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Traffic Incident Management


Traffic Related Fatalities: ... 17/6 2000 163 37/4 10 9 5 14/4 Traffic Related Fatalities: Fire NIOSH: Firefighter Fatality Case Studies Year Total Vehicle ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Traffic Incident Management

Traffic Incident Management
  • A systematic, planned and coordinated use of
    resources to reduce the impact of incidents, and
    improve the safety of motorists, crash victims
    and incident responders

What is an Incident?
  • A traffic incident is an
  • emergency road user
  • occurrence, a natural disaster,
  • or other unplanned event
  • that affects or impedes the
  • normal flow of traffic.
  • (MUTCD Chapter 6I)

1 Issue-Responder Safety
  • 15,000 Responder Vehicles Struck
  • Nationwide Every Year
  • More Than 10,000
  • Responder Injuries
  • Annually

Source No. Central TX Council of Govts
Incidents the problem
  • An event that causes a reduction of roadway
  • Examples Traffic crashes, vehicle fires,
    disabled vehicles, construction zones, traffic
    stops and special events (NASCAR races, concerts,
    sporting events)
  • Do we become part of the problem or the solution
    to the problem?
  • Limited Exposure is the key to success.

(No Transcript)
Traffic Related Fatalities PoliceOfficers Down
Memorial Page
Year Total Fatalities Auto Crashes Motor-cycle Struck by Vehicle Vehicle Pursuit Vehicle Assault
2006 142 35 7 11 3 16/7
2005 156 33 4 11 5 15/3
2004 161 34 8/2 8 6 18/7
2003 146 40/2 8/1 7 13 9/1
2002 159 37/1 6 7 5 12/7
2001 240 34/2 7/1 12 5 17/6
2000 163 37/4 10 9 5 14/4
Traffic Related Fatalities FireNIOSH
Firefighter Fatality Case Studies
Year Total Vehicle Collisions Struck by Vehicles Responding and Returning
2005 115 25 4 23
2004 117 20 5 22
2003 111 34 5 36
2002 100 24 5 13
2001 443 21 3 23
2000 102 21 5 19
Effects of Congestion Capacity(US DOT study
November 2000)
Number of Lanes Shoulder Blocked One Lane Two Lanes Three Lanes
2 19 65 100 N/A
3 17 51 83 100
4 15 42 75 87
Secondary Incidents
  • 20 of all incidents
  • Likelihood increases 2.8 each minute
  • In Pennsylvania TIM decreased secondary
    incidents on highways 40 between 1993 and 1997

Reduce Congestion Delay
  • 1 minute of lane blockage equals 4 minutes of
    delay per driver 10 minutes of a road closure
    equals 40 minutes of congestion
  • Reducing Congestion Mitigation is a US DOT and
    FWHA Priority

Why are we concerned?
  • Freight Mobility
  • Economic Impact
  • Texas Transportation Institute (TTI)
  • In 2004 Idled Trucks (cost to industry)
  • 243 million hours
  • 7.8 billion dollars (passed on to consumers)
  • 1 Trillion per year cost for delays
  • 200 Billion loss due to accidents and fatalities
  • 8 Billion to Trucking Industry

What is the solution?
  • Limit our Exposure
  • Address the safety of responders, victims and
    other motorists
  • Alleviate congestion
  • Clear the roadway by applying quick clearance
  • Traffic stops shall be better planned
  • Proper position of vehicles
  • Discipline the use of emergency lights
  • Use traffic control devices
  • Follow the MUTCD
  • Utilize traffic advisories
  • Utilize a observer

Players in the game
  • Fire/EMS Departments
  • Police Departments
  • Tow and Recovery agencies
  • Department of Transportation
  • Media

Fire/EMS Departments
  • Address fire and other potential hazards
  • Render medical aid to injured victims
  • Reduce exposure by staging equipment
  • Keep lanes open if safe
  • Communicate expectations to other responders
  • Set-up Initial Zones

Fire/EMS Departments contLimiting our exposure
  • Know the weather conditions
  • Initiate tow/recovery units at the scene
  • Remove vehicles from roadway
  • Take persons to a safe waiting location
  • Communicate/Coordinate/Cooperate with other
    emergency responders

Police Departments
  • Traffic control set up initial traffic zones
  • Crash Investigation
  • Initiate tow/recovery operations
  • Relocate vehicles off the roadway
  • Implement quick clearance practices
  • Use technology to increase efficiency

Police Departments cont
  • Choose good locations for traffic stops
  • Relocate traffic stops when secured
  • Relocate property damage traffic crashes
  • Communicate needs to dispatch and other
    responding units
  • Communicate/Coordinate/Cooperate with other
    emergency responders

Towing/Recovery agencies
  • Provide services for removal of vehicles and
  • Keep lanes of traffic unobstructed
  • Participate as responders at incidents
  • Utilize resources to impact duration of incident

Towing/Recovery agencies cont
  • Provide training to other emergency responders
  • Provide equipment and capability list to other
  • Set-up traffic control measures at all incidents
  • Communicate/Coordinate/Cooperate with other
    emergency responders

Transportation Departments
  • Provide traffic control for major incidents or
  • Develop alternate routes for major incidents or
  • Maintain communication links with media
  • Provide for roadway repairs and maintenance
  • Communicate/Coordinate/Cooperate with other
    emergency responders

  • Provide information to other travelers
  • Update information for motorists approaching
  • Broadcast alternate routes to minimize impact in
    immediate area of incident

Pre-planning and coordinating
  • Interdisciplinary cross training brings a better
    understanding of how we work together
  • Unified Command brings fire, police, towing and
    DOT together to make informed decisions
  • Debriefing sessions help to identify strengths
    and weaknesses leading to the creation of best

Best practices Pre-incident
  • Test detection devices and determine how
    verification will be made
  • Anticipate significant events and meet with all
    agencies to define roles
  • Rehearse response
  • Stage equipment
  • Pre-plan diversion route

Best practices at the scene
  • Linear response leaves lanes open
  • Use traffic control devices/Reflective Vests
  • Share responsibilities
  • Communication is the key
  • Provide the public with information

Best practices
  • Discipline the use of emergency lighting
  • Attend joint training sessions
  • Recognize and incorporate technological
  • Keep the scene safe for all involved
  • Review and improve

(No Transcript)
6I General Guidance 4. Estimation
  • Responders should within 15 minutes of arrival
  • Estimate the magnitude of the incident,
  • Estimate the expected time duration of the
  • Estimate the expected vehicle queue length,
  • Establish Unified Command if applicable
  • Set-up appropriate TTC for the estimates

Temporary Traffic Control Zones
  • Minor Incident expected duration under thirty
    minutes Stalled cars, traffic stops, medical
    emergency, minor crash, car fire
  • Intermediate Incident expected duration 30
    minutes to two hours Crash w/ Entrapment, minor
    hazardous materials spill, criminal investigation
  • Major Incident expected duration more than two
    hours Major hazardous materials spills, vehicle
    recovery operation, fatals, criminal
    investigation (reckless homicides)

Minor Incidents (Less than 30 minutes)
  • Safe Positioning
  • Advanced Warning
  • Establish initial block with 1st arriving
    emergency vehicle
  • Establish a Temporary Traffic Control Zone
  • Use additional resources to redirect the flow of
    moving traffic
  • Move incident to shoulder as quickly as possible
  • Establish advanced warning utilizing arrow
    sticks, vehicle lighting, positioning and/or
  • Set up transition zones utilizing channeling
  • Responders should be trained in Traffic Incident
    Management (TIM)

Intermediate Incidents (30 minutes to 2 hours)
  • Safe Positioning
  • Advanced Warning
  • Establish an initial block with first arriving
    emergency vehicle
  • Establish a Temporary Traffic Control Zone
  • Use additional resources to redirect the flow of
    moving traffic
  • Follow Minor Incident requirements
  • Establish greater buffer and transition zones
  • Position advanced warning signs and/or cones
    further upstream
  • Qualified flaggers or uniformed police officers
    for manual traffic control

Major Incidents (Greater than2 hours)
  • Safe Positioning
  • Advanced Warning
  • Establish an initial block with first arriving
    emergency vehicle
  • Establish a Temporary Traffic Control Zone
  • Use additional resources to redirect the flow of
    moving traffic
  • Follow Other Incident requirements
  • Establish more permanent traffic control devices
  • Position advanced warning signs upstream
  • DOT should become involved for signs and
    channeling devices

  • Activity Area
  • Tapers
  • Work/Buffer Zones
  • Early Warning
  • Termination Area

6C.06 Activity Area
  • The activity area is the section of the highway
    where the work activity takes place. It is
    comprised of the
  • Work space.
  • The traffic space.
  • The buffer space.

6C.06 Activity Area
  • Work space portion of highway closed to road
    users and set aside for workers and equipment.
  • Traffic space portion of the highway in which
    road users are routed through activity area
  • Buffer space lateral and/or longitudinal that
    separates road users flow from the work space.
  • A Spotter should be used in this area to be the
    eyes and ears of the workers.

6C.08 Tapers
  • Tapers may be used in both the transition
    (upstream) and termination (downstream) areas.
  • Tapers are created by using a series of
    channelizing devices and/or pavement markings to
    move traffic out of or into the normal path.

6C.07 Termination Area
  • The termination area shall be used to return road
    users to their normal path.
  • The termination area shall extend from the
    downstream end of the work area to the last TTC
    device such as END ROAD WORK signs, if posted.

Utilization of Traffic Control Devices
  • Pre-warning sign properly placed
  • Use of Traffic Cones
  • Apparatus used as a block

MUTCD Suggested Advanced Warning Sign Spacing
Road Type A B C
Urban (low speed) 100 ft. 100 ft. 100 ft.
Urban (high speed) 350 ft. 350 ft. 350 ft.
Rural 500 ft. 500 ft. 500 ft.
Freeways and Expressways 1,000 ft. 1,500 ft. 2,640 ft.
Utilization of Traffic Control DevicesUsing skip
lines to determine distances
  • 10 30 Skip for lane dividing lines
  • 10 ft. 30 ft. 10 ft.
  • 40 ft.

Utilization of Traffic Control Devices
Utilization of Traffic Control Devices
Utilization of Traffic Control Devices
Utilize the Block and Shadow
Utilizing the Block and Shadow
  • A block is a piece of equipment that is used to
    protect workers in the work area from flowing
  • A shadow area is the area immediately
    downstream of the block where workers are working
    that offers some protection for emergency
    responders and victims from flowing traffic

Utilizing the Block and Shadow
Utilizing the Block and Shadow
  • We need to establish the block early into the
  • Once the block is established, responders should
    operate in the shadow area
  • Ensure the block is not too far from the work
  • DO NOT give them a space to fit in your area!!

Do not let them get by you!!
Why we need to utilizeBlock and Shadow
Why we need to utilizeBlock and ShadowN.C.
Paramedic struck, loses legs at Crash Scene
If this is how you position apparatus and allow
your personnel to operate while working in or
near moving traffic.. You could be next on the
LODD list!!!
Bunker Gear vs. Reflective Vests
Easily Seen
Torn and Frayed
Anytown FD
Easily Seen
Missing Band
Use of Reflective Vests
  • Utilized on all roadway incidents
  • OSHA requires visibility of 1000 feet
  • ANSI I, II, III Levels
  • NFPA 1500 8.4.25 requires vest be worn

ANSI Standards Safety Vests
Courtesy of Mifflin Valley Reflective
ApparelFeatures of ANSI-compliant highway safety
vests include the lime-green or orange main vest
color with the contrasting color stripes and
reflective trim.
Highway Safety Garment Classifications
Class I highway safety vests are appropriate when traffic speeds are less than 25 mph, workers are separated from approaching traffic and workers can give their undivided attention to oncoming traffic. Class II vests are normally specified when traffic speeds exceed 25 mph, work takes place in or near moving traffic, during inclement weather, and the workers tasks occasionally divert their attention from traffic. Class III garments offer the greatest visibility to workers in high-risk environments that involve high task loads, a wide range of weather conditions and traffic exceeding 50 mph. The design of Class III garments allows workers to be conspicuous through a full range of body motions at a minimum of 1,280 feet, and when the workers must focus all their attention on their work and not traffic.
FHWA/DOT 23 CFR Part 634Worker Visibility
  • All workers within the right-of-way of a
    Federal-aid highway who are exposed either to
    traffic (vehicles using the highway for purposes
    of travel) or to construction equipment within
    the work area shall wear high-visibility safety
  • 23 CFR Part 634.3
  • Requires ANSI Class II (minimum)
  • November 24, 2008 all agencies must comply

FHWA/DOT 23 CFR Part 634Worker Visibility
  • Worker means people on foot whose duties place
    them within the right-of-way of a Federal aid
  • highway construction maintenance forces,
  • survey crews,
  • utility crews,
  • responders to incidents (fire/EMS/EMA), and
  • law enforcement
  • 23 CFR Part 634.2

Use of Reflective Vests and signs
  • The next several slides will show the visibility
    of reflective vests during the day time and night
  • The slides compare early warning signs,
    reflective vests, station uniform and bunker

Use of Reflective Vests - Day 1000
Use of Reflective Vests - Day 500
Use of Reflective Vests Day 250
Use of Reflective Vests Night 1000
Use of Reflective Vest - Night 500
Use of Reflective Vests Night 250
Vests and signs
  • Taken at distances of 1000, 500 and 250 feet
  • Which would you prefer to utilize?
  • Do we need to change our thinking?

What problems are present?
Use of Emergency Lighting
  • Is primarily to get us to the scene safe.
  • Gives the motoring public warning an incident is
  • Does not provide effective traffic control just

Use of Emergency Lighting
  • Excessive emergency lighting confuses motorist
    especially at night
  • Reduce lighting once proper and effective traffic
    control measures are established
  • MUTCD supports reduced lighting when proper TTC
    is established
  • NFPA requires all white lighting be reduced once
    vehicle is placed in park

Use of Emergency Lighting
  • The number one priority is our safety at an
    incident while protecting other persons
  • Our lighting is causing blinding conditions for
    oncoming and approaching motorist
  • Multiple units on the scene creates more
  • Rear most vehicle with emergency lighting other
    vehicles should reduce lighting.

Use of Emergency Lighting
  • What would other motorist see?
  • Can you even see the apparatus clearly?
  • What happens to you when you look into headlights?

Use of Emergency Lighting
  • Objective Distances and Colors
  • White 5069 feet
  • Amber 4153 feet
  • Red 3710 feet
  • Blue 3136 feet
  • Subjective Comments About Color
  • Color positive negative ambiguous
  • White 11 64 9
  • Amber 67 0 3
  • Red 6 0 0
  • Blue 5 1 2

Incorporate arrow sticks
Plano, Texas Fire Department Apparatus Markings
Chevrons, Amber Lighting and Vehicle Striping
Roadway SpeedsStopping Distances
  • Mph fps x P/R Brake Total
  • 40 58 87 66 153
  • 45 65 98 84 182
  • 55 80 120 126 246
  • 65 95 142 176 318

How to set up a Zone
  • 1st Apparatus
  • Stop 50 to 100 ft. short
  • Set out six cones 25-30 ft. apart upstream
  • Transition 200 to 280 ft. back
  • 2nd Apparatus
  • Stop within the zone
  • Set out six cones 25-30 ft. apart upstream
  • Transition 350 to 460 ft. back
  • Might have to set up downstream taper

NIOSH Firefighter Case Studies
  • F2002-38 Firefighter fatality highway incident
    in Minnesota
  • F2002-13 Firefighter fatality interstate
    incident in Mississippi
  • F2001-07 Firefighter fatality rural
    intersection incident in New York
  • F1999-27 Firefighter fatality interstate
    incident in Oklahoma

NIOSH Recommendations
  • Establish and implement SOPs regarding emergency
    operations during highway incidents
  • Ensure that firefighters are properly trained in
    dealing with potential traffic hazards
  • Wear proper protective clothing to include highly
    visible reflective vests
  • Ensure that fire apparatus is properly
    positioned to afford the greatest protection
    without creating additional hazards
  • Limit the number of POVs to highway responses

  • Incidents will occur and increase with the growth
    of the areas population and with industrial
  • Managing the scene of an incident reduces
    exposure time for all responders, clears the
    roadway and reduces congestion
  • All responding agencies and personnel must be
    committed to this type of incident response

Thank You for your time
  • Brad Sprague
  • Trooper Illinois State Police District 5 Joliet
  • Captain Minooka Fire Protection District
  • (815)726-6377 x206 ISP
  • (815)467-5637 - MFPD
  • Mark Karczewski
  • M/Sgt. Illinois State Police District 15
  • (630)241-6800 X 5035