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THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH

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Title: THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH


1
THE GRAMMAR OF ENGLISH
  • CHAPTER 3

2
WHAT IS GRAMMAR?
  • Different meanings
  • ETYMOLOGICALLY LINKED TO WRITTEN LETTERS, BUT
    GRADUALLY HAS ACQUIRED A WIDER MEANING
  • IMPLICIT KNOWLEDGE OF HOW LANGUAGE WORKS
  • EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE OF HOW LANGUAGE WORKS
  • THE RULES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CORRECT LANGUAGE
  • DIFFERENT TYPES OF GRAMMAR PEDAGOGICAL/NORMATIVE,
    DESCRIPTIVE, THEORETICAL (e.g. Hallidays
    systemic grammar)

3
WHAT IS GRAMMAR MADE OF?
  • Grammar language
  • Phonology
  • Morphology
  • Word-formation
  • Syntax
  • Lexis and phraseology
  • Semantics
  • Text and discourse
  • Punctuation
  • The central core of grammar
  • morphology
  • inflectional (and derivational, see Chapter
    4)
  • syntax

4
MORPHOLOGY
  • THE STUDY OF THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF WORDS
  • e.g. the plural s inflection for nouns and
    the ed inflection for verbs

5
SYNTAX
  • THE WAY IN WHICH WORDS COMBINE TO FORM LARGER
    UNITS OF MEANING
  • e.g. phrases, clauses, sentences
  • Example word order in a noun phrase or in
    statements and questions
  • e.g. She is a beautiful girl
  • NOT She is a girl beautiful

6
IN PRESENT-DAY ENGLISH
  • limited presence of inflectional morphology
    compared to Old English (and other languages such
    as Italian or German)
  • and
  • greater importance of syntax and word order in
    signalling grammatical relations

7
GRAMMATICAL UNITS
  • TEXT
  • SENTENCE (frase complessa)
  • CLAUSE (frase semplice
  • /principale o
    subordinata)
  • PHRASE ( not frase but

  • sintagma/gruppo)
  • WORD
  • MORPHEME

8
What is a MORPHEME?
  • Unhappy un-happy
  • Cats
    cat-s
  • A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning or
    grammatical function
  • Lexical e.g. pen, book
  • Functional or grammatical e.g. if, the
  • free can stand alone as a word e.g. basket,
    woman
  • bound cannot stand alone and must be linked to
    another morpheme (called base or root) e.g. -ly,
    un-, -able, -ee

9
MORPHEMES and MORPHS
  • Played play-ed
    PLAY past
  • Unhelpful un-help-ful
    negativeHELP adjective
  • WORDS MORPHS MORPHEMES
  • (concrete)
    (abstract)

10
ALLOMORPHS
  • -ed
  • the morph that indicates past tense can be
    realised phonetically in different ways
    (allomorphs) depending on the phonological
    context
  • e.g. Raised d
  • looked t
  • decided Id

11
TWO BRANCHES OF MORPHOLOGY
  • INFLECTIONAL DEALS WITH CHANGES THAT HAVE
    GRAMMATICAL MEANING
  • e.g. est signalling the superlative of
    adjectives
  • DERIVATIONAL DEALS WITH THE PROCESS OF NEW WORD
    FORMATION
  • e.g. un-happ(y)i-ness (see Chapter 4)

12
WHAT IS A WORD?
  • Marys brother-in-law lost his identity card
    during the week-end
  • How many words are there in this clause?

13
HOW MANY WORDS ARE THERE IN THIS SENTENCE?
  • I asked him to list all his books, but instead
    of listing them all, he listed only his favourite
    book
  • 20 or 14 or a number in between?

14
IT DEPENDS ON THE CRITERIA OF WORDHOOD USED
  • Phonological a word is preceded and followed
    by pauses
  • Orthographic a word is preceded and followed
    by spaces or punctuation marks
  • Prosodic a word takes one main stress
  • Internal integrity a word is an indivisible
    unit
  • Semantic a word has a single meaning

15
Word/word forms/lexemes
  • List/listing/listed 3 word forms of the LEXEME
    TO LIST
  • Book/books 2 word forms of the LEXEME BOOK
  • He/him two word forms of the LEXEME HE

16
WORDS IN DICTIONARIES
  • ENTRY an independent lexical unit in
    alphabetical order
  • HEADWORD the main word of the entry
  • LEMMA the canonical form, e.g. the singular for
    nouns

17
Words are traditionally grouped into
  • WORD CLASSES
  • OR
  • PARTS OF SPEECH

18
HOW MANY AND WHAT ARE THEY?
  • NOUNS
  • VERBS ( LEXICAL vs. AUXILIARY VERBS)
  • ADJECTIVES
  • ADVERBS
  • ARTICLES or DETERMINERS
  • PRONOUNS
  • CONJUNCTIONS
  • PREPOSITIONS
  • INTERJECTIONS/INSERTS e.g. oh, yes, right

19
OPEN AND CLOSED CLASSES
  • open-class words ? lexical or content words wide
    and open membership mixed etymological origin
    4 classes nouns, (lexical) verbs, adjectives,
    adverbs
  • closed-class words ? grammatical or function
    words limited membership and high frequency of
    use short usually of Germanic origin 5
    classes pronouns, determiners, auxiliaries,
    prepositions, conjunctions

20
MULTIPLE CLASS MEMBERSHIP
  • the same word form may belong to more than one
    word class
  • e.g. fast (adj.), fast (adv.), fast (n.)
  • park (n.), to park (v.)
  • can (n.), can (aux.)
  • only the co-text, i.e. the surroundings of the
    word, allows the reader/listener to understand
    the difference
  • word stress helps disambiguation
  • e.g. rebel (n.) ?????, rebel
    (v.) ??????

21
NOUNS
  • Open class with a naming function
  • common (city, house) or proper (London, Mary, the
    White House)
  • Concrete (bread) or abstract (love)
  • Countable (book/books) and uncountable or mass
    (milk, furniture, information)
  • may take the s genitive case (genitivo sassone)

22
VERBS lexical and auxiliary verbs
  • open class denoting actions or
    states
  • lexical /main / full verbs e.g. I like English

  • He walked to school
  • auxiliary verbs (or auxiliaries) are added to
    lexical verbs for various purposes
  • e.g. I could go faster. (modality)
  • John is going nowhere. (progressive aspect)
  • Do you go to school? (question)
  • I do love him! (emphasis)

23
LEXICAL VERBS
  • dynamic referring to physical processes allow
    the progressive form
  • e.g. to play, to walk, to drink
  • Stative/state referring to states and
    conditions do not allow the progressive form
  • e.g. to know, to love, to believe










































  • Some can be both , e.g. to feel

24
ADJECTIVES
  • Open-class with a
    descriptive function
  • attributive function, before a noun
  • e.g. the extraordinary boy
  • predicative function, after copular verbs (to be,
    to seem, to appear) e.g. John is tall
  • some adjectives are only used in either
    attributive or predicative function
  • e.g. the child is afraid (predicative)
  • the afraid child but the freightened child
  • e.g. the main task (attributive)
  • the task is main but the task is crucial /

  • important

25
GRADABILITY OF ADJECTIVES
  • most adjectives are gradable
  • it is possible to indicate to what extent the
    quality referred to by an adjective applies by
    using intensifiers
  • e.g. lucky
  • very lucky extremely lucky
  • some adjectives are not gradable
  • e.g huge extremely huge
  • unique very unique

26
ADVERBS A very heterogeneous class
  • Fortunately, today the dog has eaten his food
    very quietly outside
  • comment when
    how / how /where
  • provide information about how, when, and where
  • allow the speaker to comment on the whole
    utterance
  • express degree with adjectives or other adverbs

27
Subclasses of adverbs
  • Circumstance adverbs or adjuncts give additional
    information about an element of the sentence
  • e.g. The surgeon completed the operation
    carefully
  • Stance adverbs or disjuncts provide a comment on
    the sentence
  • e.g. Frankly, I should have told her what
    happened
  • Linking adverbs or conjuncts connect one
    sentence or part of a sentence to another
  • e.g. She wasnt free to go to New York at
    Christmas and besides she couldnt afford it.

28
CONJUNCTIONS
  • join linguistic elements
  • coordinating conjunctions, or coordinators
  • e.g. and, but, or
  • subordinating conjunctions, or subordinators
  • - simple, e.g. because, although, when
  • - complex, e.g. as far as, in order to

29
PREPOSITIONS
  • show the relationship between two items
  • typically followed by a noun phrase with which
    they form a Prepositional Phrase (PP)
  • e.g. the dog ran under the table
  • simple single word
  • e.g. under, over, at, on
  • complex more than one word
  • according to, on behalf of, with regard to

30
DETERMINERS
  • Function words used before a noun to indicate
    definiteness or indefiniteness, quantity,
    possession
  • e.g. all these sugary cookies filled with jam and
    cream
  • The main subclasses are
  • Articles (indefinite and definite) a, an, the
  • demonstratives this, that, these, those
  • possessives my, your, his, her, their, our, its
    etc.
  • quantifiers all, few, many, several, some,
    every, each, any, etc.
  • cardinal numbers one, two, fifty, etc.
  • ordinal numbers first, second, third, etc.

31
PRONOUNS
  • closed class of words which replace words thus
    avoiding repetitions
  • e.g. Michelle was offered an exciting new job and
    she decided to take it
  • Main subclasses
  • personal pronouns
  • e.g. They love football (subject) She loves
    them (object)
  • possessive pronouns
  • e.g. This book is mine
  • Demonstrative pronouns
  • e.g. This is my friend Tom
  • reflexive pronouns
  • e.g. She hurt herself
  • interrogative pronouns
  • e.g. Whose car is this?
  • relative pronouns
  • e.g. This is the car which/that I want to
    buy

32
AUXILIARIES
  • A closed class of verbs which accompany lexical
    verbs
  • Two subclasses
  • primary auxiliaries
  • have, be, do
  • e.g. Liz is looking for a job, Do you speak
    English? She has studied a lot
  • modal auxiliaries (modality)
  • can, could, shall, should, will, would, may,
    might, must,
  • e.g. I must go now! Would you like a cup of
    coffee?

33
WH-WORDS
  • A frequently used expression to refer to function
    words beginning with wh-
  • adverbs (interrogative, relative, exclamative)
  • e.g. When did you call her?
  • pronouns (interrogative, relative, exclamative)
  • e.g. Whose car is that?
  • determiners (interrogative, relative,
    exclamative)
  • e.g. Which book did you choose?

34
NUMERALS
  • cardinal, e.g. one, two, three, etc.
  • ordinal, e.g. first, second, third, etc.
  • numerals may function as nouns
  • e.g. The Magnificent Seven

35
PDE REGULAR INFLECTIONS
  • NOUNS - s plural,
  • NOUNS -s possessive or genitive
  • case
  • VERBS - s 3rd pers. sing.
  • VERBS - ed past tense,
  • VERBS - ed past participle
  • VERBS -ing -ing form, gerund
  • ADJECTIVES -er comparative
  • ADJECTIVES -est superlative

36
NUMBER in English NOUNS
  • Most nouns add -s e.g. girls, toys, cars
  • some nouns add -es e.g. tomatoes, branches,
    knives
  • the pronunciation of the inflectional ending
    -s/-es depends on the phonetic context, i.e.
    there are three allomorphs of the plural morpheme
    -s
  • e.g. cakes /s/ (preceded by the voiceless
    consonant /k/)
  • beans /z/ (preceded by the voiced consonant
    /n/)
  • judges /iz/
  • some nouns have irregular plural endings
  • e.g. children, teeth, mice, oxen, curricula,
    sheep (see p. 131)
  • uncountable nouns
  • e.g. evidence, advice, equipment,
    information

37
POSSESSIVE CASE IN ENGLISH NOUNSThe s genitive
versus the of-form. Synthetic versus analytic
option
  • SAY WHETHER THE FOLLOWING EXAMPLES ARE ALL
    ACCEPTABLE AND DISCUSS THE RULE OF THE s
    GENITIVE versus THE OF FORM
  • Johns car is fast
  • the car of John is fast
  • the students protest is still going on
  • the protest of the students is still going on
  • the car of the friend who is visiting me was
    stolen last night
  • The friend who is visiting mes car was stolen
    last night
  • yesterdays newspaper
  • the newspaper of yesterday
  • the journeys end
  • The end of the journey
  • The legs of the table
  • the tables legs

38
S or of GENITIVE
  • Johns car is fast
  • NO the car of John is fast
  • the students protest is still going on
  • the protest of the students is still going on
  • the car of the friend who is visiting me was
    stolen last night
  • NO The friend who is visiting mes car was stolen
    last night
  • yesterdays newspaper
  • NO the newspaper of yesterday
  • the journeys end
  • The end of the journey
  • The legs of the table
  • NO the tables legs

39
VERB INFLECTIONS
  • MOST ENGLISH VERBS ARE REGULAR AND HAVE A
    PARADIGM OF 5 WORD FORMS and 4 VERB
    INFLECTIONS
  • e.g. Love/loves/loved/loved/loving
  • THERE IS A SMALLER NUMBER OF VERY FREQUENTLY
    USED IRREGULAR VERBS
  • e.g. put, put, put
  • lose, lost, lost
  • take, took, taken
  • speak, spoke, spoken
  • go, went, gone
  • AUXILIARIES ARE VERY IRREGULAR, e.g. The verb
    to be has forms that differ from one another ,
    e.g. am, are, is, was, were, been ( PROCESS OF
    SUPPLETION)
  • MOST MODAL VERBS DO NOT INFLECT AND HAVE ONLY
    TWO FORMS, e.g. may, might, can, could

40
GRADABILITY OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
  • Synthetic comparison
  • -er ending (comparative) e.g. warmer
  • -est ending (superlative) e.g. finest
  • versus
  • phraseological/analytic comparison (for
    polysyllabic words)
  • more and most e.g. more/ most
    interesting
  • more quickly
  • irregular comparison (process of suppletion)
  • e.g. good better best little, less, least
    much, more, most
  • well, better, best bad, worse, worst

41
PRONOUN INFLECTION
  • Pronouns, and personal pronouns in
    particular, have retained a certain degree of
    inflection in PDE.
  • e.g. personal pronouns express NUMBER,
    GENDER and CASE often through suppletive forms
  • I-me we-us, you-you, he-him, she-her, it-it,
    they-them

42
PHRASE ( SINTAGMA/GRUPPO)
  • a unit of syntax made up of one or more words
  • it contains an obligatory head and optional
    modifiers
  • The black labrador (NP) was chewing (VP) a juicy
    bone (NP) very noisily (AdvP)

43
TYPES OF PHRASES
  • NOUN PHRASE (NP) my friend Paul / Tom
  • VERB PHRASE (VP) is/ is laughing
  • ADJECTIVE PHRASE (AdjP) very tall/ absolutely
    brilliant
  • ADVERB PHRASE (AdvP) quietly, never
  • PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (PP) in the garden/ on
    Monday
  • except for prepositional phrases (PP) phrases can
    be constituted by a single lexical item
  • all phrases can be extended by pre-modification
    or post-modification

44
TYPES OF NOUN PHRASES
determiner pre-modifier HEAD post-modifier
- - John -
my leather (n.) suitcase -
a large, old, blue (size, age, colour) suitcase with wheels
45
MORE NOUN PHRASES
det. pre-modifier HEAD post-modifier
The London experience -
- Londons churches -
The - London I know
46
AMBIGUITY in NPs
  • The French history teacher
  • the (det.) French (pre-mod.) history (pre-mod.)
    teacher (head)
  • the French history teacher
  • (the teacher of history is French)
  • the French history teacher
  • (the teacher teaches French history)

47
tree diagramThe French history teacher the
teacher of history is French
  • NP
  • det. Pre-mod.Adj
    headNP

  • modN head N
  • The French history
    teacher

48
tree diagramThe French history teacher the
teacher teaches French history
  • NP
  • det. Pre-mod.NP
    HeadN
  • Pre-modAdj. HeadN
  • The French history teacher

49
COMPLEX POST-MODIFICATION
  • The proposal for a new building which the
    committee put forward last week
  • -for a new building (PP)
  • -which the committee put forward last week
    (relative clause)

50
TREE DIAGRAM An interesting government report
about air pollution
  • NP
  • Det. Mod.(adj.) Mod.(N.) HeadN
    Post-ModPP

  • HeadPrep C NP


  • Mod.N HeadN
  • An interesting government report about air
    pollution

51
FREQUENCY OF NPs IN ENGLISH
  • PRE-MODIFICATION IS MORE COMMON THAN
    POST-MODIFICATION IN ALL REGISTERS
  • COMPLEX PRE- AND POST-MODIFICATION IS TYPICAL
    OF SOME REGISTERS SUCH AS WRITTEN ACADEMIC
    PROSE AND NEWSPAPER HEADLINES

52
ENGLISH/ITALIAN NPs
  • Translate these noun phrases into Italian and
    notice the differences between the two languages
  • 1. The Los Angeles Police Department
  • Il Dipartimento di Polizia di Los Angeles
  • 2. Air pollution
  • Linquinamento dellaria/atmosferico
  • 3. The Birmingham train
  • Il treno per/da /di (?) Birmingham
  • 4. The proposal of a national curriculum
  • La proposta di un curricolo nazionale
  • 5. The countrys leading expert on youth culture
  • Il maggior esperto del paese sulla cultura
    giovanile /Il maggior esperto di cultura
    giovanile del paese

53
Italian versus English NPs
  • English favours premodification (to the left of
    the head). NPs are concise and at times ambiguous
  • Italian favours postmodification (to the right
    of the head) and the use of prepositional
    phrases. NPs are longer and more explicit

54
VERB PHRASEs finite/ non-finite
  • finite verbs or VPs marked by tense
  • e.g. John plays the guitar
  • I enjoyed the concert
  • non-finite verbs or VPs not marked by tense,
    person or number
  • e.g. To arrive on time was their objective
  • She traveled accompanied by her father
  • She broke her leg while skiing

55
VERB PHRASES TENSE versus TIME
  • TENSE property allowing the verb to
    differentiate between present and past TIME
  • e.g. Jane likes music / Jane liked music
  • Unlike in Italian, there is no morphologically
    marked form to express future time in English
    (but a range of forms such as will/shall
    infinitive, going to, simple present, present
    progressive etc. see 148-149)

56
VERB PHRASE ASPECT
  • Property allowing the verb to give information
    about the state or the action
  • Progressive ( or continuous) the action is in
    progress at the time of utterance
  • Sarah is helping her sister
  • perfect the action is complete, that is it
    occurred at an earlier time and continues to the
    time of utterance or is relevant to it
  • Sarah has helped her sister when she was in her
    teens
  • perfectprogressive ( often called duration
    form) stresses
  • continuity in the past and includes the time
    of utterance
  • Sarah has been helping her sister since she was
    12

57
Translate into Italian and identify the main
differences between the two languages
  1. Sarah helps her sister every Thursday
  2. Sara aiuta sua sorella tutti i giovedì
  3. Lately Sarah is helping her sister a lot
  4. Ultimamente Sara sta aiutando/aiuta molto sua
    sorella
  5. Sarah has helped her sister to recover from her
    illness
  6. Sara ha aiutato sua sorella a riprendersi dalla
    malattia
  7. Sarah helped her sister one year ago when she was
    ill
  8. Sara ha aiutato/aiutò sua sorella un anno fa
    quando era malata
  9. Sarah has been helping her sister since last May
  10. Sara sta aiutando/aiuta/sua sorella dal maggio
    scorso.

58
Translate from Italian into English
  • Sono andata a Londra molte volte
  • I have been to London several times
  • Vivo a Londra
  • I live in London
  • Vado a Londra ogni anno
  • I go to London every year
  • Vivo a Londra da 5 anni e continua a piacermi
    molto
  • I have been living in London for 5 years and I
    still enjoy it a lot
  • Ho vissuto a Londra per 5 anni prima di tornare
    in Italia
  • I lived in London for 5 years before coming back
    to Italy
  • Vivevo a Londra quando ho incontrato John
  • I was living in London when I met John

59
VERB PHRASE VOICE
  • The singer performed the song
  • The song was performed by the singer
  • NP1VP NP2 ? NP2 beVPed byNP1
  • The singer was performing the song
  • The song was being performed by the singer

60
FUNCTIONS OF THE PASSIVE
  • the agent is unknown or irrelevant
  • Mr Constable has been murdered
  • the focus is on the process to convey
    objectivity, especially in academic prose
  • The results of the tests have been checked
    several times
  • to disclaim responsibility
  • He is said to be a womanizer
  • More frequent in scientific writing and in the
    Press

61
MODAL VERBS AND MODALITY
  • MODALS ARE FREQUENTLY USED IN ENGLISH AND
    BELONG TO THE GERMANIC CORE OF THE LANGUAGE.
  • THEY EXPRESS A WIDE RANGE OF MEANINGS
    referring either to actions controlled by humans
    ( DEONTIC MODALITY) or to the levels of certainty
    of an event (EPISTEMIC MODALITY). The same modals
    can express different meanings. The same meanings
    can be expressed in different ways.

62
THE MAIN MEANINGS OF MODAL VERBS
  • PERMISSION e.g. Can I go to the loo? Could I
    borrow your notes? (Am I allowed to ask a
    question?)
  • ABILITY e.g. I can ski, (I know how to do it)
  • POSSIBILITY e.g. She may be ill . She might be
    ill (Perhaps she is ill)
  • OBLIGATION e.g. You must stop talking. You
    should pay attention, You have to do it. This
    needs to be done
  • LOGICAL NECESSITY e.g. She must be ill (She is
    very likely to be ill)
  • VOLITION e.g. Ill do it for you
  • PREDICTION e.g. It will rain tomorrow

63
WHAT ABOUT MODAL VERBS IN ITALIAN?
  • Translate the following expressions into English
  • Devi smettere di fumare
  • You must stop smoking
  • Dovresti smettere di fumare
  • You should stop smoking
  • Posso fumare?
  • Can I smoke ? May I smoke?
  • Potrei fumare?
  • Could I smoke? Might I smoke?
  • Domani può piovere
  • It may rain tomorrow
  • Domani potrebbe piovere
  • It might rain tomorrow
  • Domani pioverà
  • It will rain tomorrow
  • Sa sciare molto bene
  • She can ski very well
  • Sapeva sciare bene quando era giovane

64
OTHER PHRASES
  • ADJECTIVE PHRASE
  • e.g. Beautiful/ (really) beautiful
  • ADVERB PHRASE
  • e.g. Slowly/ (fairly) slowly
  • PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
  • at University / at (Turin) University ( see
    pp. 153-158)

65
Analysis of prepositional phrases
  • in the classroom
  • In ( Head prep) the classrom (C NP)
  • near Rome
  • Near ( Head prep) Rome (C NP)

66
HOW CAN A CLAUSE BE ANALYSED?
  • First into Subject predicate
  • John ( what is talked about) is English
    (what is said about the topic)
  • Then into the 5 main functional elements of the
    clause
  • S (Subject),
  • V (Verb or Verb Phrase or Predicator ),
  • O (Object) complemento oggetto
  • C (Complement) predicato nominale, del soggetto o
    delloggetto
  • A (Adverbial) vari tipi di complementi . They are
    often optional.

67
WORD ORDER in PDE
  • Translate the following clauses into English
  • Seguiranno alcuni esempi
  • Some examples will follow
  • Nel capitolo 3 verrà presentata la grammatica
  • Grammar will be presented in Chapter 3
  • Giovanni parla molto bene litaliano /litaliano
    molto bene
  • John speaks Italian very well
  • Odio stirare
  • I hate ironing
  • Piove forte da molte ore
  • Its been raining heavily for many
    hours
  • Cè un gatto in giardino
  • There is a cat in the garden
  • CONCLUSION
  • The unmarked word order in English in SVO, while
    in Italian this order can vary to a certain
    extent
  • The subject is compulsory in English , and not in
    Italian. If there is no subject, a dummy
    (empty) subject will be used (it/there).

68
THE VERB
  • IS THE CENTRAL PART OF THE CLAUSE SINCE IT
    DETERMINES THE OTHER ELEMENTS ( e.g. verb
    complementation or valency)
  • She was laughing one-place verb
  • She was playing the piano two-place verb
  • She was very beautiful two-place verb
  • She gave him a kiss three-place
    verb
  • She made him happy three-place verb

69
CLAUSE ELEMENTS
S V O C A
The black labrador (NP) has bitten (VP) Mr Allington (NP)
He (NP) put (VP) the keys (NP) in his bag (AdvP)
Sue (NP) is feeling (VP) very sleepy (AdjP)
70
S V O C A
It (dummy subject) is going to rain (VP)
Armstrong (NP) became (VP) the first man on the moon (NP)
Chris (NP) made (VP) Sara (NP) really angry (AdjP) yesterday (AdvP)
What I dont understand (clause) is (VP) Why you lied to me ( clause)

71
SVOiOd
S V Oi (Indirect Object) Od (Direct Object)
She gave me a kiss
She gave her sister a glass of wine
She gave Od a glass of wine Oi to her sister
72
SV (intransitive verb). No complementation The
black labrador was barking
  • clause
  • SNP PVP
  • det. mod.(adj.) head (n.) aux.
    head (v.)
  • the black labrador was
    barking

73
SVOd (monotransitive)Andrew bought a sports car
  • clause
  • SNP
    PVP
  • V OdNP
  • head (n.) head (v.)
    det. mod. (n..) head (n.)
  • Andrew bought a
    sports car

74
SVOd (monotransitive)Andrew bought a sports car
  • clause
  • SNP
    PVP
  • V OdNP
  • head (n.) head (v.)
    det. mod. (adj.) head (n.)
  • Andrew bought a
    sports car

75
SVA ( an obligatory Adverbial)The taxi is
waiting outside
  • clause
  • SNP
    PVP
  • V AAdvP
  • det. head (n.) aux. head
    (v.) head (adv.)
  • The taxi is waiting
    outside

76
SVCs (copular verb)The weather has turned very
nasty
  • clause
  • SNP
    PVP
  • V CAdjP
  • det. head (n.) aux. head(v.)
    mod.(adv.) head(adj.)
  • The weather has turned
    very nasty

77
Copular verbs
  • be, feel, seem, appear, look, remain, stay,
    become, sound, taste
  • e.g. I am / feel rather tired (C AdjP)
  • She became a nurse (CNP)
  • You look extremely happy (CAdjP)
  • Mary appeared in good health (CPP)
  • That is what I mean (C clause)

78
SVOiOd (di-transitive)Gill told her child a
bedtime story
  • clause
  • SNP
    PVP
  • V OiNP
    OdNP
  • head(n.) head(v.) det. head(n.)
    det. mod.(n.) h(n.)
  • Gill told her child
    a bedtime story

79
Di-transitive verbs
  • Give, tell, bring, buy, show
  • e.g. John showed me (Oi) his new car (Od)
  • They bought him (Oi) a new racket (Od)
  • Tell us (Oi) the truth (Od)

80
SVOdCo (complex transitive)The judges declared
Jackie the winner
  • clause
  • SNP PVP
  • V ONP CoNP
  • det. head (n.) head (v.)
    head(n.) det. h(n.)
  • The judges declared Jackie
    the winner

81
SVOdATerry put the rubbish in the dustbin
  • clause
  • SNP PVP
  • V ONP APP

  • head (n.) head(v.) det. h(n.) h
    (prep) CNP

  • det. h(n.)
  • Terry put the rubbish in
    the dustbin

82
Adverbial
  • Optional elements added to the obligatory
    elements of the clause
  • Circumstance adverbial additional information
  • e.g. The taxi is waiting outside
  • Stance adverbial speakers feeling / attitude
  • e.g. Hopefully I will pass all my exams in June
  • Linking adverbial
  • e.g. In conclusion, alls well that ends well.

83
Obligatory adverbial
  • Adverbials that are required to complete the
    meaning of the verb
  • E.g. Sally put the bread on the table (obligatory
    Adverbial)
  • vs. Sally cut the bread on the table (optional
    Adverbial)
  • Verbs put, last, live

84
Adverbials vs. complements
  • John was very quiet (C)
  • John was in bed (A)
  • They are in good health (C)
  • They are in the garden (A)
  • You should stay sober (C)
  • You should stay here (A)
  • Complements describe or characterize the S (or O)
  • Adverbials typically express place or direction.

85
TO SUM-UP THE CLAUSE ELEMENTS S/V/O/C/A
  1. SV
  2. The baby is crying
  3. SVA
  4. The concert lasted three hours
  5. SVOd
  6. She is playing tennis
  7. SVOdA
  8. She put the rubbish in the dustbin
  9. SVCs
  10. She is Indian
  11. SVOiOd
  12. He gave her a kiss
  13. SV OdCo
  14. They elected her dean of the faculty

86
MAIN AND SUBORDINATE CLAUSES
  • Mary had been waiting for more than an hour
  • Suddenly, she stood up and went out
  • She said that she was not feeling well because
    the air in the room was stuffy
  • She wanted to get some fresh air
  • a main clause always contains a finite verb and
    typically contains an overt subject
  • a subordinate clause cannot stand alone and needs
    to be attached to a free-standing clause
  • a non-finite clause is always subordinate
  • simple clauses consist of a clause, compound
    clauses consist of two coordinate clauses,
    complex clauses consist of a main and one or
    more subordinate clauses.

87
TYPES of CLAUSES
  • TYPICAL FUNCTIONS OF CLAUSE TYPES
  • FORM FUNCTION
  • declarative statement
  • interrogative question
  • imperative
    directive
  • exclamative exclamation
  • Shes wearing a new dress.
  • Is she wearing a new dress?
  • Buy yourself a new dress!
  • What a lovely dress shes wearing!

88
DECLARATIVE CLAUSES
  • declarative clauses are normally used to make
    statements
  • declarative clauses typically have an overt
    subject, a verb element and any necessary verb
    complementation and may also have optional
    adverbials
  • Philip will visit his dentist in London today

89
INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES
  • yes-no questions Are you happy?
  • wh- questions Where do you live?
  • Question-tag Shes Australian, isnt she?
  • She doesnt love
    him, does she?
  • So, you have
    changed your mind,
  • have
    you/havent you?
  • the interrogative structure implies a
    subject-operator inversion
  • any auxiliary which is used to make interrogative
    sentences is labelled operator (be, have, do)
  • Questions tags may have contrastive or constant
    polarity ( p. 166)

90
MARKED SENTENCE STRUCTURES
  • This book, I really liked it
  • EMPHASIS IN SPEECH
  • Terry plays jazz piano for fun.
  • It is Terry who plays jazz piano for fun.
  • Its jazz piano that Terry plays for fun
  • Its for fun that Terry plays jazz piano
  • It-CLEFT
  • I would like a book for my birthday
  • What I would like for my birthday is a book
  • WH-CLEFT
  • CLEFTING
  • to highlight a particular element of the
    sentence
  • the focussed element is introduced by a dummy
    Subject and followed by a relative clause

91
SENTENCE
  • I agreed to go with them (main clause) although I
    wasnt really happy with the idea. (subordinate
    clause)
  • the largest unit of syntactic structure
  • a sentence must consist of at least one clause
    (main clause)
  • in writing, a sentence starts with a capital
    letter and ends with a full stop
  • in speech sentences are not always complete

92
TYPES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES
  • NOMINAL I just hope (that) they will understand
  • RELATIVE The man who is sitting next to Tom is
    John
  • ADVERBIAL Call me as soon as you get home (time)
    because I have to talk to you (reason) .The boy
    stood on the box so that he could see better
    (purpose). Even though I am tired (concession),
    Ill do it.
  • 4. COMPARATIVE This hotel is not so nice as I
    expected

93
TYPES OF RELATIVE CLAUSES
  • IN WHAT WAYS DO THE FOLLOWING RELATIVE CLAUSES
    DIFFER? WHICH RELATIVE PRONOUNS CAN BE USED IN
    EACH CONTEXT?
  • This is the best hotel (that, which, who, whom,
    whose, zero pronoun) I was able to find
  • This hotel, (which, that, who, whose, whom, zero
    pronoun) was renewed last year, is one of the
    best in the city
  • The man (which, that, who, whose, whom, zero
    pronoun) you see in the photo is my brother
  • The man (which, that, who, whose, whom, zero
    pronoun) is coming towards us is my brother
  • The music (that, which, who, whose, whom, zero
    article) we are listening to is Mozart
  • We stayed in a lovely hotel, (which, that, who,
    whom, whose) owner is a good friend of mine
  • We spent the night in a farm, (which, that, who,
    whom, whose) was very relaxing

94
Accepted options
  • This is the best hotel (that, which, zero
    pronoun) I was able to findThis hotel, which was
    renewed last year, is one of the best in the
    cityThe man (that, who,whom, zero pronoun) you
    see in the photo is my brotherThe man (that,
    who) is coming towards us is my brotherThe music
    (that, which, zero article) we are listening to
    is MozartWe stayed in a lovely hotel, whose
    owner is a good friend of mine We spent the
    night in a farm, which was very relaxing

95
RULE OF RELATIVE CLAUSES
  • Relative clauses can be either defining ( or
    restrictive) or non-defining (non-restrictive)
    depending on whether they define the antecedent
    or add extra information. Commas are required for
    defining clauses.
  • The use of relative pronouns is conditioned by
    the antecedent , whether it is human ( who,whom,
    whose, that) or non-human ( that, whose, which),
    whether it plays the role of subject (who, that,
    which) or object (whom, that, which, zero
    pronoun), whether it is defining ( who, whose,
    whom, that, which) or non-defining (who, whose,
    which).
  • There are some fuzzy areas of usage (e.g.
    who/whom)

96
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (periodo ipotetico)
  • 1) If the weather is nice, tomorrow we will go
    to the seaside (it is an open possibility)
  • NO If the weather will be nice,
  • 2) If the weather were/was nice, we would go to
    the seaside ( it is unlikely)
  • 3) If the weather had been nice, we would have
    gone to the seaside (it did not happen)

97
Activity 1 build acceptable noun phrases filling
all the boxes
determiner pre-modifier HEAD post-modifier
MY BEST FRIEND IN TURIN
THESE ELEGANT FLATS IN THE CITY CENTRE
A NEW BOOK ABOUT SHAKESPEARE
98
ACTIVITY 2 Give a top-down scale of the main
grammatical units with an example for each
  • SENTENCE Call two taxis, please, because there
    are ten of us
  • CLAUSE (main clause) Call two taxis (
    subordinate clause) because there are ten of us
  • PHRASE Noun phrase two taxis or Verb phrase
    call
  • WORD taxis, call, two, please
  • MORPHEME taxi (free lexical morpheme) , -s
    (bound grammatical morpheme)

99
ACTIVITY 3 Give examples of declarative clauses
containing the given verbs and having the
patterns indicated
  • 1. Show A time S V Oi Od
  • Last night Mary showed us a very interesting
    documentary
  • 2. Make S V Od Co
  • You have made me very happy
  • 3. Be /seems S V Cs
  • I am Italian or This seems a good idea

100
ACTIVITY 4 Identify the clause elements in the
following examples
  • 1. I am getting really angry
  • I (S) am getting (V) really angry (Cs)
  • 2. Perhaps we should invite Mary
  • Perhaps (A) we (S) should invite (V) Mary
    (Od)
  • Its going to rain
  • It (S)s going to rain (V)

101
The woman hit the boy with the umbrella
  • Use a tree diagram to show that this clause is
    ambiguous
  • The woman (S) hit (V) the boy with the umbrella
    (Od)
  • Or
  • The woman (S) hit (V) the boy (Od) with the
    umbrella (A)
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