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Fishes

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Nervous System Fishes nervous system is set up similar to the human s, ... Skeletal Structure Fish are chordates and they have a - notochord ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fishes


1
Fishes
Moser and Hanson
2
Where exactly are they?
  • Fish live in either fresh or salt water (some in
    anemones), depending on their specific group.
    Depending on their family, they eat anything from
    small underwater mollusks to other fish.
  • http//www.nmfs.noaa.gov/habitat/habitatprotection
    /efh/

3
What is their importance?
  • Fish do not only pay an important food source
    for humans and other animals, fish also control
    the development of new and old underwater life
    forms.

4
How are they unique?
  • Their body structure, including being a
    vertebrate or not, is specified for their
    lifestyle.
  • i.e. small, flat fish typically dwell on the
    ocean floors, and longer fish swim faster because
    of their compressed body form.

5
Passage of Oxygen
  • Fish use osmosis oxygen diffuses from water to
    blood and carbon dioxide diffuses from blood to
    water.
  • Almost all fish breathe with gills.

6
The Use of Gills
  • They exchange gases with water.
  • First, the gill slits close, the mouth opens,
    cheeks are pulled sideways, and volume of the
    mouth and the pharynx increases.
  • That entire process was just water being sucked
    into the fish.
  • The gills slits open, the mouth closes, and the
    volume decreases.
  • That process is water being pushed out of the
    slits.

7
Skeletal Structure
  • Fish are chordates and they have a
  • - notochord (long flexible rod typically
    developed in embryonic stage becomes a
    backbone).
  • - hollow dorsal nerve chord (next to
    notochord, main nerve pass way from body to
    brain)
  • - Pharyngeal slits (slits in the pharynx
    and become featherlike structure for
    breathing gills)
  • skeleton voice thread

8
Fish are Vertebrates
  • Organisms that posses a notochord in early
    development
  • Replaced by stronger support structure, backbone
    or vertebral column

9
Fish and Reproduction
  • There are two different ways to reproduce as a
    fish. These two include
  • - external reproduction
  • - used by most fish.
  • - the male deposits sperm into the water and
    the female deposits the egg into the
    water. - fertilization occurs and the egg is
    hatched.
  • - Ovoviviparous reproduction.
  • - used by some sharks and bony fish.
  • - Eggs are retained in female until hatched,
    and embryos get their food from the yolk
    sac.

10
Nervous System
  • Fishes nervous system is set up similar to the
    humans, except it is simpler.
  • There are five parts to their nervous system
  • - Olfactory Bulbs
  • - Cerebrum
  • - Optic Lobes
  • - Cerebellum
  • - Medulla Oblongata

11
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12
Nervous System cont.
  • Olfactory bulbs
  • Cerebrum
  • Optic lobes
  • Cerebellum
  • Medulla Oblongata
  • -sense of smell.
  • -basic behaviors.
  • -visual info.
  • -body movement.
  • -to maintain balance.

13
Sensory Structures
  • Chemical receptors are a good example of sensory
    structures these are smelling with lips and
    tasting with barbels whiskers.
  • Specialized cells which detect tiny electric
    currents to find hidden prey.
  • Some fish with specialized cells use them to
    navigate and communicate.

14
Fish Lateral Line System
  • The system is sensitive to changing water
    pressures.
  • The sensory unit is called neuromast
  • A bundle of sensory cells that hairs are included
    in a jelly-like cap.
  • It sends out nerve impulses through out the
    fishs body.
  • When pressure waves bend with the body, it
    determines the frequency of nerve impulses.

15
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16
Circulatory System
  • Single-looped system with two chamber heart.
  • This includes the atrium and ventricle.
  • Heart is near the respiratory organs.
  • Blood travels first to gills then rest of body.

17
Excretory System
  • Many fish rid of waste by allowing ammonia to
    diffuse through gills.
  • Simple kidney filters waste from blood, and also
    pass dilute urine.
  • Gills specialized cells can pump salts in/out
    of body fluids.

18
The Swim Bladder
  • Is a flexible-walled organ near the dorsal fin of
    dorsal fin.
  • Controls the fishes buoyancy in the water.
  • Depends of the amount of pressure in the fish.
  • i.e. if the fish becomes positively buoyant, it
    floats to the top and the gases escape from the
    swim bladder.

19
Digestive System
  • Is complete, with similar organs as humans have
  • Stomach
  • Small intestines
  • Large intestines

20
Classes
  • There are three major fish classes. These
    include
  • - Agnatha
  • - Chondrichthyes
  • - Osteichthyes
  • http//www.geocities.com/aquarium_fish/fishclasses
    .htm

21
Agnatha Class
  • Primitive jawless fish.
  • They have lost their bony skeletons.
  • They have no scales.
  • Examples lampreys and hagfish.

22
Chondrichthyes
  • Fish with a jaw.
  • Cartilaginous skeletons.
  • Includes sharks, rays, and skates.
  • Plate-like scales.
  • There are 750 living species left.
  • Most are carnivores.

23
Osteichthyes
  • These are bony fish.
  • Skeletons made of strong, lightweight bone.
  • There are 30,000 species.
  • Biologists divide them into two subclasses
  • Ray-finned fishes.
  • Fleshy-finned fishes (includes lobe-finned and
    lungfishes).

24
Osteichthyes Ray-finned Fishes
  • Includes nearly all of the bony fishes.
  • Many perform feats that you wouldnt imagine.
  • Includes guppies, groupers, blue fish,
    flounders, anchovies, eels, salmon, and more.

Above is a flying fish
25
Osteichthyes Fleshy-finned Fishes
  • Lobe-finned fishes.
  • - Today, the only living species is
    the Latimeria (also known as Coelacanth).
  • - These fish live in deep sea.
  • - These are closest to the common ancestor
    of all four-limbed vertebrates.

26
Latimeria Coelacanth
Replica of most famous Latimeria
Visit http//nature.ca/discover/treasures/anim/tr
3/coe_e.cfm or http//sacoast.uwc.ac.za/education/
resources/fishyfacts/coelacanth.htm
27
Fleshy-finned Fish
  • Lungfish
  • They have retained their primitive lung.
  • Is an air-filled sac connected to the gut.
  • Fills its lung by swallowing air and empties by
    belching.

28
The End!
29
Works Cited (pictures)
  • National Geographic. 2008. National Geographic
    Society. 31 March 2008. lthttp//animals.national
    geographic.com/staticfiles/N GS/Shared/StaticFiles
    /animals/images/primary/parro t-fish.jpggt.
  • College of Sciences. 2008. San Diego State
    University. 2 April 2008. lthttp//www.sci.sdsu.e
    du/classes/bio100/Lectures/Le ct16/Image266.gifgt.
  • Kimball, John W. Kimball's Biology Pages.
    Biology Pages. 14 March 2008. 3 April 2008.
    lthttp//users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/Biolog
    yPa ges/F/fish_heart.gifgt.
  • University of Aberdeen. 20 March 2008. Kings
    College. 3 April 2008. lthttp//www.abdn.ac.uk/
    nhi708/images/coelacanth.jpggt.

30
Works Cited (pictures)
  • Archives. Tomorrow Yesterday! 2008. 2 April
    2008. lthttp//www.tomorrowyesterday.com/archives/
    nemo.j pggt.
  • Fish Biology. National Aquarium of New Zealand.
    2008. National Aquarium of New Zealand. 1 April
    2008. lthttp//www.nationalaquarium.co.nz/docs/
  • programmes/Fishbiol.pdfgt.
  • Fish. Sportsman Choice. 27 Feb 2008. 3 April
    2008. lthttp//www.sportsmanschoice.com/A20Note2
    0 Worth20Reading/encyclopedia/lr000531.gifgt.
  • Latimeria Coelacanth. PALAEOS The Trace of
    Life on Earth. 2008. 3 April 2008.
    lthttp//www.palaeos.com/Vertebrates/Units/ 140Sar
    copterygii/Images/LatimeriaPhoto.jpggt.
  • Latimeria. Practical Fishkeeping. 2008. 4 April
    2008. lthttp//www.practicalfishkeeping.co.uk/pfk/
    images/
  • latimeria_chalumnae_cc.jpggt.

31
Works Cited (websites)
  • Modern Coelacanth. Our Amazing Treasures. 22
    June 2006. Canadian Museum of Nature. 4 April
    2008. lthttp//nature.ca/discover/treasures/ anim
    /tr3/coe_e.cfmgt.
  • The Coelacanth. Coastcare South African
    Coastal Information Centre. 2008. Department of
    Environmental Affairs and Tourism. 4 April 2008.
    lthttp//sacoast.uwc.ac.za/education/resources/fi
    shy facts/coelacanth.htmgt.
  • Fish Classes. Hand Made. 3 March 2006. 2 April
    2008. lthttp//www.geocities.com/aquarium_fish/
  • fishclasses.htmgt.
  • Essential Fish Habitat. Habitat Protection
    Division. NOAA Fisheries. 3 April 2008.
    lthttp//www.nmfs.noaa.gov/habitat/
  • habitatprotection/efh/gt.

32
Works Cited (websites) cont.
  • Fish Lateral Line System. Lateral System. 8
    April 2008. http//www.lookd.com/fish/laterallines
    ystem.html

33
Works Cited (books)
  • Filisky, Michael. Peterson First Guides Fishes.
    Boston, Mass Houghton Mifflin Company, 1989.
  • Miller, Kenneth and Levine, Joseph. Biology The
    Living Science. Upper Saddle River, NJ
    Prentice-Hall, 1998.

34
Works Cited (videos)
  • Videos. Discovery Education Streaming. 2008.
    Discovery Communications, LLC. 2 April
    2008.lthttp//streaming.discovery education.comgt.
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