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TED talk- ocean and exploration

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TED talk- ocean and exploration http://www.ted.com/talks/deep_ocean_mysteries_and_wonders.html * * Thank you ocean psa (1 min 10 sec) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TED talk- ocean and exploration


1
TED talk- ocean and exploration
  • http//www.ted.com/talks/deep_ocean_mysteries_and_
    wonders.html

2
What is the Scientific Method
3
Scientific Method Steps
Your Defn You your Partner Defn Class Defn
1. Hypothesis
2. Control Group
3. Experimental Group
4. Independent Variable
5. Dependent Variable
6. Analysis
4
Scientific Method
  • How do scientists investigate the world?
  • 1. Observation poses a question
  • 2. Hypothesis suggested explanation for the way
    something functions
  • -Reject or Fail to Reject
  • -Never proven true
  • 3. Prediction-what will happen in an experiment
    if the hypothesis is true
  • 4. Test (experiment)
  • 5. Analyze Data- Graphs, tables, figures
  • 6. Conclusion re-evaluate the hypothesis, form
    new questions.

5
The Experiment
  • 1. Control Group
  • Receive NO treatments
  • 2. Experimental group
  • Identical to control group except for one factor
  • that it receives some kind of treatment
    (independent variable)

6
The Experiment
  • Test one variable at a time
  • Something that YOU can change/manipulate
  • ID the Variable
  • Keeping the lights on for a different amounts of
    time each day affect the number of eggs chickens
    laid.
  • Studying more for marine science class to see how
    you do on your exam.

7
2 types of Variables
  • Independent variable- the factor that is CHANGED
    in the experiment (this is what you have control
    over)
  • Dependent variable- because the independent
    variable is changed, this factor could become
    changed.
  • (When making graph DRY MIX)

8
Table vs. Figure
  • A Table iswell, a table containing the data
  • Figures are everything else (graphs, drawings,
    maps, etc)

Figure 9. Although no whales were seen around the
ship while on site, whale songs were frequently
observed on the seafloor seismometer
9
Tables vs. Figures
  • In Common
  • Labels Unit of measurement
  • Mass (grams)
  • Self explanatory titles
  • Bad Results of Apple Tree Experiment
  • Good The Effect of Temperature on the Change in
    Height of Apple Trees Over a Ten Year Period
  • Be able pick out Dependent variable, Independent
    variable, and Subjects
  • Differences
  • Table- title goes on the TOP
  • Figure- Title goes UNDERNEATH the figure
  • Graphs- on graph paper
  • Do not crowd on the paper so that it is hard to
    read

10
Making a table Labels, units, Title on top
Table 1. Students length of study time for Mrs.
Ms science exam and their resulting grade.
Study Time (minutes) Grades (numerical)
10 65
30 75
50 85
60 95
  • The more you study for Mrs. Ms science test, the
    better the grade you get.
  • IV-study DV-Grade
  • Data Table
  • Labels
  • Units

11
GRAPH labels, unit, title on bottom,
  • 95 YDV
  • 85
  • 75
  • 65

  • 0 10 20 30 40 50
    60 XIV

  • Time Study (minutes)
  • Figure 1. Showing how long students study for
    Mrs. Ms science exam and the resulting grade.

Grade ()
12
Scientific Method
  • Science is a process, it changes!
  • Revision of theories
  • Keeping up with current trends finding
  • Base your ethical evaluation on accurate
    information
  • Vote and voice opinion on reality NOT
    misconceptions

13
Theories
  • Explanation based on many observations during
    repeated experiments
  • Can be changed or modified with discovery of new
    data
  • NO theory is considered absolute truth
  • explanation of a set of related observations or
    events based upon proven hypotheses and verified
    multiple times by detached groups of researchers.
    (one scientist cannot form a theory)

14
Law
  • Basic fact that describes behavior of natural
    phenomenon
  • Rule of Nature even if cause is unknown
  • Ex Newtons laws of motion
  • statement of fact meant to describe, in concise
    terms, an action or set of actions.
  • generally accepted to be true and universal, and
    can sometimes be expressed in terms of single
    mathematical equation

15
Science
  • Curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness, and
    creativity help generate new ideas
  • Solve practical problems, new technology

16
Communicating Results
  • Vital to modern science
  • Peer review done by independent, anonymous
    experts
  • Then published which allows researchers to share
    ideas and to test and evaluate each others work
    (like your lab reports)
  • MUST AVOID BIAS NO PERSONAL VIEWPOINTS

17
Unit 1 Importance of Ocean Exploration
  • Chap 1 Introduction to Marine Science
  • Chap 2 History of Ocean Exploration

18
Why is studying the ocean important?
  • Covers 71 of the planet
  • Physical Importance
  • Weather, climate, waves, tides
  • Biological Importance
  • Productivity the amount of food marine
    organisms can produce
  • Seafood, medicines, research
  • Oxygen
  • Oil Natural resources
  • Human Impact
  • Pollution
  • Overfishing
  • Coral reef decline

19
What is Oceanography?
  • Oceanography
  • The study of the oceans and their phenomena
  • 4 Main Branches
  • Chemistry
  • Physics
  • Geology
  • Biology

20
What is Marine Science?
  • Topics Covered will include
  • Origin of the Oceans
  • Properties of Water
  • Chemical
  • Physical
  • Currents Tidal Patterns
  • Geology
  • Ecosystems Habitats
  • Marine Biology Biodiversity
  • Inverts
  • Verts
  • This Course will allow you to
  • understand consequences of interactions with the
    sea
  • speak vote for marine preservation
  • Be part of the solution to many problems
  • Be a more capable person who contributes to
    society.

21
Ocean Explorers
  • What is a scientist after all? It is a curious
    man looking through a keyhole, the keyhole of
    nature, trying to know what's going on. Jacques
    Yves Cousteau

22
MS Explorers Project TIMELINE
  • Egyptians
  • Phoenicians
  • Polynesians
  • Greeks
  • Vikings Chinese
  • Columbus, Vesp., Balboa
  • Magellan Drake
  • Cook
  • Matthew Maury
  • Darwin Challenger
  • G. Meteor, Atlantis, Chall II

23
RUBRIC
  • Title- Explorer Year, Neat, top center
  • List all major contributions to oceanography
  • 1 larger picture/graphic that depicts a major
    contribution by that group
  • Overall, neat, easy to read (large font),
    colorful,
  • Presentation-
  • DETAILS
  • 20 minutes in class to work on
  • Begin presentations today?
  • Finish up tomorrow.

24
Ocean Pioneers
  • Egyptians 4000 B.C.
  • Developed sailboats to use in the Mediterranean
  • 1800 B.C. measurement of depths with anchor
    lines
  • Polynesians 3000 B.C.
  • Colonize South Pacific islands
  • Lash together 2 canoes with crossbeams deck
  • 1st open ocean seafaring beyond the sight of land

25
Early Exploration
  • Phoenicians, 600 B.C.
  • Sea routes around the Mediterranean
  • Understood celestial navigation
  • Sailed via the Constellations North Star. How
    do you find the NS?
  • NOT the brightest start
  • Its the one that doesnt move.

26
Early Exploration
  • The Greeks
  • developed trade routes using the length of day to
    estimate latitude
  • publishes a map of the Mediterranean
  • North Star is used to navigate
  • Invented 1st latitude/longitude system
  • Understood earth was a sphere

27
European Exploration
  • The Vikings
  • A.D. 700 A.D. 1000
  • Pillaged Europe using sturdy, fast boats
  • Colonized Iceland, Greenland Newfoundland

28
Oh the places they will go
  • Columbus, 1492
  • Looks for a sea route to the Indies
  • Vasco Nunez de Balboa
  • Sailed through the
    Isthmus of
    Panama
  • First European to sail
    the
    Pacific Ocean
  • Magellan, 1520
  • Sailed around the
    southern tip of S.
    America
  • Circumnavigates globe

29
European Exploration
  • James Cook, 1770s
  • Explorations looking for Antarctica
  • Instead, found NZ, Hawaii, South Pacific islands
  • Darwin, 1831
  • Sails to the Galapagos around the world
  • Studied coral reefs around South America
  • Forbes, 1858
  • Can anything live
    on the bottom of the ocean?

30
The Challenger Expedition
  • 1872 1876
  • First trip to focus entirely on marine science
  • Sediment samples
  • Water samples
  • Depth soundings
  • Biological collection

31
The 1900s
  • German Meteor Expedition (1925)
  • Discover Mid-Atlantic Ridge using echo sounders
    ocean isnt flat!
  • Underwater Habitats
    (1960s) Cousteau
  • Spend 7-10 days under
    water
  • Challenger II (1951)
  • Discovers deepest
    point Challenger
    Deep

32
20th Century Exploration tools
  • Oceanography in the last 60 years

33
Marine Laboratories
  • Woods Hole (MA)
  • Scripps (CA)
  • Mote Marine Harbor Branch (FL)
  • Friday Harbor (WA)
  • Duke (NC)
  • FAU Harbor Branch (FL)

34
Thats a lot of exploring whats left?
  • The abyss

35
Submersibles
  • Bathysphere
  • Spherical diving apparatus lowered via cable
  • Bathyscaphe
  • Free-diving, self-propelled submarine
  • Works with a gasoline float

36
1960 trieste dive vs James Cameron 2012
  • http//deepseachallenge.com/the-expedition/1960-di
    ve/?sourcecameron_sub_news
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v0mBG0LbAoqk

37
Marianas Trench
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vY2tm40uMhDIfeature
    relmfu
  • 7 mile descent in 1 minutes

38
Submersibles
  • Alvin
  • 3-person capacity
  • Self-propelled, battery powered
  • Expeditions
  • Giant tubeworms in Pacific
  • Titanic wreck
  • Search for giant squid

39
ROVs (Robots)
  • Remotely operated vehicles
  • Tethered underwater robot
  • Often equipped with
  • Lights, Cameras, SONAR, Water samplers, etc.
  • Ex barrel eyed fish video

40
Self-Contained Diving
41
Jacques Cousteau
42
Underwater Habitation
  • Aquarius- Why live under water?
  • Research/observation
  • Resources (oil, hydrates, pharmaceuticals, etc.)
  • Archaeology
  • Defense
  • Permanent habitation

43
Aquarius Video
  • http//oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/technology/diving/aq
    uarius/media/movies/aquarius_qt720.html
  • 4 min
  • Website
  • http//aquarius.uncw.edu/

44
Oceanographic Tools
  • How we study the ocean

45
Oceanographic Tools
  • Thermometer
  • temp
  • Hydrometer Refractometer
  • Measures salinity density

46
Oceanographic Tools
  • Nets
  • Seine (Sayn)
  • Purse-Seine
  • Cast
  • Dip
  • Plankton

47
Nets Continued
Dip Net
Plankton Tow
48
Secchi Disc Bottom Trawl/Dredge
  • Black White disc
  • Measures Turbidity Clarity of water

49
Core Sampler
  • Collects water or soil in a column format
  • See layers
  • Under ocean
  • Analyze sediment
  • Type
  • Age
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