changes in blood chemistry or signals
    from digestive organs, which secrete various
    hormones

12
HUNGER (CONT.)
  • Genetic hunger factors
  • come from inherited instructions found in our
    genes
  • determine the number of fat cells or metabolic
    rates of burning off the bodys fuel, which push
    us toward being normal, overweight, or
    underweight
  • Psychosocial hunger factors
  • Come from learned associations between food and
    other stimuli, such as snacking while watching
    television, sociocultural influences, such as
    depression, dislike of body image, or low
    self-esteem

13
HUNGER (CONT.)
  • Three hunger factors
  • central cues
  • result from activity in different brain areas,
    which in turn result in increasing or decreasing
    appetite

14
HUNGER (CONT.)
  • Psychosocial hunger factors
  • personality traits
  • may be at great risk for overeating as well as
    developing serious eating disorders, such as
    overeating when stressed or depressed, going on
    food binges (bulimia nervosa), or starving
    oneself (anorexia nervosa)

15
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
  • Genetic sex factors
  • include inherited instructions for the
    development of sexual organs, the secretion of
    sex hormones, and the wiring of the neural
    circuits that control sexual reflexes
  • Biological sex factors
  • include the action of sex hormones, which are
    involved in secondary sexual characteristics
    (facial hair, breasts), sexual development of ova
    and sperm

16
p338 SPERM AND EGG
17
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.)
  • Genetic influences on sexual behavior
  • sex chromosome
  • sperm or the egg
  • contain 23 chromosomes (contain instructions for
    determining the sex of the child)
  • egg contains the X chromosome
  • sperms chromosome can either be X (female) or Y
    (male)
  • XY means male development
  • XX means female development
  • fertilized egg is called a zygote

18
p338 MALE AND FEMALE
19
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.)
  • Genetic influences on sexual behavior
  • differentiation
  • male sex organ and male brain
  • 5th week after conception, the testes begin to
    grow and produce male hormones called androgens
  • most familiar is testosterone
  • triggers development of male sexual organ
  • programs the hypothalamus so at puberty it
    triggers the pituitary gland to secrete hormones
    on a continuous basis

20
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.)
  • Genetic influences on sexual behavior
  • differentiation
  • female sex organs and female brain
  • absence of testosterone in the developing embryo
    means automatic development of female sexual
    organs
  • hypothalamus keeps female program

21
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.)
  • Psychological influences on sexual behavior
  • Psychological sex factors
  • play a role in developing a sexual or gender
    identity, gender role, and sexual orientation
  • Gender identity
  • refers to the individuals subjective experience
    and feelings of being either a male or female

22
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.)
  • Psychological influences on sexual behavior
  • Gender identity disorder
  • commonly referred to as transsexulaism
  • a person who has a strong and persistent desire
    to be the other sex, is uncomfortable about being
    ones assigned sex, and may wish to live as a
    member of the other sex
  • Gender roles
  • refer to the traditional or stereotypic
    behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that
    society designates as masculine or feminine

23
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.)
  • Psychological influences on sexual behavior
  • Sexual orientation
  • refers to whether a person is sexually aroused
    primarily by members of his or her own sex, the
    opposite sex, or both
  • Homosexual orientation
  • pattern of sexual arousal by persons of same
    sexes
  • Bisexual orientation
  • pattern of sexual arousal by persons of both
    sexes
  • Heterosexual orientation
  • pattern of sexual arousal by persons of the
    opposite sex

24
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.)
  • Sexual responses, problems, and treatments
  • Paraphilias
  • sexual deviations, characterized by repetitive or
    preferred sexual fantasies involving nonhuman
    objects, such as sexual attraction to particular
    articles of clothing (shoes, underclothes)
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • problems of sexual arousal or orgasm that
    interfere with adequate functioning during sexual
    intercourse

25
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.)
  • Sexual responses, problems, and treatments
  • Organic factors
  • medical conditions or drug or medication problems
    that lead to sexual difficulties
  • Psychological factors
  • performance anxiety, sexual trauma, guilt, or
    failure to communicate

26
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.)
  • Sexual responses, problems, and treatments
  • Premature or rapid ejaculation
  • persistent or recurrent absence of voluntary
    control over ejaculation,
  • male ejaculates with minimal sexual stimulation
    before, upon, or shortly after penetration and
    before he wishes to
  • Inhibited female orgasm
  • persistent delay or absence of orgasm after
    becoming aroused and excited

27
SEXUAL BEHAVIOR (CONT.)
  • AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  • HIV positive
  • presence of HIV antibodies, which means that the
    individual has been infected by the human
    immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) life
    threatening condition that is present when the
    individual is HIV positive and has a level of
    T-cells or has developed one or more of 26
    specified illnesses (pneumonia, skin cancer)

28
ACHIEVEMENT
  • Need for achievement
  • refers to the desire to set challenging goals and
    to persist in pursuing those goals in the face of
    obstacles, frustrations, and setbacks
  • Thematic Apperception Test
  • TAT, personality test in which subjects are asked
    to look at pictures of people in ambiguous
    situations and to make up stories about what the
    characters are thinking and feeling and what the
    outcome will be

29
ACHIEVEMENT (CONT.)
  • Need for achievement
  • High need for achievement
  • shown by those who persist longer at tasks
    perform better on tasks, activities, or exams
    set challenging but realistic goals compete with
    others to win and are attracted to careers that
    require initiative
  • Fear of failure
  • shown by people who are motivated to avoid
    failure by choosing easy, nonchallenging tasks
    where failure is more unlikely to occur

30
ACHIEVEMENT (CONT.)
  • Need for achievement
  • Fear of failure
  • Self-handicapping
  • refers to doing things that contribute to failure
    and then using these very things, knowingly or
    unknowingly, as excuses for failing to achieve
    some goal
  • Underachievement
  • underachievers are individuals who score
    relatively high on tests of ability or
    intelligence but perform more poorly than their
    scores would predict

31
ACHIEVEMENT (CONT.)
  • Cognitive influences
  • Cognitive factors in motivation
  • refer to how people evaluate or perceive a
    situation and how these evaluations and
    perceptions influence their willingness to work
  • Intrinsic motivation
  • involves engaging in certain activities or
    behaviors without receiving any external rewards
    because engaging in these activities fulfills
    our beliefs or expectations

32
ACHIEVEMENT (CONT.)
  • Cognitive influences
  • Cognitive factors in motivation
  • Extrinsic motivation
  • involves engaging in certain activities or
    behaviors that either reduce biological needs or
    help us obtain incentives and external rewards
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