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Introduction to Forensics

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Introduction to Forensics It s All About the Connections Physics Engineering Biology Mathematics Forensic Science Law Technology Chemistry Anatomy/ Physiology It is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Forensics


1
Introduction to Forensics
2
Its All About the Connections

Mathematics


Physics
Technology


Forensic Science

Engineering
Chemistry


Law


Biology
Anatomy/ Physiology
3
  • It is one thing to show a man that he is in
    error, and another to put him in possession of
    truth.
  • John Locke (1632-1704)

4
Forensics
  • Application of science to law

5
Branches of forensics
  • Pathology
  • Fingerprints
  • Toxicology
  • Entomology
  • Anthropology
  • Botany
  • Odontology

6
Branches of Forensics
  • Serology
  • DNA electrophoresis
  • Document examination
  • Impression evidence
  • Tool marks
  • Tire prints
  • Shoe prints
  • Computer analysis
  • Arson

7
Branches of Forensics
  • Profiling
  • Environmental forensics
  • Wildlife forensics
  • Firearms/Ballistics
  • Trace Evidence
  • Hair
  • Fibers
  • Soil
  • glass
  • Engineering

8
Branches of Forensics
  • Photography
  • Polygraphs
  • Audio specialists/Voiceprints
  • Video analysis
  • Psychiatry
  • Competence
  • State of mind
  • Profiling

9
Locard Exchange Principle
  • When two objects come into contact, material is
    exchanged.

10
  • An expert is someone knowing more and more about
    less and less, eventually knowing everything
    about nothing.
  • Attributed to Sir Bernard Spillsbury, MD

11
Expert witnesses
  • Allowed to offer an opinion during testimony
  • 1923 Frye Standard (general acceptance)
  • 1993 Daubert Standard

12
Daubert vs Merrell Dow
  • Morning sickness drug caused birth defects
  • Plaintiffs had many experts
  • Court ruled against the experts saying the
    methods were not generally accepted within the
    profession

13
Daubert standards
  • Judge determines who is an expert
  • A) Has the experts scientific method been
    tested?
  • B) Has the experts method been the subject of
    peer review and testing
  • C) What is the actual or potential rate of error?
  • D) Do other scientists generally accept the
    experts methods?
  • E) Technique must follow standards.

14
Who runs forensic labs?
  • Private
  • Police
  • Coroner/ medical examiner
  • State
  • University
  • Secret Service
  • FBI
  • ATF

15
What keeps crime labs the busiest?
  1. Drugs
  2. DNA
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