Agriculture Mechanics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 58
About This Presentation
Title:

Agriculture Mechanics

Description:

Agriculture Mechanics By David p Andrews Exploring careers in Agricultural mechanics 1 section unit 1 mechanics in the world of agriculture unit 2 career options in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:334
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 59
Provided by: wareK12G5
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Agriculture Mechanics


1
(No Transcript)
2
Agriculture Mechanics
  • By
  • David p Andrews

3
Exploring careers in Agricultural mechanics1
sectionunit 1 mechanics in the world of
agricultureunit 2 career options in agriculture
mechanicshttp//www.delmarlearning.com/samplechap
ters/dl_display_sampchap.aspx?isbn0766814106cid
3
4
  • U N I T 1
  • Mechanics in the World
  • of Agriculture
  • TERMS TO
  • KNOW
  • agriculture
  • agriscience
  • agribusiness
  • renewable natural
  • resources
  • occupational cluster
  • occupation
  • business
  • profit
  • employment
  • trade

5
  • mechanical
  • mechanic
  • technician
  • mechanics
  • agricultural
  • mechanics
  • efficiency
  • OBJECTIVE
  • To determine how mechanical skills, concepts, and
    principles are
  • used in agriculture and related occupations.
  • Competencies to be developed
  • After studying this unit, you should be able to
  • Define agriculture and agricultural
  • mechanics.

6
  • Define occupation and describe an occupational
  • cluster.
  • Describe the role of mechanics and
  • mechanical applications in society.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of contributions
  • made by mechanical application to the
  • development of agriculture.
  • Name eight inventors of important agricultural
  • machines.
  • Materials List
  • ? Pencil
  • ? Paper
  • ? Encyclopedias

7
  • 4 SECTION 1 Exploring Careers in Agricultural
    Mechanics
  • Historically, the word agriculture meant to farm
  • or to grow plants or animals. Today, agriculture
  • may be defined as those activities concerned with
  • plants and animals and the related supplies,
    services,
  • mechanics, products, processing, and marketing
  • related to plants, animals, and the environment.
    The
  • term AgriScience evolved during the current
    decade
  • to clearly denote that agriculture is a science.
    Actually,
  • modern agriculture covers so many activities that
  • a simple definition is not possible. The United
    States
  • Department of Education developed the phrase
  • agriculture/agribusiness and renewable natural

8
  • resources to refer to the broad range of
    activities
  • associated with agriculture. Agribusiness refers
    to
  • the network of commercial firms that have
    developed
  • with or stem out of agriculture.
  • Renewable natural resources are the
  • resources provided by nature that can replace or
  • renew themselves. Examples of such resources are
  • wildlife, trees, and fish as well as their
    natural surroundings.
  • Some occupations in renewable natural
  • resources are game trapper, forester, and
    waterman. A
  • waterman uses boats and specialized equipment to
  • harvest fish, oysters, and other seafood.
  • All jobs and types of work in the field of
    agriculture/

9
  • agribusiness and renewable natural resources
  • make up an occupational cluster. An occupational
  • cluster is a group of related jobs. There are
    many
  • occupations that are related to agriculture as
    illustrated
  • in figure 11. Agricultural mechanics is only
  • one of the many careers that fall under the broad
  • term of agriculture.
  • Agriculture depends on many nonfarm workers
  • for goods and services. For every farm worker in
    the
  • United States, there are said to be four workers
    in
  • nonfarm agricultural jobs, figure 12. Nonfarm
    agriculturists

10
  • provide machinery, equipment, fertilizer,
  • feed, seed, money, research, and government
    services.
  • Similarly, marketing, transporting, processing,
  • and distributing farm products are done by
    nonfarm
  • agriculturalists. This network of nonfarm
    agricultural
  • workers helps the average U.S. farmer feed about
  • 128 people per year, figure 13. On the most
    productive
  • and efficient farms, however, one farmer may
  • produce enough to feed more than 200 people.
  • The term occupation means business, employment,
  • or trade. It is the work a person does regularly
  • to earn a living. Business generally refers to
    work
  • done for profit. Profit refers to income made
    from
  • the sale of goods or services after expenses have
    been
  • taken out. An example of profit is the income
    made
  • by a local machinery dealer or a local garden
    center
  • minus expenses.
  • Employment means work done for pay.
  • Employees are paid by the hour, day, week, month,

11
  • or year. A small-engines mechanic employed at the
  • local machinery dealer is probably paid by the
    hour,
  • but the sales manager is probably paid an annual
  • salary with bonuses based on sales volume.
  • Trade refers to specific kinds of work or
    businesses,
  • especially those that require skilled mechanical
  • work. Mechanical means having to do with a
  • machine, mechanism, or machinery. A person who is
  • specifically trained to perform mechanical tasks
    is a
  • mechanic. A mechanic who uses high technology is
  • generally called a technician. The mechanic must
  • be skilled in the use of tools and machines. The
  • mechanic must also be able to select appropriate
  • materials, use a variety of processes, and analyze

12
  • problems. The term mechanics is defined as the
  • branch of physics dealing with motion, and the
  • action of forces on bodies or fluids.
  • The term agricultural mechanics is the selection,
  • operation, maintenance, servicing, selling, and
  • use of power units, machinery, equipment,
    structures,
  • and utilities used in agriculture. Hundreds of
  • different jobs are available in agricultural
    mechanics.
  • A total of 99 out of 305 occupational entries in
    A
  • Concise Handbook of Occupations are mechanical in
  • nature.
  • AGRICULTUREA BASIC
  • INDUSTRY
  • Agriculture is a very complex industry. The
    industry
  • produces plant and animal products from
  • which thousands of commodities are made. Since
  • every person and many industries depend upon
  • agriculture, it is said to be a basic industry.
    Some

13
  • products of agriculture are food, oils, fiber,
    lumber,
  • ornamental trees and shrubs, flowers, leather,
    fertilizers,
  • feed, seed, and more. Basic agricultural
  • products form the raw materials for many items of
  • everyday living.
  • Fabrics for clothing, curtains, and floor
    coverings
  • are made from oils such as corn oil, soybean oil,
    and
  • cottonseed oil. Plastics of all kinds are also
    made
  • from vegetable oils. Products from animals are
    used
  • to make materials such as glue, leather, and
    paint.
  • Many medicines come from plants and animals. The
  • manufacture of automobiles, furniture, airplanes,
  • radios, stereos, and computers all depends on
    agriculture
  • for certain raw materials. The construction of
  • homes, boats, and factories all depends on
    agriculture
  • for lumber, fiber, and other basic commodities.
  • Most dwellings in America are surrounded by lawn,
  • shrubs, or other plants for beautification. These
    are
  • also agricultural commodities.

14
  • THE ROLE OF
  • AGRICULTURAL
  • MECHANICS
  • Mechanical applications are found throughout
  • agriculture. Some of these applications are shown
    in
  • figures 14 through 18. A few examples of jobs
  • involving agricultural mechanics are
  • the engineer who designs tractors and other
  • farm and ranch machines
  • the forester who keeps chainsaws and other
  • equipment going

15
  • the builder of processing plants, farm
    buildings,
  • and aquaculture facilities
  • the electrician who installs climate controls,
  • silo unlades, and milling equipment
  • the soil conservationist who constructs terraces
  • to control erosion
  • the hardware store employee who must locate
  • repair parts for agricultural tools and machines
  • the air conditioning and refrigeration
    specialist
  • in processing and storage facilities
  • the designer and installer of field, turf,
    landscape,

16
  • the lawn equipment service mechanic who
  • repairs lawn tractors
  • the welder who repairs farm machinery
  • the mechanic who keeps the diesel trucks and
  • machines going.
  • Processing plants for field crops, livestock,
    poultry,
  • fruits, and vegetables all have machinery. Such
  • machinery requires designers, engineers,
    operators,
  • maintenance and repair personnel, and
    construction
  • workers. Even people with jobs in finance,
    publications,
  • and communications may need some knowledge
  • of mechanics when their assignments deal with
  • agriculture. All are likely to use computers and
    computer
  • applications in their work.
  • THE INFLUENCE
  • OF MECHANIZATION

17
  • At the birth of the United States in 1776, over
    90 percent
  • of the American colonists were farmers, yet
  • many of General Washingtons troops at Valley
    Forge
  • died for lack of food and clothing. Today, less
    than
  • 10 percent of all Americans work in agriculture,
    yet
  • there are generally food surpluses in America.
    The
  • ratio of farm workers to nonfarm people in
    America
  • approximately reversed itself in 200 years. In
    1776,
  • the farm-to-nonfarm ratio was approximately 9 to
    1.
  • Today, the ratio of agricultural workers to the
  • remaining population is approximately 1 to 9.
    Mechanization
  • has played a major role in this rise in
    production
  • efficiency. Efficiency means ability to produce
  • with a minimum waste of time, energy, and
  • materials.

18
  • America provided the inventors for many of the
  • worlds most important agricultural machines.
    Cyrus
  • McCormick invented the reaper in 1834 to cut
    small
  • grain crops. Later, the combine was invented,
    which
  • cut and threshed the grain in the field. Today,
    one
  • modern combine operator can cut and thresh as
  • much grain in one day as 100 persons could cut
    and
  • bundle in one day in the 1830s.
  • Two inventions had a profound influence on the
  • settling of this country. The first was by a man
  • named John Deere who developed a steel plow that
  • replaced an iron plow invented by Thomas
    Jefferson.
  • The plow invented by Deere in 1837 allowed
    farmers
  • to break up the tough sod that previously had
    prevented
  • pioneers from cultivating the rich prairie
  • soils. This allowed settlers to inhabit all of
    the Midwest
  • and Plains region where so much of our food is
  • grown today.

19
  • The other invention that affected settlement
  • was by Eli Whitney who developed a machine,
  • called a gin, to remove seeds from cotton. Prior
    to
  • his invention in 1793, seeds were removed from
    cotton
  • by hand. The seeds were easily separated from
  • the cotton, but it was still time consuming.
    Another
  • problem was the type of cotton grown. Cotton
  • with loose seeds was the Sea Island or
    long-staple
  • variety that would only grow along the coast of
  • Georgia and the Carolinas. Upland cotton would
  • grow anywhere in the South, but the seeds of this
  • type were almost impossible to separate by hand.
  • Whitneys gin not only saved labor, but opened up
  • the entire southern portion of the nation for
    cultivation
  • of upland cotton.
  • In 1850, Edmund W. Quincy invented the
  • mechanical corn picker. Joseph Gliddens
    development
  • of barbed wire permitted establishment of
  • ranches with definite boundaries.

20
(No Transcript)
21
  • Perhaps no invention has had more impact on
  • agriculture and the lives of people than the
    invention
  • of refrigeration. Prior to this time, produce and
  • meats had to be sold fresh and the shelf life was
    very
  • short. With mechanical refrigeration, meats and
    produce
  • could not only be stored much longer, but
  • could also be transported long distances.
    Refrigerated
  • railcars and trucks allowed livestock, fruits,
    and vegetables
  • to be produced in one part of the country and
  • shipped across the country to large cities. For
    the first
  • time in history, people could have fresh meats
    and
  • vegetables year-round.

22
  • Many of the early inventors worked alone or
  • with one or two partners. They all could be
    considered
  • workers in the area of agricultural mechanics. By
  • the early 1900s, many people worked in factories
    or
  • operated businesses. The companies that were
  • formed to produce agricultural machinery or
    process
  • agricultural products turned to invention also.
    For
  • instance, mechanical cotton pickers were
    developed
  • in the 1930s by several American companies.
  • Agriculture has become highly mechanized in
  • the developed countries of the world. For the
    undeveloped
  • countries, many engineers, teachers, and
  • technicians have sought simple, tough, and
    reliable
  • small machines to improve agriculture. In such
  • countries, Americas highly developed, complex,
  • computerized, and expensive machinery will not
    do.
  • Most countries do not have people trained for the
  • variety of agricultural mechanics jobs that are
    needed
  • to support Americas agriculture.

23
  • 1930s. Yet, a machine with rubber tires is
    useless if
  • a tire is damaged and repair services are not
    available.
  • This is the case in most undeveloped countries
  • in Central and South America, Asia, and Africa.
  • Much of the world cannot compete with American
  • agriculture because the related agricultural
    products
  • and services are not available to support the
    farm
  • worker.
  • The efficiency of American agriculture will
  • increase in the future as computer-controlled
  • machines and robotics play an important part. It
    is
  • exciting to envision the changes in store for
    agricultural
  • mechanization in the twenty-first century.

24
  • SUMMARY
  • Agricultural mechanics has been fundamental to
    the
  • development of the agricultural industry in this
  • country. Much of the tremendous increase in the
  • efficiency of the American producers is due to
    the
  • innovations in mechanics. The wiring of buildings
    to
  • supply power the repairing of engines and
    equipment
  • the laying of pipe for water supplies and the
  • constructions of buildings are only a few
    examples of
  • mechanics in agriculture. As further advances are
  • made the role of mechanics in agriculture will be
    as
  • prominent in the future as it has been in the
    past.

25
S T U D E N T A C T I V I T I E S
  • 1. Define the Terms to Know in this unit.
  • 2. Interview a Cooperative Extension Specialist
    for Agricultural Resources in your county or
    city. Ask the
  • specialist to describe the different jobs people
    do in your locality that are regarded as
    agricultural or
  • agriculturally related.
  • 3. Look up inventors or inventions in an
    encyclopedia. Pick out the inventions that relate
    to agriculture
  • and report your findings to the class.
  • 4. Select three or five classmates to join you in
    a debate on the role of agriculture in society.
    One team
  • should support the position that agriculture is
    the backbone of society. The opposing team should
  • support the notion that it is not.
  • 5. Consider an everyday product such as bread,
    milk, leather gloves, or a corsage for Mothers
    Day. Trace
  • the production, processing, and marketing of the
    item from its source to finished product. List
    points
  • along the way where agricultural mechanics are
    used.

26
S E L F - E V A L U A T I O NMultiple Choice.
Select the best answer.
  • 1. The production of plants and animals and the
  • related supplies, services, mechanics, products,
  • processing, and marketing defines
  • a. horticulture
  • b. renewable natural resources
  • c. agricultural mechanics
  • d. agriculture
  • 2. Agribusiness is
  • a. the same as agricultural mechanics
  • b. limited to the sale of agricultural products
  • c. business stemming from agriculture
  • d. special work done by medical doctors
  • 3. Examples of renewable natural resources are
  • a. oil, gas, and coal
  • b. fish, trees, and wildlife
  • c. rubber, steel, and water
  • d. air, soil, and minerals

27
  • 4. The term occupation means
  • a. business
  • b. employment
  • c. trade
  • d. all of these
  • 5. Agricultural mechanics stems mostly from
  • a. physics
  • b. biology
  • c. medicine
  • d. horticulture
  • 6. Agricultural products come from
  • a. soil and coal
  • b. plants and animals
  • c. iron ore and aluminum
  • d. atomic fuel

28
  • 7. Products of agriculture include
  • a. leather seat covers
  • b. paint
  • c. flower arrangements
  • d. all of these
  • 8. Agricultural mechanics includes the occupation
  • of
  • a. garden tractor repairperson
  • b. automobile mechanic
  • c. pile driver
  • d. systems analyst
  • 9. Mechanization of agriculture has resulted in
  • a. decreased soil production
  • b. decreased farm expenses
  • c. increased production efficiency
  • d. increased numbers of farm workers

29
  • 10. Cyrus McCormick invented the
  • a. steel plow
  • b. cotton gin
  • c. milking machine
  • d. reaper
  • 11. In 1776, the ratio of farm workers to nonfarm
  • people was approximately
  • a. 9 to 1
  • b. 1 to 1
  • c. 4 to 1
  • d. 1 to 9
  • 12. Today, the ratio of agricultural workers to
    the
  • remaining population is approximately
  • a. 9 to 1
  • b. 1 to 9
  • c. 4 to 1
  • d. 1 to 1

30
  • EVALUATION PLAN
  • Person(s) responsible for the evaluation
    Vasamillet
  • 1. Evaluation scope
  • There is interest in a programme that prepares
    agricultural mechanics. While the school does not
    offer such a programme, the director would
    initiate one if a real need is proven. The
    objective of this evaluation is to determine the
    need for an agriculture mechanics programme.
  • 2. Programme description
  • Appropriate documents will be reviewed to
    determine programme goals, activities and
    required resources. Existing resources will also
    be assessed to determine if they are compatible
    with programme requirements.

31
  • 3. Measures and design
  • A random sample of potential students and
    prospective employers will be surveyed to
    determine needs. Manpower reports and curriculum
    documents will also be reviewed. Complementary
    information will be analysed, similarities and
    discrepancies noted and conclusions drawn.
  • 4. Data concerns
  • Questionnaires will be sent to students and
    employers on 15 September and again on 15 October
    to non-respondents. Review of manpower reports,
    curriculum documents and existing resources will
    start on 15 September. Tabulation and analysis of
    data will commence on 15 November. Bar graphs
    will be used to present data. The final written
    report will be delivered to the director by 1
    December.
  • 5. Budget
  • A total of US 700 has been set aside for
    evaluation. Personnel expenses will be US 270.
    Test items will cost US 30 and communications
    US 400.
  • PLANNING SHEET 1
  • SCOPE OF THE EVALUATION
  • Steps

32
  • 1.1 What programme is to be evaluated?
  • Agricultural mechanics 1.2 Who wants to know
    about the programme?
  • School director 1.3 What decisions will be based
    on the evaluation?
  • Whether or not to start an agricultural mechanics
    programme 1.4 What information must be given to
    the audience?
  • Supply of and demand for agricultural
    mechanics Pool of qualified students
    Programme goals, activities and required
    resources 1.5 What is/are the objective(s) of the
    evaluation?
  • - To determine the need for an agricultural
    mechanics programme - To determine if the school
    has sufficient resources to implement such a
    programme
  • PLANNING SHEET 2
  • PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION
  • Steps
  • 2.1 What are the programme outcomes?
  • To be determined by assessment 2.2 What are the
    programme activities?
  • To be determined by assessment 2.3 What are the
    required resources?
  • To be determined by assessment PLANNING SHEET 3
  • MEASURES AND DESIGNS
  • Steps

33
  • 3.1 What will be measured?
  • Students and employers to be served by the
    programme The supply of agricultural
    mechanics The demand for agricultural
    mechanics The pool of qualified students
    Programme goals, activities and required
    resources 3.2 What instruments will be used?
  • Student and employer questionnaires Manpower
    supply and demand documents Curriculum and
    facility documents 3.3 How will data be analysed?
  • Descriptive analysis of observed
    agreement/differences between official statistics
    and employer and student responses Descriptive
    analysis of existing resources and those
    prescribed in curriculum documents
  • 3.4 What designs will be used?
  • Informal comparisons of

34
  • manpower data and student-employer responses-
    existing resources and those prescribed in
    standard documents 3.5 What sampling strategy
    will be used?
  • Random sample of employers and students PLANNING
    SHEET 4
  • DATA CONCERNS
  • Steps
  • 4.1 What are the deadlines?
  • 1 September - Develop questionnaires, order
    documents 15 September - Send questionnaires,
    read documents 15 October - Send second
    questionnaire to non-respondents 15 November -
    Tabulate/analyse data 1 December - Final report
    4.2 How will data be presented?
  • Bar graphs will be used to show employer, student
    and manpower data 4.3 How will data be reported?
  • Written report delivered to the school director
    PLANNING SHEET 5
  • BUDGET
  • Steps Costs Estimated Actual -

35
  • 5.1 What are the personnel costs? Evaluator
    Consultant 200 Clerical 20 Typist 50
    5.2 Travel/lodging/food Transportation
    Housing Meals 5.3 Test items/analysis

36
  • Test purchase 30 Test scoring Data processing
    5.4 Communication Telephone 100 Postage 300
    Telex 5.5 Other costs 5.6 Total costs 700
    Discussion of case study 1
  • This case study addressed curriculum planning -
    whether or not to offer a TVE curriculum. To
    provide appropriate information a needs
    assessment was proposed. This design uses
    complementary information to draw conclusions.

37
  • Information is drawn from different sources -
    employer and student responses to questionnaires
    and published manpower data. A second dimension
    looks at proposed programme goals, activities and
    required resources in terms of existing curricula
    and resources. This information helps the
    director decide if the school has sufficient
    resources to implement the new programme

38
  • Needs assessments are highly speculative.
    Decisions are subjective because reliable
    evidence about the supply of and demand for
    workers is not always available. Also, changes in
    society, technology and the economy create an
    ever-changing job market. At best, a needs
    assessment provides a snapshot in time of the
    employment situation

39
  • pictures of Agriculture Mechanics

40
(No Transcript)
41
(No Transcript)
42
(No Transcript)
43
(No Transcript)
44
(No Transcript)
45
(No Transcript)
46
(No Transcript)
47
(No Transcript)
48
(No Transcript)
49
(No Transcript)
50
(No Transcript)
51
(No Transcript)
52
(No Transcript)
53
(No Transcript)
54
(No Transcript)
55
(No Transcript)
56
hiperlinks
  • http//www.bls.gov/oco/ocos255.htm
  • http//www.bls.gov/oco/ocos198.htm
  • http//www.bls.gov/oco/ocos229.htm
  • http//www.bls.gov/oco/ocos197.htm
  • http//www.bls.gov/oco/ocos353.htm
  • http//www.bls.gov/oco/ocos107.htm
  • http//www.delmarlearning.com/samplechapters/dl_di
    splay_sampchap.aspx?isbn0766814106cid3

57
(No Transcript)
58
(No Transcript)
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com