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Leading Causes of Death (all ages)

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Theodore C. Friedman, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Medicine-UCLA Chief, Division of Endocrinology, Molecular Medicine and Metabolism Charles R. Drew University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leading Causes of Death (all ages)


1
Theodore C. Friedman, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of
Medicine-UCLA Chief, Division of Endocrinology,
Molecular Medicine and Metabolism Charles R.
Drew University www.goodhormonehealth.com How to
Live to 100! Magic Convention Chicago June 13,
2010 In spite of what the brochure says, do not
sell your life insurance policy!
2
Why Live to 100!
  • Enjoy a full live
  • Not just years, but quality years
  • Be a productive member of society
  • Impart wisdom to your offspring
  • Many issues I discuss are controversial, discuss
    with your doctor!
  • In memory of John Wooden 1910-2010

3
Why Live to 100!
  • Slightly based on the book The Long Life
    Equation by Trisha McNair and Dr. Olga Calof

4
Why is it realistic to live to 100 in 2010?
  • Better screening
  • Better treatment
  • More knowledge on diseases

5
What can you do?
  • Informed consumer
  • Days of blindly following your doc are long gone
  • Be your own advocate-docs are busy/overwhelmed-you
    need to lobby/push
  • Keep your own records
  • Be organized
  • Get a good doctor that will listen to and work
    with you
  • Make it easy for your doc
  • Go to good docs-if something seems illogical, get
    a 2nd opinion.

6
How to Live to 100-my approach
  • Identify and screen for major causes of death
  • (heart disease, cancer, diabetes)
  • Know when to screen
  • Learn to do the right test
  • Improve modifiable risk factors
  • Cant pick your parents (but know your family
    history)
  • Healthy lifestyle
  • Medications as needed
  • Risk/benefit ratio for each person-I do not
    believe that each test has to be cost-effective
    for population
  • Start now, set a time to get everything done by
    (next birthday)

7
How to Live to 100-my approach
  • Screening has risks (identifies an abnormality
    that is not a clinically important problem)
  • Interventions have risks.
  • Always think about risk/benefit ratios.
  • Medicines have side effects and interact, only
    take what you need.

8
What diseases can you prevent?
  • 90
  • Exceptions
  • Some cancers
  • Some types of heart disease
  • Heart failure
  • Rare incidents of heart attacks strokes

9
Leading Causes of Death (all ages)
10
Leading Causes of Death by Age
11
Heart disease
  • Also called atherosclerosis or coronary artery
    disease.
  • Cholesterol plaques build up in the blood vessels
    in the heart supplying blood to the heart muscle.
  • Plaques become calcified
  • As plaques get larger, not enough blood goes
    through the arteries to the heart
    muscle-angina-chest pain (pressure)
  • Angina almost always starts at exertion as heart
    needs more blood to keep up with demand

12
Plaques
13
Heart disease
  • As plaques increase in size, angina gets
    worse-may occur at rest.
  • If artery is blocked-heart attack (myocardial
    infarction)-crushing chest pain
  • Leads to damage of heart muscle-heart failure
  • Associated with arrhythmias
  • Want to avoid heart attacks and its damage
  • If having a heart attack-call 911 and take an
    aspirin
  • In emergency rooms, can dissolve clot or open up
    clot with angioplasty

14
Heart disease-detection
  • EKG-can detect angina (impaired blood flow to
    muscles), current or prior heart attack, or
    arrhythmias can not detect early blockage
  • Stress test-can detect angina on exertion-major
    blockage of heart vessels
  • Echocardiogram-can detect heart failure,
    structural problems and prior damage to the heart
  • Angiography-can accurately detect varies degrees
    of blockage in heart vessels, but very invasive
  • High-resolution CT scans and MRIs- new, somewhat
    experimental, but likely to have a role

15
EBCT-Priceless
  • Electron beam CAT scan- (EBCT)
  • This is often part of what is called a body
    scan, which also looks for lung cancer and other
    types of cancer.
  • The electron beam CT scan of the heart detects
    early calcification in the heart vessels.
  • Radiation exposure is very low.
  • Early calcification is a sign of atherosclerosis.
  • The electron beam CT scan of the heart is done at
    most major medical centers and costs between 350
    and 500 (may or may not be covered with
    insurance).

16
EBCT-Priceless (2)
  • Patients get a calcium score, which indicates how
    much calcium plaque the patient has in their
    hearts vessels.
  • It tells you the number of plaques and how big
    they are, to come up with a calcium score, and
    also usually tells which coronary artery contains
    the plaque.
  • In some circumstances, if the calcium plaques are
    in a dangerous region, such as in the main
    coronary artery called the left anterior
    descending, it may be more dangerous than having
    them in a more minor heart vessel.
  • A person can get a zero score, which is ideal
    and the lower the score, the better.
  • Generally, a score above 300 is considered
    dangerous

17
Who should get a EBCT
  • Men gt 40 years, women gt 45 years
  • Patients that are being considered for treatment
    of elevated cholesterol.
  • Cholesterol is only a marker for heart disease,
    and it is much better to look for actual heart
    disease.
  • If you have no calcifications in your heart
    vessels, it does not really matter what your
    cholesterol is, as you are not going to die from
    or develop atherosclerosis.
  • If you do have significant coronary
    calcification, you should be on drugs designed to
    lower your cholesterol, such as statin drugs,
    take an aspirin and undergo other dietary and
    exercise modification to decrease your chances of
    having heart disease.
  • A low percentage on patients have light, fluffy
    LDL particles that do not give calcification, yet
    can lead to heart disease.
  • Patients can also have a good cholesterol
    profile and still get heart disease.

18
EBCT Sample results
19
EBCT Sample results
20
EBCT Priceless
  • As the MasterCard commercial says
  • Price of an EBCT 350-500
  • Knowing that you have clean coronary arteries
    Priceless.
  • www.goodhormonehealth.com

21
Medical treatment to prevent/treat heart
disease-Aspirin
  • Aspirin (baby aspirin-81 mg/day)
  • It used to be said that taking an aspirin was the
    most important prevention for cardiovascular
    disease that you could do
  • Evidence is shifting and aspirin is less strongly
    recommended
  • Aspirin leads to increase gastro-intestinal
    bleeds and maybe more cerebro-vascular
    hemorrhages
  • Aspirin is effective in men in preventing heart
    disease and in women in preventing strokes
  • Likely to benefit more those that have risk
    factors for heart disease elevated cholesterol,
    high blood pressure, diabetes
  • Most beneficial study at reducing heart attacks
    was the Physicians Health Study which studied men
    and gave them aspirin at a dose of 325 mg every
    other day. Other studies using smaller doses were
    less effective.

22
Aspirin (2)
  • US preventive service task force recommendations
  • Encourage men age 45 to 79 years to use aspirin
    when the potential benefit of a reduction in
    myocardial infarctions outweighs the potential
    harm of an increase in gastrointestinal
    hemorrhage.
  • Encourage women age 55 to 79 years to use aspirin
    when the potential benefit of a reduction in
    ischemic strokes outweighs the potential harm of
    an increase in gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
  • Do not encourage aspirin use for cardiovascular
    disease prevention in women younger than 55 years
    and in men younger than 45 years.
  • Evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of
    benefits and harms of aspirin for cardiovascular
    disease prevention in men and women 80 years or
    older.

23
Aspirin (my recommendations)
  • Anyone with a positive score on heart scan.
  • Anyone with history of heart disease
  • Men greater than 45 with elevated cholesterol or
    diabetes
  • Men greater than 45 and women greater than 55
    with high blood pressure

24
Medical treatment to prevent/treat heart disease
  • Blood pressure control
  • Target blood pressure should be 130/80.
  • Diet first-exercise, low salt, less stress.
  • Make sure BP monitor is accurate and no white
    coat syndrome.
  • Most drugs work well, combinations often have to
    be given.
  • Diuretics (HCTZ) are cheap and effective, but
    raise cholesterol slightly.
  • ACE inhibitors (Benzapril, Lisinopril) and ARBs
    (Cozaar, Diovan) are good choices.
  • Beta blockers (Metoprolol, Atenolol, Propanalol)
    may give fatigue, hair loss, and erectile
    dysfunction and are less recommended.

25
Cholesterol Lowering Agents
  • LDL Cholesterol-bad cholesterol- high levels
    strongly linked to heart disease
  • HDL Cholesterol-good cholesterol- low levels
    linked to heart disease
  • Triglycerides- fat in blood, very high levels
    related to pancreatitis, slight relation to heart
    disease
  • Non-HDL cholesterol total cholesterol -HDL
    cholesterol-also linked to heart disease.
  • Apolipoproteins- Proteins that bind to
    cholesterol-related to heart disease.
  • CRP-marker of inflammation-linked to heart
    disease.

26
Statins
  • Blocks cholesterol synthesis
  • Lipitor, Zocor (generic, simvastatin), Crestor,
    Prevachol (any that work is ok)
  • Lowers LDL cholesterol
  • Reduces inflammation (CRP)
  • Most widely prescribed class of medications
  • Heavily pushed by industry
  • Definitely reduces heart disease and deaths
  • Side effects include muscle pain, cramps,
    elevated liver tests

27
Who should get a statin?
  • Anyone with plaques on EBCT!
  • LDL Cholesterol gt 160 mg/dL
  • One risk factor (age gt 50, family history,
    smoker) LDL Cholesterol gt 130 mg/dL
  • Diabetes, kidney disease LDL Cholesterol gt 100
    mg/dL
  • Known heart disease, history of MI LDL
    Cholesterol gt 70 mg/dL

28
Zetia/Vytorin
  • Zetia-prevents cholesterol absorption-lowers
    cholesterol, less side effects
  • Not shown to reduce heart disease
  • Vytorin-combination of simvastatin (Zocor
    statin) and Zetia
  • Recent study says it was no better than
    simvastatin alone at reducing a marker of plaques
    at 100 times the cost.

29
Niacin
  • Vitamin B3 (deficiency is called pellagra)
  • One of the oldest cholesterol-reducing agents
    around with a long-standing track record of
    effectiveness and safety
  • Available as a prescription drug as well as a
    variety of "nutritional supplements
  • Niacin lowers the amount of small low density
    particles, the most damaging variety.
  • It can cause rashes and aggravate gout, diabetes,
    or peptic ulcers. Early in therapy, it can cause
    facial flushing for several minutes soon after a
    dose, although this response often stops after
    about two weeks of therapy and can be reduced by
    taking aspirin or ibuprofen half an hour before
    taking the niacin. A sustained-release
    preparation of niacin (Niaspan) appears to have
    fewer side effects.
  • Increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the
    "good" cholesterol.
  • Brand names include niaspan and niacor.
  • Niacin is found in many foods, includingDairy
    products, Lean meats, Poultry, Fish, Nuts, Eggs,
    Enriched breads and cereals

30
Fish oils
  • Ratio of linoleic acid (omega-6 fat) and
    linolenic acid
  • (omega-3 fat) important
  • Too much omega-6 fat inflammation and damage
  • to organs
  • Omega-6 fat in fried foods, snacks and other
    foods with corn oil
  • Omega-3 fat in fish (ocean caught, not farmed),
    walnuts, fruits and vegetables
  • Can supplement Omega-3 fat
  • Omega-3 fat fortified ice cream and margarine
    have lots of fat and calories
  • Better to eat foods high in Omega-3 fat

31
Cancers
  • Genetic and environmental causes
  • Avoid toxic chemicals (oil refinery in Los
    Angeles)
  • Solvents and other chemicals
  • Obesity/poor diet is related to cancers
  • Do not smoke!
  • Both males/females

32
Cancers-Males
  • Colon cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Lung cancer

33
Cancers-Females
  • Breast cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Uterine/Cervical cancer
  • Lung cancer

34
Other Cancers
  • Brain cancer
  • Lymphoma/Leukemia
  • Pancreas cancer
  • Kidney cancer
  • Stomach cancer

35
Colon Cancer
  • Colonoscopy!
  • Starts as polyps
  • Prep is not pleasant, but otherwise easy and very
    recommended.
  • Males gt 40, females gt45 (earlier than often
    recommended).
  • If negative, every 5 to 10 years
  • All males with anemia, old females with anemia
    should get it
  • Do not recommend sigmoidoscopy or stool occult
    blood.
  • Virtual colonoscopy in the future, but not as
    good as colonoscopy

36
Lung Cancer
  • Do not smoke!
  • If do smoke-Body scan that includes high
    resolution CT scan of chest.
  • Nonsmokers-Men gt 50, women gt 55 high resolution
    CT scan of chest.
  • Problem is it may pick up non-cancer lesions that
    require biopsy.

37
Prostate Cancer (men)
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA blood test) every
    5 years starting at age 50.
  • Digital rectal exam -not sure its worthwhile.
  • If either are suspicious-ultrasound or MRI
  • Problem is many men have slow growing prostate
    cancer that doesnt effect their life and is
    better if its not known.
  • Basic tests can not tell the difference between
    slow growing and aggressive cancers (will change
    in the near future).
  • Intervention may be worse than the disease
    (erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis).
  • Rate of increase of PSA may be more accurate than
    the actual levels

38
Breast Cancer (women)
  • Mammograms yearly starting at age 40
  • Problem is picking up benign lesions that lead to
    unnecessary surgery
  • Ultrasounds or MRIs can be done as well, if
    strong family history or on suspicious lesions.
  • BRCA screening (common in Ashkenazi Jews) if
    family history of early breast or ovarian cancers
  • Self exam doesnt hurt, but does not substitute
    for mammogram

39
Ovarian Cancer (women)
  • Pelvic ultrasounds every 3 years starting at age
    40
  • BRCA screening if family history of early breast
    or ovarian cancers
  • CA125-blood test that picks up ovarian cancer
    every 3 years starting at age 40
  • Pelvic exam-yearly at age 40

40
Cervical Cancer (women)
  • Liquid based PAP test-every 2 years
  • Beginning at age 30, women who have had 3 normal
    Pap test results in a row may get screened every
    2 to 3 years.
  • Get vaccinated against human papilloma virus

41
Endometrial Cancer (women)
  • See if a gynecologist if you have post-menopausal
    vaginal bleeding

42
Other Cancers
  • Whole body scan every 5 years starting at the age
    50.
  • CBC (blood counts) to look for leukemias yearly
    starting at age 50.
  • New onset depression should be a possible flag
    for cancers (brain, pancreas, colon)
  • Unexplained weight loss is also a flag for cancer

43
Stroke
  • Same risk factors and markers as heart disease
  • Good blood pressure control lt 130/80
  • EBCT-shows calcification in aorta-similar to that
    of carotid (neck) arteries.
  • Daily baby aspirin
  • Carotid ultrasound-(plaques in the neck
    arteries)-every 5 years starting at age 45

44
Diabetes
  • Very linked to being overweight/inactivity
  • Fasting glucose should be lt 100 mg/dL (get
    screened yearly)
  • Diabetes is fasting glucose is gt 126 mg/dL
  • Prediabetes is fasting glucose is 101-125 mg/dL
  • Best way to prevent progression form pre-diabetes
    to diabetes is exercise and weight loss
  • Fasting insulin level gt 15 iU/mL -insulin
    resistance
  • Prediabetes or insulin resistance-can take the
    medicine metformin (glucophage)

45
Diabetes (2)
  • HgbA1C-measures average blood glucose levels
  • Includes glucose after meals
  • Does not require fasting.
  • Diabetes gt7.0
  • Prediabetes 5.8 to 7.0
  • Test yearly
  • Avoid getting diabetes and if you get it, get it
    under control.
  • See a specialist
  • HgbA1C lt 7.0, LDL cholesterol lt 100, BP lt 130/80

46
Osteoporosis
  • Thin bones
  • Predisposes to fractures, especially hip
    fractures
  • Hip fractures are a major cause of mortality
  • Bone density (DXA scan) in women starting at age
    50, men starting at age 65.
  • Mostly a disease of thin women
  • Treat if osteoporosis, watch with repeat DXA
    scans if osteopenia
  • Look for underlying cause-vitamin D deficiency or
    high parathyroid hormone

47
Accidents
  • Car accidents-safest car possible-electronic
    stability control, air bags
  • Avoid cell phone (may also lead to cancers)
  • Avoid texting
  • New tires, keep car maintained
  • Wear seat belts
  • Drive defensively, dont take risks
  • Avoid road rage/inciting road rage
  • Avoid bad neighborhoods
  • Do not confront thieves rogues
  • Avoid firearms
  • Avoid risky sports (skydiving, scuba diving,
    diving, rapid river rafting, hiking alone, motor
    sports, skiing)

48
Home safety
  • Smoke alarms
  • Fire extinguishers
  • Safety glass
  • Make sure no lose wiring
  • Careful about house work-ladders
  • Avoid pesticides

49
Infections
  • Wash hands!
  • Avoid antibiotics for viruses as that will lead
    to drug resistance when you get bacterial
    infections
  • Avoid non-domesticated animals (turtles and
    reptiles-salmonella, wild birds)
  • Get vaccinated-influenza, H1N1, pneumovax
  • Get early treatment for pneumonia-high fever
    chills, pain on breathing

50
Dental Hygiene
  • Poor dental hygiene linked to heart disease,
    respiratory disease and diabetes.
  • Gingivitis allows bacteria to enter blood
    stream-leads to inflammation
  • See your dentist regularly
  • Brush and floss regularly

51
Diet
  • Maintain desired body weight
  • Eat healthy-lots of fruits and vegetables, fish,
    chicken, lean meat and dairy products
  • Avoid overly processed foods, foods with too many
    preservatives and additives (ingredients that you
    cant pronounce)
  • Avoid sugar, corn syrup, most sweets, simple
    carbs
  • Avoid fried foods

52
Diet
  • Avoid saturated and trans fat
  • Mindful eating-do not do anything else while
    eating.
  • Take small portions, do not have food in front of
    you.
  • Healthy food around the house
  • Weigh yourself weekly (maybe daily) so that you
    are mindful of your weight
  • But healthy eating and good physical activity are
    more important than the actual weight
  • Figure out your weaknesses
  • Exceptions are the downfall

53
Exercise
  • Ability to perform cardiovascular exercise is
    probably more important than actual weight.
  • Daily exercise is the best-make it part of your
    day, like brushing your teeth.
  • Sneak exercise in, even for short periods of time
    (ride your bike or walk to errands, take the
    stairs, power walk)
  • Aerobic and non-aerobic exercise including
    stretching
  • Yoga/pilates (Studio 613 is highly recommended)
  • Prevents cancer (breast cancer!), dementia,
    stroke, heart disease, diabetes
  • Slow and steady increase
  • Set up a scorecard
  • Have a partner
  • No excuses

54
Sleep
  • Sleep deprivation linked to heart disease,
    obesity and diabetes, high cholesterol, blood
    pressure
  • 7-8 hrs per night, those who sleep lt 5 hrs or gt 9
    hrs-higher mortality
  • Avoid night time stimulants such as caffeine and
    exercise

55
Sleep
  • Growth hormone deficient patients
  • have disturbed sleep
  • May be improved with GH treatment
  • Go to sleep at about the same time
  • each night
  • Wind down before going to bed
  • Fall asleep too late?
  • Get morning light, avoid afternoon light
  • Fall asleep too early?
  • Avoid morning light, get afternoon light
  • Melatonin (0.5 mg is probably best dose) is safe
    and usually effective

56
Nutritional Supplements
  • Multi-million dollar enterprise
  • Not regulated by the FDA
  • Do not have to be shown to be beneficial
  • (unlike medicines)
  • Only rules
  • Cannot be dangerous
  • Cannot make false claims (lots of it may help
    decrease X)
  • Lots of health care providers know more than me
    about supplements and use them a lot
  • Little published articles on benefits

57
Nutritional Supplements (2)
  • Some health care providers order less than
    scientific tests (urine for neurotransmitters)
    and then sell you a supplement package based on
    these results.
  • Many of my patients have pocketbooks full of
    supplements costing thousands of dollars/month.
  • If each one worked so well, we do you need to
    take so many
  • Im fairly skeptical, but will not take someone
    off them, if patient feels they are working
    (unless they are harmful).

58
My General Approach
  • Look carefully for early signs of
    hormonal/vitamin deficiency via blood testing
  • Replace deficiencies until achieving mid-normal
    range
  • Dont treat if not deficient
  • Look at risks/benefits of treating

59
Vitamins
  • Eat foods with natural vitamins better than
    supplements
  • Eat a wide variety of foods, especially fruits
    and vegetables
  • A multivitamin is reasonable
  • Calcium supplementation has shown only marginal
    effects on bone density, no effects on reducing
    fractures and can not be recommended.

60
Foods with Vitamins
  • Eat foods with nutrients/anti-oxidants/vitamins,
  • not isolated nutrients/anti-oxidants/vitamins
  • Healthy foods have other not yet isolated
    nutrients
  • Most studies using anti-oxidants (Vit A, C and
    E, beta-carotene) have been disappointing
  • Vegetables
  • Orange veggies are good (beta-carotene)
  • Sweet potatoes, carrots
  • Green leafy vegetables
  • Careful! Goitrogens if eaten in excess
  • in primary thyroid disorders
  • Tomatoes
  • Lycopenes

61
Summary of The Effects of Antioxidants as
Antiaging Interventions
  • Vitamin E
  • No decrease in total cardiovascular mortality
  • No reduction in risk of stroke
  • Inconsistent data on the effect on lipids
  • Inconsistent data on the effect on cognition
  • Insufficient evidence in the treatment of
    Alzheimers
  • disease
  • Inconsistent data on all-cause mortality
  • Vitamin C
  • No decrease in total cardiovascular mortality
  • No reduction in risk of stroke
  • Inconsistent data on lipid profile
  • Carotenoids
  • Inconsistent data on risk of stroke
  • Increase in all-cause mortality
  • Increase in cardiovascular mortality

62
Vitamin D
  • Important hormone obtained by either being in the
    sun or drinking milk, also genetic component
  • Deficiency very common
  • Low levels associated with osteoporosis,
    diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, heart
    disease
  • Suggestive evidence that giving vitamin D reduces
    the progression of pre-diabetes to diabetes,
    development of heart disease and development of
    cancers.
  • Treatment has been shown to decrease mortality!
  • May help with infections and tuberculosis.
  • Have doctor measure 25-OH vitamin D in blood
  • If lt 30 ng/mL, should be replaced.
  • Target level 30-40 ng/mL, maybe around 50 if
    history of breast cancer.
  • See goodhormonehealth.com

63
Lifestyle
  • Avoid stress
  • Be optimistic
  • Avoid confrontations
  • Pets
  • Happy marriage
  • Good balance between work and leisure
  • Take your meds and be active in your health care
  • Be part of the community
  • Church goers live longer

64
Most important aspect
  • Attending MAGIC conventions can add years to your
    life
  • Thanks to Dianne and all the MAGIC foundation
    workers!

65
For more information or to schedule an appointment
  • goodhormonehealth.com
  • Mail_at_goodhormonehealth.com
  • 310-335-0327
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