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Information Technologies: Concepts and Management ?????????????????:??????????????????????

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Title: Information Technologies: Concepts and Management ?????????????????:??????????????????????


1
Chapter 2
Information Technologies Concepts and
Management??????????????????????????????????????
?
2
Learning Objectives
  • ????????????????????????? ? ??????????
    ????????????????????????????????????
  • ????????? transaction processing ??? functional
    information systems
  • ????????? major internal support systems ???
    ??????????????????? managerial functions.
  • ???????????????????? IT ???????? supply chain
    ??????? CRM
  • ???????? information infrastructure ???
    architecture.
  • ??????????? client/server architecture,
    mainframe-based legacy systems, ??? P2P
    architecture ????????????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????? ? ??? Web-based information
    systems ???????????????????????????????????????
  • ????????? new computing environments.
  • ????????? information resources
    ??????????????????? ??? ???????? ISD ??? end
    users ??? ????

3
Building an E-Business At FedEx Corporation
  • The problem/opportunity
  • ?????????? FedEx ??????????????? ?
    ???????????????????????????????????? ?
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????????? ???
    ??????????????????????????????
  • ????????? ??????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????? ????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????
  • FedEx ????? Goal ???????????? ???
  • ?) 100 customer service
  • ?) 0 downtime

4
  • IT Solution
  • Software Application ????????????????????
    e-Shipping Tools ???? Web application
    ???????????????????????????????????????? Web
  • ?????????? E-Commerce ??????????

5
(No Transcript)
6
  • Result
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????
  • ????????????????????????????????????????????supply
    chain
  • ???????? ??? ?? Order cycle ??
  • ??????????? ??? ?????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????
  • FedEx ????????????? old-economy shipping company
    ?????? e-business logistic enterprise

7
  • Lesson Learned
  • ?????????????? e-business ????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????

8
2.1 Information Systems Concepts and Definitions
  • ???????????? (Information SystemIS)
    ????????????????????? ? ????????? ??????
    ???????????? ??????????????????? ?
    ?????????????????? ??? ??????? ???????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????? (specific
    purpose)
  • Computer Based Information System (CBIS)
    ???????????????????????? ? ????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????? ???? ???????
  • ?????????????? ? ??? IS ??????
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Database
  • Network
  • Procedure
  • People

9
Application Program
  • ??????????????? (Application Program)
    ??????????????????? ? ???????????
    ???????????????? ? ??????????????????? ????
    ??????????????????????? ?????????????? ????
    ?????????????????????????????????? ? ????????????
  • ?????????????????????????????????? ?
    ????????????????? ???????????????? ??????????
    departmental information system ????
    ???????????????????????????????????? ?
    ????????????????????????????? (Human resources)
    ?????????? Human resources information system
    (HRIS)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????? (electronic networks)
    ???????????????????????????? (wireline) ????
    ?????? (wireless) ?????

10
Enterprisewide information system (EIS)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????? ???
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????? ???????? Enterprisewide
    information system
  • ????????? Interorganizational information system
    ????????? ????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????? ??????????????????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???? ???????????????????????? ????????????????????
    ?????????????????? ???? ???????????
    ???????????????????????? ??????(data)
    ????????(information) ??? ???????????
    (knowledge)???????

11
Data, Information, and Knowledge
  • ??????????? Data / Information ??? Knowledge
  • Data items ??????? ???????????????????????????????
    ????? ???????????? ???? ???? ????????? ? ????
    ???????????? ? ???? ???????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????? ?
    ???????????????? ??????????????????
  • Information ??????? ????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????
  • Knowledge ??????? ?????? ???/????
    ???????????????????????????????????? ???
    ?????????? ?????????? ??????????
    ???????????????????? ??? ???? ??????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ? ?????? KM ?????????? ?????????????????? 10
  • ????????????????????? ????????????????????????????
    ????? ???????????????
  • ????? ??????????????(?????)?????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????

12
Information Systems Configurations
  • ???????????????? IS ??????????????????????
    (components) ???? ? ??????????????????????????????
    ????????????????? (different configuration)
    ??????????????????? IS ???????????????????????????
    ???????????
  • ????????????????????? ????????????????????? IT
    ????????????????????????? ???????????????
    Configuration ???????????????????????????
    ???????? ?????????????????????????????????????

13
2.2 ??????????????????????????????????????
  • ???????????? ?????????????????????????????
  • 1) ????????????????????????? (organizational
    level)
  • 2) ??????????????????????????????????????????
    (support provided)

14
Level of Information Systems
15
1) ?????????????????????????
  • ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????? ???????????????????????????????????
    ??? ???????????????????
  • ?) Personal and Productivity Systems
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????? ???????????????? personal information
    management (PIM) ???? ?????? PDA ?????????????
    calendars, calculators, schedulers ???
    ???????????????? ?
  • ?) Transaction Processing System (TPS)
    ??????????????????????? ????????? ??????????
    ????????? ??? ????????? ??????????????????????????
    ?????????????

16
  • TPS ?????????????????????????????????????????????
    ? ????????????????? ??????????????????????????????
    ??????????? ???????????? ???????????????
    ????????????? ????????????????????????
    Point-of-Sale ??? ?????????????????? ?????
    (Warehouse)
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????? MIS ??? DSS ???????????????????????
    ??????? (Middle Management)
  • ???????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????? ????????????????????
    ???????????????????? (Value Chain)

17
(No Transcript)
18
  • ?) Functional and Management Information Systems
  • ?????? TPS ?????????????????????????? ? ?????????
    ??? functional area ??????????????????????????????
    ????
  • Functional Management Information Systems
    ??????????????????????????? ??????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????? ???????????
    ????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????? ?
    ????
  • Functional information systems ???????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????(department)?????
    ??????????? ???? ???????? Departmental IS
    ????????? IS ???????????????????????????????(depar
    tment)????????????? ?(corporation) ????
    Operations, Accounting, Finance, Marketing, Human
    resources ???????

19
  • ????????????????????????????? Functional
    Information System ??????????? 2 ????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?? functional area ???? ?
  • ?????????????????????????????? ???????? MIS
    (Management Information System)
    ??????????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ???
    ????????????????????? ???? ???????????????????????
    ??????????????????? ? ????????????? MIS
    ???????????????????????????????? ?????? MIS
    ???????????????????????????????????????? ????
    ???????????????????? ???????????????????? ????
    ?????????????????? ?????????????????????????????
    ???????

20
Sale forecast by region, generated by marketing
MIS
21
Example of Functional/Enterprise System
  • 1) Computerized Analysis Helps Texas Collect 400
    Million Additional Taxes.
  • 2) The Dallas Mavericks Using OT for Successful
    Play and Business.
  • 3) Sate-of-Art Human Resources Management in
    China.
  • 4) Mobile Banking at Handelsbanken of Sweden
  • ?????????????????????? 45 - 47

22
  • ?) Enterprise Information Systems
  • ???????? function system ?????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????? ? ???????????????????????
    ?????????? Enterprise System ????????????????????
    ???????????????? ? (Business Processes)
    ????????????????????????????????????
  • ?????????????????? ??? ???????????????????? ?
    ????????????????????????????????????????????????
  • ??????? Enterprise information systems
    ??????????????????????????? ? ???? ????
    ?????????????? ???? ???????? Enterprisewide
    Information System (EIS) (????????????????? ?
    ??????????????? ??????????????????????????????????
    ??) ???? ???? ERP ???????

23
Business processes across and beyond the
enterprise
24
  • ?) Inter-organizational systems (IOS)
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????? ????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????? e-commerce ????
    ??????????????????????????????????? supply chain
  • First type of IT system ??????????????????? 1980
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    electronic data interchange (EDI)
  • Web-based systems (many using XML) ??????????????
    business applications ??????? Internet ?????????
    browsers ??? Internet ????????????????????????????
    ????? ???????????? ??????????????????????

25
Departmental, enterprise and interorganizational
information system
26
Inter-Organizational Systems (IOS)
Two or more organizations
27
  • ?) Global Information System ??????? IOS
    ????????????????????? ? ????????????????
    ???????????? ???? e-commerce ???? ? ?????????????
    global
  • ?) Very Large and Special System
    ??????????????????????????????? global
    ?????????????????? ? ???????? (???????????????????
    global Information System) ??????????????? IT at
    Work 2.1 Generating 62 Million per Employee at
    Western Petroleum ???? 49
  • ??????? ???????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????? IT ???????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ? ????????????????????????

28
2) ??????????????????????????????????????????
(support provided)
29
(No Transcript)
30
???????????????? 2.2
  • ????????????????? (Executives) ???????????????????
    ????????? ??????? Business Intelligence ???
    Corporate Performance Management
  • ????????????? (Staff Support) ????????????????????
    ???? (Knowledge Workers) ??????? Intelligent
    System, Decision Support System (DSS), Business
    Intelligence Systems
  • ?????????????????? (Middle Manager)
    ????????????????????????????? (Tactical
    Decisions) ??????? Business Intelligence,
    Automated Decision Support (ADS), Function
    System, MIS
  • ????????????????? (Low-Level Managers)
    ????????????????? (Frontline Employees)
    ?????????????????????????????????? (Operation
    Decisions) ??????? Automated Decision Support
    (ADS) (Intelligence System), Functional IS, MIS
  • ????????????? (Clerical Staff) ??????? Office
    Automation, Groupware, e-Mail, Personal
    Productivity Software

31
??????????????
  • Management Information System (MIS)
    ???????????????????????? ?????????????????????????
    ???????????? ???? ????????????????????
    ???????????????????? ???? ??????????????????
    ????? ???????????????????????? ???????
    ?????????????????????? ????????????? ???
    ????????????????????????????? ? (Function Areas)
    ?????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? 7
  • Office Automation System (OAS) ???????????????????
    ?????????????????????????? ??????????????????????
    ?????? ?????????????????????????????? ?
    ???????????????????? ?????? word processing
    systems, document management systems ??? desktop
    publishing systems ???????????????????? 4 ??? 7

32
  • CAD (Computer Aided Design)/CAM (Computer Aided
    Manufacturing) ???????????? ??????????????????????
    ?????? ??????????????????? ? ?????????????????????
    ????????????????????? ???????????????????? 7
  • Communication and Collaboration Systems (????
    e-Mail, Voice Mail) ???????????????? ? ??
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????? ???????????????????? 4
  • Desktop Publishing System ???????????????????
    ??????????????? ?????? ???????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????? ???????????????????
    ? 3
  • Document Management System (DMS)
    ??????????????????? ??????????????????????????????
    ?????????????? ???????????????????? 3

33
  • Decision Support System (DSS) ????????????????????
    ?????????? ???????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????? (complex
    non-routine) ??? ??????????????????
    ????????????????? (what-if analysis)
    ????????????????????????????? ????????????????????
    12
  • Group Support System (GSS) ???????????????????????
    ??????? ??????????????????????????????
    (????????????????????????????????)
    ???????????????????? 12
  • Expert System (ES) ?????????????????????????
    ????????????????? ????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????? ???????????????????? 10, 12

34
  • Knowledge Work System (KWS) ??????????????????????
    ??????????????? ??????????????????????
    ??????????? ??????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? 10
  • Neural Network ??? Data mining ???????????????????
    ????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ?
    ??????? ??????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????? ???????????????????? 9, 11, 12
  • Business Intelligence ??????????????????????????
    ????????? ??????????????????? ????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????? Business
    Analytic ??? Intelligence System
    ???????????????????? 11, 12
  • Mobile Computing System ??????????????????????????
    ?????? ? ?????????????????????????????????????????
    ???? ??????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? 6

35
  • Automated Decision Support (ADS)
    ????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????? ?????????????
    ?????????????????????????????? ???????????????????
    ???????????? ???????????????????? 12
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????????????
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??? ?????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    (Electronic market) ????????????? ????
    e-commerce
  • Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
    ??????????????????????????????
  • Web-based system ?????????????????????? 1990
    ??????????????? 2000

36
How do different information system relate to
each other?
????? 2 ??????????? ???? ES-BI ???????????
Integrated Support Systems
37
2.3) How IT Supports People and Organizational
Activities
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????
  • ?) Operational Activities ????????????????????????
    ?????????? ???? ???????????????????????
    ?????????????????? ????????????? ???????
    ?????????????????????????? ? ?????????????????????
    ? ??? TPS, MIS ??? Mobile System
    ????????????????????????????????????????????
    Supervisors (first-line manager), operators ???
    clerical employees
  • ?) Managerial Activities (?????????? tactical
    activities ???? decisions) ???????????????????????
    ???????????????????????? (middle-management
    activities) ???? ?????????????????????
    ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????
    ???????????????? MIS

38
???????? S/W ?????????????????????????????????????
??
39
  • ?) Strategic activities ??? ??????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ? ??????????????????????? ???? ????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????? ???? outsourcing
  • ?????????????????????????? ??? ?????????? 5 ??
    ???? 10 ?? ???????????????????????????????????????
    ????? ???????? digital economy ???????????????????
    ????? 1 ??? 2 ?? (???? ?????????????????????)
    ?????????????????????????
  • 1) ???????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????? ???? ???????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????????
  • 2) ????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????

40
Who performs what activities in Organizational,
and how are they supported by IT?
41
  • ?) Executives and Managers ???????????????????????
    ????????????? (the executive) ????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????? ???????????????????????
    ???????????????????? BI ??? Corporate Performance
    Management ?????????????????????? (Middle
    managers) ???????????????????????? (tactical
    decision) ???????????????????????? Functional
    information system, MIS ?????????????????
    ?????????????????????????? BI ??? Intelligence
    system ?????????????? intranet
  • ?) Knowledge Worker, Clerical Staff, and Data
    Worker
  • ???????? Staff support ???????????????????????
    top ??? middle management

42
  • The Knowledge workers
  • ?????????????????????????? advisor ???
    ??????????? ? ???????????????????????? ????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????? ???????????? ? ????????
    ????????????????????????????????? (knowledge
    workers) ?????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????? (?????????????????????? ?????????
    ???????????????????????????????
  • IS ??????????? Knowledge worker
    ????????????????????? Internet Search engines
    (???????????????????????????), expert system
    (???????????????????????????????) ???????
    Web-based computer aided design
    (?????????????????????????????????????) ???
    sophisticated data management system
    (??????????????????????????????????)

43
  • The Clerical workers
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ? ????????????????? ??????????????????????????????
    ?????? ???????????????????????????? ????????????
    ??? ???? ????????? ???? ?????????????
    ????????????? data workers ???????????????
    ??????????????????????????? ??????????????????????
    ?????? word processors, electronic file clerks
    ??? insurance claim processors.
  • ????? Data Worker ?????????????????????? Office
    Automation ??? Communication System ?????????????
    document management, work flow, e-mail, ???
    coordination software

44
  • The Operational Level
  • ??????????????????????? ???? first- line managers
    ??????????????????????????????? ???????????????
    (?????????????????????????) ??????????????????????
    ????? ????? ??????????????????????????????????????
    ?? ? ?? ???? ????????????????? ???????????????????
    ??????????????????????????
  • ?) Infrastructure for the Support System
    ???????????????? ? ?????? (????????) ???????????
    information infrastructure ???? internet,
    intranet, corporate portals, security systems ???
    corporate database

45
2.4) How IT Supports Supply Chains and Enterprise
Systems
  • Supply chain
  • ????????????? (supply chain) ?????????????? ?
    ?????????????????????????????? ? ????????????????
    ??? ????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????
    ??? ????????? ??? ?????????????????? (warehouse)
    ???????????????????? (end customer) ????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????? ???????? ???
    ????????????? ? ??????????? end customer ????
  • Supply Chain ?????????????????? ???
  • 1) Upstream supply chain ?????????????????????????
    ??? First Tier ????? ?????????? procurement

46
  • 2) Internal supply chain ??? ?????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????? ??????
    production management, manufacturing ???
    inventory control
  • 3) Downstream supply chain ???????????????????????
    ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????????????????
    ???
  • ?????? IT ????????????????????????????????????????
    ?? ???????????????????????????????? Supply Chain
    ??????? ???????????????????? ? 2
    ????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????? ???????????
    enterprise resource planning ( ERP),
    ????????????????? Supply Chain Management (SCM)
    ?????????????????????? 8

47
Downstream SC
Internal SC
Upstream SC
48
IT support of other systems
  • Industrial-Specific Systems
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???? Banking, Transportation, oil, utilities ????
    Universities ?????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????
  • Supporting E-Commerce Business Models
  • ??????????????? e commerce ???? e-auctions,
    exchanges, e-procurement ???? electronic meeting

49
2.5 Information Systems Infrastructure and
Architecture
  • Information Technology Infrastructure
  • ???????????? IT ????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????? ? ??????????????
    ? ??? IT ???????????? ???????? ? ??? IT, ???
    ????????????? IT ?????????????????????????????????
    ?????
  • ?????????????? ? IT Infrastructure ??????
    ??????????????????????? 1) ?????????????
    2)????????? 3) ???????????????????????????????????
    ??????????? 4) ????????? 5)???????????????????????
    ?????????? ??? ???????? ????????????? IT ??????
    ???? ???????????????????????? ??? ????????????
    ??????????????????????????
  • ?????????? IT Infrastructure ?????????????????????
    ????? ????????????????? ????????
    ???????????????????? ???????????????
    ?????????????????? ? ???????????? ??? ?????????

50
Information Infrastructure (?????????????)
  • 1) Hardware
  • 2) Software
  • 3) Networks communication facilities
  • 4) Databases and data workers
  • 5) Information management personnel

51
  • ?????????????? IT (Information technology
    architecture) ??????? ??????????
    ??????????????????? ? ????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????? ?
    ?????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????? (blueprint)?????????????????????
    ?????? ???????????????????? ???????????? IT
    ????????????? ? ??????????????????????????????????
    ?????? ?????????????? IT architecture
    ????????????????????????????????????????? ??????
  • ????????????????????????????? ???????
    ????????????????? ????????? ? ??? ??????
    ??????????? IT ???????????????? (????????)
  • IT infrastructure ?????????????
    ??????????????????? ??? ????????????????????? ?
    ???????? ?????????? ?????????????????????????
    ???????????? ? ????????????? ?????????????????????
    ??????????

52
  • ????????????? (Web based systems) ???????
    ????????????????????? ? ???? ?????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????? web browser
    ????? ? ??? ??????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????
  • ???????????? (Internet ( the Net)) ???????
    ?????????????????????????????? ???
    ??????????????????????????????????? ?
    ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????
  • Information Superhighway ???????
    ??????????????????????????????????? (fiber-optic-
    based network) ??? wireless infrastructure
    ???????????????????????????????? ????????????? ?
    ???????????

53
World Wide Web/Internet/Extranet
  • World Wide Web
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????????????????? ??? ??????????????????????
    ?????????? storing, retrieving formatting ???
    displaying information ??????? client/server
    architecture
  • Intranet
  • ???????????????????????????? ? ???????????????????
    ??? ? ??? web ???? ????????? (browser) ???
    ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????
    ??? security gateway ???? firewall ???????
  • Extranet
  • ????????????????????????????????????? ?
    ?????????????????????????? ? ??????
    ??????????????????????????? ?????????????
    ?????????????????????????? ???? ?????????????????
    ?????????? ?????????????????????????

54
  • Web sites ???????????? gateway ???????????????????
    ??????????? access ?????? ? ?????
    ???????????????????????????????????? ? ??????????
    ???????????? ?????????????
  • Corporate portals ????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? ??????? ???? ??????
  • Intranets ??? Extranets ????????????????????
    corporate portal ??? ?????????? ????????????????
    corporate portal ???????

55
Web-Based E-Commerce Systems
  • Electronic Storefront Web (????????????????????
    showroom ???? physical store ???????????????????)
    ????????????????????????? e-business
    ????????????????? ???/???? ????????????
  • Electronic market ?????????????????????????? ?
    ??????????? ????????? ??????????????
    ????????????? ???????? ???????????????????????????
    ???? ? ??? ???????????
  • Electronic exchange Web based public electronic
    market ????? ? ??????????????? ? ??? ???
    ?????????? ? ?????????????????????????????????????
    ????
  • Mobile commerce ??????? ??? ???????????????????
    ? ??????????????????? ????????????????

56
Web-Based E-commerce cont
  • Location based commerce ???????????????
    Mcommerce ????????????????? ?????????? ?
    ???????????????? ? ??????????????
    ?????????????????????????
  • Enterprise Web Web application
    ?????????????????????????????????? ???
    ????????????(service)??? different vendors ??????
    technology layer ???????? ?????????????? platform
    ??? business systems.
  • ???????????????????? Electronic Storefront
    ??????????? ???????????? ??????
    ?????????????????????????? (Store) ??????????
    ????????????????????? ??? (???????????
    Brick-and-Mortar ???????) ????????
    ???????????????? H/W ??? S/W (????????
    Click-and-Mortar)

57
Traditional store (Brick-and-Mortar)
????????????? ????????????????????????????????????
????????? ???????????????????????????
58
Structure of Electronic Storefront (H/W)
????????????? ????????????????????????????
Electronic Storefront ????????????????
59
Structure of Electronic Storefront (S/W)
????????????? ????????????????????????????
Electronic Storefront
60
2.6) Emerging Computing Environment
  • The software-as-a-service (SaaS) business model
  • ???????????? SaaS ???? on-demand computing ????
    utility computing ???? hosted services
    ????????????????????????????? ????????????????????
    ?????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????
    internet browser ??????? ?????????????? S/W ????
    S/W ?? ? ????????? ???????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????? (pay per usage)
  • Suitability of SaaS
  • CRM, ??????????? ? ????????? outsource ??? ????
    HR/payroll, Finance/procurement, B2C/e-commerce,
    products catalogs ???????

61
  • SaaS and SOA
  • ???????????????????? SaaS ????????????????????????
    ?????? ???????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????? ??????????????????????????
    ????????????? ????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????? (point of execution)
    ????????????????????? ????????? ???????? ?
    ????????????? ???????????????????
    ???????????????????????? Service-oriented
    architecture (SOA)
  • Implementing SaaS
  • Utility computing ???????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????? ??? ????????
    (?????????????????????????????????????)
    ????????????????? ???????? ?????? virtual
    utilities ??????????

62
  • Subscription computing Utility computing
    ???????????????????????? ?????????? computing
    platform ???????? ?????????????
    (??????????????????????????? ?)
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??
  • Grid computing ??????????????????????????????????
    ? ? ??????? unused processing cycles??????????????
    ???? ? ???????? ??????????????????????????????????
    ????????????? ??????????????? IT at Work 2.2
    Grid Computing at J.P. Morgan ???? 61
  • Mobile computing and mobile commerce
  • Mobile computing ??????? ?????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????? ?
    ????????????????????(???????????)???????? ?
    ?????????????????? (??????????????????????????????
    ?????)

63
Emerging Computing cont
  • Mobile commerce ???? M-commerce ??????????????
    (???????????????????????????)?????????????????????
    ? (wireless) ???? ?????????????? ???? PDA ???????
    ????????????? Next-generation of e-commerce
  • ?????????????? Wireless computing ???? ?????????
    ?????? content ????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????? ?????????????
    ??????????????? IT at Work 2.3 Wireless Pepsi
    Increase Productivity page 61
  • ????????????????????????????????????? Pervasive
    computing ??????????? ???????????? ?
    ?????????????? ? ??????? (??????????) ???????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ? ??? ? ??????

64
  • Service-oriented architecture ???????? SOA
    ??????
  • ?? integration cost ??
  • ???????? Business/IT alignment
  • ??????????????????????????????????? IT ?????????
  • ??????????????????????????? ? ?????????????
  • ??????????/????????????????? IT ??
  • Web services ????????? ? ????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? ???????????????????(prefabric
    ated) ??????????????????????????
    ???????????????????? ?????????????? ?
    ?????????????????????? ???????????????????????????
    ?? ? ?????? ??????? ??????????????????????????????
    ?????????????? ? ??????????

65
Using Web Services in software-oriented
architecture
66
  • Virtualization ???? virtualization computing ???
    ?????????????????????????????????? IT
    ????????????????????? ?????????? ? ???
    virtualization ??? hardware virtualization
    ??????????????? ? ??????
  • Storage virtualization ??? ??? pool
    ??????????????????????????????? ? ??????????
    ????????????????????? ????????????????????????
  • Network virtualization ???????????????????????????
    ? ??????????????? ? ??????????? network load
    ??????????????????????? ???? assign ??? server
    ??????????
  • Hardware virtualization ?????????? software
    ???????????????? hardware ?????????? virtual
    machine

67
2.7) MANAGERIAL ISSUES
  • 1) Which IT resources are managed by whom?
  • ?????????????????????????????????????????
    Information systems department (ISD) ??? end
    users ??????????? ????????????????????????????????
    ???????? ???????????? ? ??? ISD ???? corporate
    level ??? shared resources

68
  • 2) The role of IS department
  • ???????? ISD ?????????????? ??????????????????????
    ?????????????? ??????????????? ISD
    ???????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????????????
    IT application ???? ? ???????? ???????
    ???????????????????????? end-user computing
    ????????????????????????? ????? end user
    ???????????? ??????????????????????
    ????????????????????????? ???????????? end user
    ??????????????????????????????????????????? IT
  • ?????????????????????????? CIO ??? CFO

69
  • 3) The transition to e-business.
  • ????????????????????? networked-computing-based
    e-business ??????????????????????? E-business
    ??????? client/ server architecture, intranet,
    Internet connection, e-commerce policy and
    strategy ?????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????? ??????? ??????????????????????
    ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????
    Information Technology ???????????????????????
    ??????????????????

70
MANAGERIAL ISSUES Continued
  • From legacy systems to client/server to
    intranets, corporate portals, and Web-based
    systems.
  • ??????????? ? ???????????????? ?????????????
    ????????? ??????????? ????????????????????????????
    ? legacy systems ?????? Web-based client/server
    enterprise-wide architecture ?????????????????????
    ????????????? Web-based client/server
    ?????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???? ?????????????? intranets ?????????????
    client/server ?????????? ???????????? new
    architecture ?????????? new infrastructure
    ??????????????????????????????? legacy systems
    ???????????????????? people, quality of work, ???
    budget ??????????????????????????????? wireless
    infrastructure.

71
MANAGERIAL ISSUES Continued
  • 4) How to deal with the outsourcing and utility
    computing trends. Outsourcing ??????????????
    ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????????????
    ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????
    ?? utility computing
  • How much infrastructure?
  • ???????????????????? information system
    applications ?????????????????????? intangible
    benefits ??? technology ??????????????????????????
    ??????????????????? ????????????????????
    infrastructure ???????????????????????????????????
    ???????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????? ????????? Basic architecture
    ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????? ?
    ???????????????

72
MANAGERIAL ISSUES Continued
  • 5) Ethical issues
  • ??????????????? ISD ?????????? end users
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???? ??????????????? ISD ?????????????????????????
    ???????????????? ?????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????????? ???? ???????????????????
    ??????????????
  • ???????????
  • Minicase 1 E-Commerce Supports Field Employees
    at Maybelline
  • ??? Minicase 2 How TrueCredit Utilizes SOA to
    Build Fast, Reliable Applications
  • Appendix 2A Build-to-Order Production (Push/Pull
    System)
  • Appendix 3A Basics of Supply Chains

73
??????????? 2
  • ???????????????.
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