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Chapter 2: The Early Christians

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Title: Chapter 2: The Early Christians


1
Chapter 2 The Early Christians
  • HISTORY OF THE CHURCH

2
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Read the paragraphs Christians are
    indistinguishable from through Christians love
    those (p. 60).
  • As you read or listen, keep in mind the following
    question
  • To what extent are modern conditions similar to
    those at the time of this letter?

3
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • How did the early Church and the Roman world view
    each other?
  • Was it legitimate for the early Church to have
    developed her beliefs and practices from the
    foundation of the Apostles?
  • How were new members incorporated into the early
    Church?
  •  
  • KEY IDEAS
  • The early Christians were models of holiness,
    simplicity, and fraternity who set out to
    transform a hostile world.
  • The beliefs and practices of Christianity emerged
    through centuries of theological, philosophical,
    cultural, and historical development under the
    guidance of the Holy Spirit in and through the
    Church.
  • At first, converts were baptized as soon as they
    presented themselves. Later, the catechumenate
    developed to prepare adult converts for the
    demands of the Christian life during persecution.
    While infant and child Baptisms were practiced
    from the beginning, many later catechumens
    postponed Baptism until close to death.

4
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • The text states the body hates the soul because
    of the restrictions the soul puts on the body.
    What kind of restrictions does the soul demand of
    the body?
  • The soul puts restrictions on physical pleasures
    and desires.
  •  
  • Is there hatred today toward people who live by
    and advocate the Churchs teachings on chastity
    and married love?
  • There is because these teachings often run
    opposite the desires, habits, and profits of
    those who live and advocate otherwise.
  •  
  • Why did Christians flourish under persecution?
  • People get stronger when they are being
    persecuted, which makes their lives more
    attractive.

5
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share on the following
    question
  • How does the excerpt from the Epistle to
    Diognetus illustrate the saying, Christians are
    in the world but not of the world?

6
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What does it mean to say that Christians refused
    to expose their children?
  • Exposure was a way the Romans killed unwanted
    babies, leaving them in the countryside to die,
    i.e., exposed to the elements.
  •  
  • What does this statement regarding Christians
    imply about Roman society They share their
    meals, but not their wives?
  • Roman society had a low moral level.

7
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • To what does the ancient and holy but often
    persecuted tradition refer?
  • This refers to Judaism, the precursor to
    Christianity.
  •  
  • What is worth imitating about the early
    Christians?
  • They were models of holiness, simplicity, and
    fraternity.
  •  
  • What radically new vision of human life did early
    Christians offer the world?
  • God had come to earth, shown people how to live
    the New Law of Love, and won victory over death.

8
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Work with a partner to answer the following
    review questions
  • What was the effect of the Council of Jerusalem?
  • What was the effect of the destruction of the
    Temple?

9
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • When was the catechumenate restored?
  • It was restored by the Second Vatican Council
    in 1965.
  •  
  • What was Tertullians argument against infant
    Baptism?
  • Though he did not deny its validity, Tertullian
    believed Baptism should be delayed to avoid the
    danger of profaning Baptism by youthful sins.
  •  
  • What was Origens argument in favor of infant
    Baptism?
  • Origen recommended cleansing the guilt associated
    with Original Sin as early as possible.

10
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did St. Augustine wish he had been baptized
    as a child?
  • He wished he could have cared for his soul more
    diligently with the help of Christian friends.
  •  
  • Why did St. Augustine think his mother delayed
    his Baptism?
  • He thought his mother foresaw waves of temptation
    as he grew out of childhood and so did not have
    him baptized.

11
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  • When a person is in danger of death, who can
    baptize?
  • Anyone, even a non-baptized person, can baptize.
  •  
  • What is the Baptism of Blood?
  • This refers to a catechumen who is martyred
    before he or she can be baptized with water. Such
    a person receives the graces of Baptism through
    that martyrdom.

12
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did some people delay Baptism until they were
    on their deathbeds?
  • He or she could sin during lifewhether planning
    to or notand still enter Heaven.
  •  
  • Why is delaying Baptism until the end of life a
    bad idea?
  • License to sin contradicts the Spirit of Christ.
    Delaying Baptism limits the ability to live a
    Christian life because of a lack of the grace
    that helps Christians live a moral life. Finally,
    it is dangerous because nobody never knows the
    hour of his or her death.

13
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why is Baptism important?
  • Christ commanded his Apostles to baptize those
    who were made disciples. It is the only known way
    to enter the Kingdom of God.
  •  
  • What baptism did Christ receive?
  • Christ received a baptism of repentance from St.
    John the Baptist. Extension Christ received St.
    Johns baptism as an example to others. He was
    without sin and thus had no need for baptism.
  •  
  • What is the difference between a baptism of
    repentance and the Sacrament of Baptism?
  • A baptism of repentance helps a person realize
    the need to repent and be forgiven of sins this
    may prepare a person for the Sacrament of
    Baptism, which forgives sins.

14
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Work with a partner to perform a paragraph shrink
    on the excerpt from Crossing the Threshold of
    Hope (p. 89) about Christianity as the great
    action of God.

15
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why was the catechumenate instituted?
  • It provided an organized program of instruction
    for those converting to Christianity, which was
    necessary because Christians could be overwhelmed
    by persecution if not formed well.
  •  
  • When did Baptism usually occur?
  • Catechumens were baptized at the Easter Vigil,
    which commemorates the Resurrection of Christ, or
    on the Saturday before Pentecost, which recalls
    the descent of the Holy Spirit.
  •  
  • Why did the catechumenate fall into disuse?
  • By the Medieval period the persecutions had ended
    and most new members of the Church were the
    children of Christian parents.

16
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share to list at least
    three doctrinal and at least three practical
    reasons the Church advocates infant Baptism.

17
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share about whether St.
    Augustine agreed with Tertullian or Origen when
    it came to his own Baptism.

18
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Question 1 (p. 91)
  • Workbook Questions 114
  • Read Agape and the Eucharist through
    Priesthood (pp. 6572)

19
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes on the following
    questions
  • Why do you think the Church recommends infants be
    baptized instead of waiting until the person can
    choose for him- or herself?
  • Why is it not a good idea to delay Baptism until
    a person is on his or her deathbed?

20
1. Beliefs and Practices (pp. 6065)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Write an in-class, graded essay on how the
    Churchs practice of the Sacrament of Baptism
    developed over time.

21
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Review the sidebar Christian Symbols (p. 70),
    and then discuss the following questions
  • Why is a cross is the most widespread Christian
    symbol?
  • What is the significance of tracing a cross on
    ones body?
  • Why do some people touch their first three
    fingers together when making the sign of the
    cross?
  • Why is a fish a Christian symbol?
  • Why is an anchor a Christian symbol?

22
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What did the early Church believe about the
    Eucharist?
  • Who held authority in the early Church?
  • KEY IDEAS
  • The early Christians believed in the Real
    Presence in the Eucharist.
  • Christ made St. Peter the visible head of the
    Church on earth, and this authority was handed on
    to his successors, the Bishops of Rome the
    bishops are the successors of the Apostles.

23
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What was the Agape?
  • The first Christians celebrated the Eucharist in
    a similar manner to the Last Supper a ritual
    meal at the end of which the bishop consecrated
    bread and wine. The early Christians called the
    first part the dinner Agape, or love feast.

24
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did St. Paul criticize the way the
    Corinthians celebrated the Agape?
  • Some people were going hungry and others were
    getting drunk.
  •  
  • What was the fate of the Agape?
  • In order to avoid impiety and denigration of the
    Eucharist, the Agape and the Eucharist were
    separated, with the Agape being moved to the
    evening. The Agape was later discontinued.

25
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share about the Eucharistic
    Liturgy in the early Church and the modern-day
    Mass
  • List at least two ways they are similar and at
    least two ways they are different.

26
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What does the word eucharist mean?
  • It means thanksgiving.
  •  
  • What did the early Christians believe happened
    during the Eucharist?
  • All the early documents indicate they believed
    Christ was truly present in the Eucharist under
    the appearance of bread and wine.

27
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What does St. Ambrose say to those who argue it
    is impossible or unreasonable for the bishop or
    priest to change bread and wine into the Body and
    Blood of Christ?
  • The blessing, or words of consecrationnot the
    bishop or priestchange the nature of the bread
    and wine. Since God has the power to create bread
    and wine from nothing and give them their
    original natures, he certainly also has the power
    to change the natures of these things.

28
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share about many
    Protestants disbelief in the Real Presence, that
    is, Jesus Christ being truly present in the
    Eucharist under the appearance of bread and wine
  • How is such Protestants belief different from
    that of the early Christians and the Fathers of
    the Church?

29
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Search the Internet for a virtual tour of the
    catacombs. View their maps, photos, and
    descriptions.

30
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why were private homes and catacombs used for
    liturgical services?
  • Christian church buildings were generally not
    permitted.
  •  
  • What are catacombs?
  • They are underground burial places and shrines.

31
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Where have catacombs been found?
  • The most impressive are in Rome, but they have
    also been discovered in Italy, France, and
    Northern Africa.
  •  
  • What are loculi, cubicula, and crypts?
  • Loculi are individual burial tombs. Cubicula are
    small rooms where families could be buried
    together. Crypts are larger rooms turned into
    small churches that contain the remains of Popes
    or martyrs.

32
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did the early Christians bury their dead
    rather than cremate them?
  • They believed in the resurrection of the body.
    Extension The desire to be buried together
    showed their strong sense of community.
  •  
  • Why did the early Christians baptize and
    celebrate the Eucharist in the catacombs?
  • It was a place of refuge during periods of
    persecution.

33
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Locate the seven churches of the Book of
    Revelation (chapters 13) using the map
    Christian Churches in Asia Minor (p. 68).

34
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the map
    Christian Communities by AD 300 (p. 69), using
    the following prompts
  • What two regions of the Roman Empire had a
    Christian majority?
  • Identify two cities in which a minority of the
    population was Christian.
  • Identify one province in which very few people
    were Christian.

35
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Search the Internet and take a virtual tour of
    the cave church of St. Peters Grotto, one of
    the earliest in the world, carved about AD 50.

36
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why were Wednesdays and Fridays adopted as days
    of fasting and penance?
  • Wednesday may have been adopted because Judas
    betrayed Christ on a Wednesday. Friday was
    adopted because Christ gave up his life on the
    Cross on a Friday.
  •  
  • How is a day measured in Jewish tradition?
  • The day begins at sunset and lasts until sunset
    the next day.

37
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did the chief day of worship for Christians
    shift from Saturday to Sunday?
  • The Sabbath was the day of rest the first
    Christiansconverts from Judaismcontinued to
    observe the Sabbath. Soon, however, Sunday, the
    first day of the week, became the day of worship
    as the day Christ rose from the dead and the day
    of Pentecost. The first day of the week thus
    represented the first day of Gods creation and
    the eighth day, the beginning of the new
    creation.

38
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Repeat or modify the Anticipatory Set (p. 65)
    about Christian Symbols.

39
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Whom did Christ make the visible head of the
    Church on earth?
  • He made the Apostle St. Peter the visible head of
    the Church on earth.
  •  
  • Which two Popes during the first five centuries
    were most instrumental in the development of the
    power of the papacy?
  • Pope St. Leo the Great maintained Church
    governance in Rome when political power had
    shifted to the East. Pope St. Gelasius I was the
    first to use the title Vicar of Christ.

40
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What three historical sources in the early Church
    support the Bishop of Rome as the supreme
    authority in the Church?
  • Pope St. Clement I settled a controversy within
    the Church in Corinth. St. Ignatius of Antioch
    affirmed deferential obedience to the Bishop of
    Rome. St. Irenæus stressed traditional structures
    in the Church such as the papacy.

41
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read aloud two passages in Scripture in which
    Christ confers on St. Peter his role as visible
    head of the Church on earth
  • Matthew 161320 Christ gives Simon the name
    Peter (Rock) and says he is the rock upon whom he
    will build his Church with the power to loose and
    bind.
  • John 211517 Christ reinstates St. Peter after
    his betrayal, confirming his role as chief
    shepherd.

42
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Some people have claimed that the papacy was
    invented by the Catholic Church. Work with a
    partner to answer the following question in
    writing
  • What evidence from Sacred Scripture and early
    Church history demonstrates the primacy of the
    successors of St. Peter was instituted by Christ
    and always believed by the Church?

43
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 27 (p. 91)
  • Workbook Questions 1537
  • Read Monotheism through Money Matters (pp.
    7378)

44
2. Worship and the Hierarchy (pp. 6572)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Write a paragraph in response to the question
    below. You should support your answer with at
    least one quote from Scripture and at least one
    from an early Church Father.
  • What did the early Church believe about the
    Eucharist?

45
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Read silently Isaiah 53. Identify prophecies that
    were fulfilled in the Passion and Death of
    Christ.

46
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • How was the canon of Sacred Scripture formed?
  • How did the early Christians respond to the
    social conditions of the Roman Empire?
  • KEY IDEAS
  • The decision of which books form the canon of
    Sacred Scripture was made over many centuries and
    was decided by the Magisterium of the Church.
  • The early Christians believed that slaves have
    equal dignity to freemen violence should be
    rejected in favor of love for ones enemy, though
    self-defense and national defense were permitted
    loyal citizenship and obedience should be given
    to just laws and the use of material possessions
    and work are intended to serve the needs of
    others, especially the needy.

47
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • How did the early Christians monotheistic belief
    put them in conflict with the Roman culture in
    which they lived (cf. p. 73)?
  • They could not make sacrifices to the pagan gods
    nor take part in their public rituals.
  • How was Christianity similar to Judaism with
    respect to its relationship to the larger world?
  • Both monotheistic religions were surrounded by
    polytheistic cultures.

48
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Work with a partner to perform a paragraph shrink
    on the paragraph, By the early (pp. 7374).

49
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • How was the canon of Scripture formed in the
    early Church?
  • The early Church accepted some books universally
    while it was less certain about others. A
    definitive canon was declared by a synod of
    bishops in Rome AD 382. Extension The formation
    of the canon of Scripture was complex and took
    many centuries. It is important to emphasize that
    the Scriptures did not define the nature of the
    early Church rather, the Church defined which
    writings were inspired.

50
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • How did the early Christians see the Sacred
    Scriptures with respect to Sacred Tradition?
  • The Scriptures were venerated as the Word of God
    and extremely important to the life of the
    Church. However, they were not the sole source of
    the teachings of Christ, the Deposit of Faith.
    Sacred Scripture is a vital and central part of
    Sacred Tradition, which is expressed in Christian
    literature, liturgical practice, and
    pronouncements of the Church. Extension Sacred
    Tradition includes what was written and what was
    not written, and it is interpreted authentically
    by the Magisterium of the Church.

51
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • If you were a slave in the Roman Empire, how
    might you feel about Christianity?

52
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Why might the early Christians have rejected the
    story about the Christ child getting angry and
    turning his playmate into a frog?
  • Christ using his divine powers to exact revenge
    goes against what they knew about him and his
    teachings. Extension This and other stories in
    the same narrative do not even reach the level of
    the Old Testament precept of an eye for an eye.

53
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What role did the Old Testament play in the early
    Church?
  • Though the Church did not require her members to
    follow the Mosaic Law, the early Christians held
    the Old Testament to be divinely revealed. The
    early Church maintained that the prophecies of
    the Old Testament foreshadowed the fullness of
    truth in Christ, so they revered deeply and
    studied the Old Testament carefully. The early
    Christians also used the Old Testamentespecially
    the Psalmsas a source of prayers.

54
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Complete the following table about the conditions
    to wage a just war (cf. p. 76).

55
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
56
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Perform a Focused Reading of the paragraph,
    The Roman state (p. 77), using the following
    question
  • Which laws did the early Christians obey, and
    which did they refuse to obey?

57
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How prevalent was slavery within the Roman
    Empire?
  • During the first century AD, about one-fourth of
    the population of the Italian peninsula was
    slaves.
  •  
  • How was Jewish slavery different from Roman
    slavery?
  • Under Roman law, some slaves were
    chattelproperty with which the master could do
    whatever he willedwhereas, in Jewish law,
    merciful treatment was required, the dignity of
    the slave and his labor were recognized, and
    slaves could gain their freedom in a shorter
    time.

58
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did the early Church not demand an end to
    slavery?
  • The early Church had no power to do anything
    about slavery.
  •  
  • How is slavery incompatible with Christianity?
  • The Gospel implicitly condemns slavery as a grave
    offense against humanity and Christs call to
    love as he loved. Slavery undermines the
    essential dignity of the human person, who should
    never be used as a means only.

59
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did the early Christians treat slaves?
  • Slaves were treated as equal in dignity to
    freemen.
  •  
  • How did St. Paul urge slaves and masters to
    behave?
  • Slaves should give sincere obedience to their
    masters as if serving the Lord. Masters should do
    good to their slaves and not threaten them,
    knowing that their Master in Heaven holds each to
    be equal.

60
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did the early Church view labor, service, and
    obedience?
  • These were goods in themselves Christ was a
    carpenter, he came to serve, and he was obedient
    to the Father even unto death.
  •  
  • What slavery did St. Paul definitely encourage?
  • He encouraged slavery to Christ.

61
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is the relationship between slavery and the
    early Popes?
  • The three Popes after St. Peter (Sts. Linus,
    Cletus, and Clement) had been slaves.
  •  
  • What does Christ teach is the right response to
    an enemy?
  • One must respond nonviolently, love his or her
    enemies, and pray for all enemies.

62
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following
    question
  • What was the attitude of the early Christians
    toward the use of material resources?

63
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What is the just war theory?
  • This articulates the conditions under which war
    may be waged.

64
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Discuss the following question
  • From time to time it is announced that
    archaeologists have discovered a new, ancient
    Gospel that challenges peoples understanding of
    Christ and his life and teachings. What would the
    early Christians have said about such writings?

65
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 814 (p. 91)
  • Practical Exercises 13 (p. 91)
  • Workbook Questions 3855
  • Read Sexual Ethics Abortion and Contraception
    through Church Fathers on Contraception (pp.
    7881)

66
3. The Canon of Scripture and Christians in
Society (pp. 7378)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Write a short essay using the question from the
    Closure activity, to be collected for a quiz
    grade.

67
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Read aloud the excerpt from The Apostolic
    Tradition (Additional Resources, p. 86). 

68
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What did the early Church believe about abortion
    and contraception?
  • What was the attitude of the early Church toward
    women?
  • KEY IDEAS
  • The early Christians had a high regard for
    chastity and virginity and believed sexual
    relations were for marriage and the procreation
    of children they condemned abortion and
    contraception.
  • The early Christians considered women as equal in
    dignity to men, which was an elevated status
    compared to the surrounding Roman culture.

69
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What did the early Church teach about abortion,
    infanticide, and contraception?
  • The early Church rejected these practices
    completely.
  •  
  • Why did the early Church reject abortion and
    infanticide?
  • Abortion and infanticide are grave violations of
    the dignity of the human person and violate the
    Fifth Commandment.

70
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Why did the early Church reject contraception?
  • Sexual relations within the context of marriage
    are good, and one of their intrinsic purposes is
    procreation. The use of contraception is immoral
    because it separates the act from one of its
    intrinsic purposes.

71
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read aloud the Catechism, no. 2271 (p. 92), and
    then discuss the teachings of the early Church.

72
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • In what ways did the early Church show great
    respect for women?
  • Christianity taught that men and women are equal
    in dignity. In addition, the greatest human
    person who ever lived was the Blessed Virgin
    Mary.
  •  
  • What roles did women play in the early Church?
  • Women spread the Gospel by ordinary and
    extraordinary means and suffered equal
    persecution.
  •  
  • What did the early Christians consider the
    hallmarks of the Christian family?
  • While pagan family life could be brutal to women
    and children, the hallmarks of the Christian
    family were love and service.

73
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Work with a partner to perform a paragraph shrink
    on Tertullians To His Wife (p. 89).

74
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the Catechism,
    no. 2334 (p. 92), and the following question
  • In the history of Western Christian culture, why
    has it often seemed men considered women less
    than equals?

75
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What was St. Epiphaniuss criticism of the
    Gnostics?
  • They have sex not to conceive children but to
    satisfy their lust only.
  •  
  • What methods of contraception did people know in
    the early Church?
  • Mentioned here are medicines (poisons inducing
    sterility and abortion) and incantations.

76
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What did St. John Chrysostom mean when he said,
    From drunkenness comes fornication, from
    fornication adultery, from adultery murder?
  • Culturally, men who drink to excess tend to
    fornicate with prostitutes, which is adultery for
    those who are married. Because this act may
    result in conception, the prostitute practices
    the prevention or abortion of new life.

77
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to the
    following question
  • What is the connection between the early Churchs
    belief in the equality of the dignity of women
    and men and her prohibition of practices like
    abortion, infanticide, contraception,
    prostitution, and concubinage?

78
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 1516 (p. 91)
  • Workbook Questions 5662
  • Read Important Writings of the Early Christian
    Period through Conclusion (pp. 8287)

79
4. Christians in Society (continued) (pp. 7881)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Complete the Practical Application in the Student
    Workbook (p. 44) either individually or in a
    small group.

80
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to this
    prompt
  • Imagine you are a Christian living in the Roman
    Empire and your best friend, who is a pagan,
    confronts you, very upset. He or she has just
    been told that Christians have underground
    ceremonies during which they eat human flesh and
    drink human blood.

81
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What were the important writings of the early
    Christian era, and why are they important?
  • Why did the early Christians venerate the
    martyrs?
  • KEY IDEAS
  • The Apostolic Fathers are important witnesses to
    the Faith due to their close proximity to the
    Apostles and the communities the Apostles
    established. Some Apostolic Fathers wrote
    apologetics to explain and defend the Faith
    against Jewish, Gnostic, and pagan attacks.
  • The martyrs were the greatest testimony to the
    truth and power of Christianity.

82
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What does the title Apostolic Father signify?
  • This refers to a religious writer who lived just
    after the Apostles and had a direct link to an
    Apostle or a community established by one of the
    Apostles.
  •  
  • Who are the most important Apostolic Fathers from
    Rome and Antioch?
  • Pope St. Clement I was from Rome, and St.
    Ignatius was from Antioch.
  •  
  • Why are the writings of the Apostolic Fathers not
    included in Sacred Scripture?
  • The Church never recognized them as divinely
    inspired, though they were held in great esteem
    and some were written before some of the inspired
    Scriptures.

83
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • GUIDED EXERCISE  
  • Perform a Focused Reading of the paragraph and
    quote, As previously mentioned obey His
    commandments (pp. 8283), using the following
    question
  • Why is St. Justin Martyrs Dialogue with Trypho
    considered an apologetic against Jewish
    objections to Christianity?

84
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is apologetics?
  • This branch of theology defends and explains the
    Christian religion against objections.
  •  
  • When was the first of the four major periods of
    apologetical writings?
  • The first dates from the dawn of Christianity to
    the fall of the Roman Empire.
  •  
  • What struggle was undertaken by the apologetical
    writers of this first period?
  • The objectors at this time were Jews, Gnostic
    heretics, and pagans within Roman society.

85
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why is Tertullian considered the Father of Latin
    theology?
  • He was the first great apologist of the Church
    who wrote in Latin.
  •  
  • What is the character of Tertullians writings?
  • Tertullian argued that Christians posed no threat
    to the empire. His style was brilliant, and he
    did not mind angering his readers.

86
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What heretical ideas did Tertullian hold later in
    life?
  • He joined the heretical Montanist sect, rejecting
    the teaching authority of the Church in favor of
    so-called prophetic outpourings of the Holy
    Spirit. Extension The Montanists believed the
    new, heavenly Kingdom was going to begin in
    Pepuza, a small town in Phrygia. The Montanists
    also denied certain grave sins could be forgiven
    by the Church. Tertullian later split from the
    Montanists to found his own sect.

87
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table about what pagans believed about the early
    Christians (cf. pp. 8384).

88
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
89
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following
    table about the Didache (cf. p. 89).

90
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
91
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why were St. Hippolytuss writings forgotten in
    the West for some time?
  • He was probably the most important theologian in
    the Roman Church during the third century, but,
    because he wrote in Greek, he was forgotten.
  •  
  • What part of St. Hippolytuss writings are best
    known today?
  • The Eucharistic prayer he records in
    The Apostolic Tradition is the basis of
    Eucharistic Prayer II in the Mass in the Latin
    Rite.

92
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • How is St. Hippolytus both a heretic and a saint?
  • St. Hippolytus broke with Pope St. Callistus, and
    Hippolytuss followers elected him Pope in
    opposition. Both men were persecuted under
    Emperor Maximin. St. Hippolytus was later
    reconciled with Pope St. Pontian before his
    martyrdom.
  • What is a martyr?
  • Greek for witness, a martyr has borne the
    highest witness to Christ by dying for the Faith.

93
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •   
  • What effect did the martyrs have on Christians
    and pagans?
  • The martyrs strengthened and edified other
    Christians and affected many pagans deeplysuch
    as magistrates and the executionerswho witnessed
    the courage, serenity, and joy with which they
    died.
  •  
  • Why were martyrs venerated by the early
    Christians?
  • A martyr participates in the sufferings of
    Christ. The Christian community saw martyrdom as
    a grace and gift from God in which the
    theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity
    reach their highest levels.

94
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 1720 (p. 91)
  • Workbook Questions 6380
  • Workbook Vocabulary 112

95
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Tell the story of a twentieth-century Catholic
    martyr.

96
5. Writings and Martyrdom (pp. 8288)
  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Take time to update your timeline. Be sure to
    include at least the following
  • St. Ignatius of Antioch (ca. 35107)
  • Pope St. Clement I (8897)
  • St. Justin Martyrs Dialogue with Trypho (ca.
    150)
  • Tertullian (160225)
  • St. Hippolytus (170236)
  • St. Cecilias martyrdom (230)

97
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