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Solar, Field Day, or Emergency Response: Emergency Power Options

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Solar, Field Day, or Emergency Response: Emergency Power Options George Ure AC7X Solar is GREAT HERE! 4.5-6.5 kWHr s / M2 Per Day Solar is not initially cheap, but ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Solar, Field Day, or Emergency Response: Emergency Power Options


1
Solar, Field Day, or Emergency ResponseEmergency
Power Options
  • George Ure
  • AC7X

2
Agenda
  • Outage Scenarios When could the power fail?
  • Power demands are band and mode dependent
  • On-the-fly power
  • Introduction to Generators
  • Battery Basics Charge and Discharge Parameters
  • Battery-powered Options
  • Inverters
  • Inverter/Chargers
  • Grid-Interactive Systems
  • Wind Machines

3
Whered I Learn About Batteries?
4
Power-Outage Scenarios
  • Drunk driver hits a power pole
  • (1-12 hours)
  • Earthquake (New Madrid?)
  • 1 Day 1 month
  • Terrible weather event (Sandy-class)
  • 1-day to 2-months
  • EMP/Regional Nuclear Event/Bio war
  • ???
  • Field Day Till the beer runs out?

5
Emergency? What to Plan Power For
  • Crisis Lite 1-4 Days
  • Almost ALL hams with a handheld are set!
  • Regular Crisis 5 Days to 5 weeks
  • 30 of hams are ready? 1-5 recharge periods
  • Major Crisis 5 Weeks
  • 5 or less are ready Ongoing recharge
    requirement is harder to meet

6
KEY PLANNING POINTS
  • Emergency Power requirements depend on
  • Expected duration of emergency
  • Bands which will be used in response
  • Role of ham using equipment
  • Net control talks more, needs more energy
  • Traffic handlers need more, too!
  • Antennas, transmitter power, various losses

7
Example Emergencies
  • Semi/Local (Ike passing through, Joplin)
  • Mostly VHF/UHF scattered HF
  • Quick recovery period external aid coming quick
  • Regional (64 Alaska quake, supply lines
    disrupted, regional coms down)
  • V/UHF for impact areas
  • HF Health, Welfare, and News from outside
    Phone patch?
  • EMP/Nuke War/Massive Solar Flares (still
    ahead?)
  • Mainly HF most repeaters/grid would be down
    long-term due to the grid impacts, most repeaters
    gone in a week.

8
Reacting to the Disaster
9
On the Fly Power
  • Alligator Clips are your friend
  • Some open 1 wide
  • http//www.caltestelectronics.com/ctitem/143-fully
    -insulated/CT3251

Dont forget the cable to connect to the radio!
10
Language of Power
  • A Cell is a single chemical reaction device.
  • C cells, D cells
  • AA cells, etc.
  • A Battery is a collection of cells
  • Cells are measured in volts/per cell
  • Batteries are measured by terminal voltage

11
A Cell vs. Battery
  • A single cell is just like a polarized capacitor
  • EXCEPT instead of a dielectric there is a
    chemical reaction which delivers or absorbs
    energy!

12
Batteries (Collections of Cells)
  • Key Terminology to be aware of
  • Energy Density The work to weight ratio.
  • Cycle Life How many discharge/charge cycles
    will a given battery deliver?
  • Discharge Rate How many hours will a battery
    deliver how many amp? Typically 20 min., 1-hour,
    and 20-hour rates are cited.
  • Depth of Discharge What is the recommended
    level of discharge beyond which cycle life
    rapidly declines?
  • Peukert Exponent Effective shrink rate of a
    battery at high rates of discharge.

13
Dry Cell Basics
  • Dry Cells
  • Metal cap
  • Plastic Seal
  • Expansion Space
  • Porous Cardboard
  • Zinc Can
  • Carbon Rod (center)
  • Chemical Goo
  • Major difference between cells is the chemistry
    of the goo and whether the chemical reaction is
    reversible!

14
Where Lead-Acid Battery Electricity comes from
during Discharge
15
What a Completely Discharged Battery Looks Like
16
Batteries Dont Die They Are Murdered!
17
EQUALIZING Restores Capacity
18
How to EQUALIZE
  • Never attempt to equalized SLA sealed lead/acid
    batteries!!!!!! They tend to blow up.
  • Use plenty of ventilation (outside!) because
    Browns Gas is HIGHLY EXPLOSIVE
  • Usually Charging Voltage is increased to drive
    2-5 of the batterys 20-hour rate (in amps) into
    the battery. So a 100 AMP-Hour battery would
    equalize at the 2-5 AMP rate for 1 hour.
  • Monitor closely to prevent thermal runaway!
  • Safety timer! Safety Glasses! Do NOT overfill
    batteries (with distilled water only) if
    Equalizing!

19
Deep Cycle VS Starting Batteries
  • Plate depth versus toal plate area determines it

20
Battery Spec Sheet Example
  • Typical good quality deep cycle battery is a
    Trojan T-105 which is a 6-volt standard.

21
Amp-Hours VS Kilowatt-Hours
  • Amperes of current for X number of hours
  • BUT Battery voltage declines over time
  • SO Ending energy is different than starting
    energy
  • 13 V times 10 AMPS 130 WATTS
  • 11 V times 10 AMPS 110 WATTS
  • A Watt-Hour integrating meter is what measured
    actual ENERGY (work done)
  • 1,000 Watt-Hours 1 Kilowatt-Hour

22
Battery Rules for Hams
  • Terms like cold cranking AMPs is only
    marginally useful as comparison information.
  • Most ham gear will operate to 10.5 Volts
  • Operating to 10.5 V was required for marine SSB
    type acceptance
  • 10.5 V is when a 12V battery is dead

23
Peukert Shrinking Battery Effect
  • Batteries deliver less total energy on their way
    to 10.5V dead if discharged FAST
  • Where Cp is Peukert Capacity and both i and t are
    time and currents of two different discharges
    such as 10 amps for 20 hours (20-hour rate) vs.
    20 amps for 1 hour (1-hour rate). The n is the
    exponent value.

24
Typical Exponent Values for 100 AHr
25
Ideal Charge Curve (Proctor et al)
26
Battery Temp Compensation
27
Sample Cycle Life T-105
28
Percent of Capacity Drops When Cold!
29
One More Rule
  • Heres what a T-105 weighs
  • If you are down to two batteries in your
    shopping, pick the heavier battery if youre
    after long cycle life heavier means more plate
    material is being used!

30
Feed Battery Banks Correctly!
31
How to Charge Batteries
  • Multiple Choices
  • From a gen-set Simplest is a chain saw motor on
    a piece of plywood connected via a drive belt to
    an alternator. Add voltmeter and whatever if
    more control is needed.
  • From Solar
  • From Wind

32
Why Wind is a POOR Choice In Texas!
  • Works good on a sailboat such as the one we
    lived on.
  • BUT no significant power below 10 Knots/ 12 MPH
  • Generates some noise, besides PWR
  • Depends on swept area bigger is better on wind
    gens.

33
Main Problem with Wind is?
34
Solar is GREAT HERE!
35
4.5-6.5 kWHrs / M2 Per Day
  • Solar is not initially cheap, but over the long
    term is does have good payback breakeven at
    between 10-18 years depending on how much you do
    yourself.

36
Solar Has Many Pieces
  • The Panels
  • Charge Controller
  • Battery bank
  • Grid-Interactive inverter

37
Kinds of Mounts
  • Simple (fixed)
  • Single-Axis (panels are mounted on hinges so from
    March 21 to Sept 21 they are at 20 tilt
    otherwise (wintertime) they are at 45
  • Highest priced
  • Full tracking systems
  • Which track E/W
  • I chose T-Post and
  • Rebar for ours

38
Small Scale Solar Example
  • Components are Panel, Battery, Charge
    Controller. This plus an old ATV winch raises
    and lowers my tower.
  • Low NO maintenance!

39
Projects You Can Bury Solar In
  • HOW TO SELL SOLAR TO A SKEPTICAL XYL
  • Solar-power driveway and outdoor lighting!
  • Battery topper-upper for RV or other battery
    use which gets infrequent use
  • Tractor, ATV, Go Karts, Motorcycles, Lawn
    tractor
  • Helping the environment! Global Warming!

40
Generators
  • Basic choices
  • Gas (get avgas?) or Diesel (works in tractor)
  • Ham favorite is the Honda 2 kW with inverter mode
    which varies engine speed to load
  • Conventional generators are much cheaper.
  • In gas generators, consider a good oil additive
    like AvBlend which is FAA Approved
  • AvBlend.com or AircraftSpruce.com

41
Operating Highlights
  • Pop for electric start if over 2 kW!
  • If using for your home, have electrician put in a
    transfer switch
  • Best quality choices
  • 2 kW Under Honda
  • 2-6 kW Onan or other RV type are good
  • 6 kW up Tractor PTO Type -?
  • 6 kW Isuzu diesel

42
Basic Rules Axioms for Gens
  • RUN-TIME EQUALS FUEL AVAILABLE
  • Natural gas gens require lots of fuel but are a
    very long-life option.
  • Bad choice though if concerned about earthquakes
    or infrastructure damaged.

43
Some Notes on the Honda EU2000i
  • Very good unit reports WA7BRI he uses the Econo
    Mode with Icom 7000 and now voltage sag problems
    from key down to listening.
  • BRI meticulously runs every month and uses
    STABIL in his gas, however! Runs 8-12 hours on a
    single fill in contest setting, 100 watt xmt
    class, no RFI issues

44
How Big a Genset?
  • From Onan manual good list of watts.
  • Applies whether your are planning an inverter off
    batteries (sep. charger), solar (big or small) or
    buying a genset.
  • Add up peak loads and thats your sizing.
  • More loads More

45
Other Goodies from the Onan Manual
46
2.8 kW Onan Generator Fuel Consumption
  • Typical 24-hour contest time 6.7 gallons at 50
    load.
  • Full Power 24-hours 11 Gallons per day
  • Full load uses almost 3 times fuel of no load.

47
Generalized Fuel Consumption
  • Ballpark 50 load is 60 of max fuel use

48
Generator Time to Charge Batteries
  • 85 of charge in Battery size divided by
    generator/alternator output.
  • Example 100 AHr battery will be 85 full in one
    hour on 100 Amp alternator or generator-run
    source such as charger.
  • Last 15 of charge takes about 2 ½ Hrs.
    regardless of size absorption charge rate
    also called finishing charge.

49
If on PURE Battery Source
  • Operate initially from 100 full to 60 depth of
    discharge.
  • Recharge to 85 of charge level
  • Resume ops to 60 depth of discharge
  • The 85 down to 40 of capacity is the sweet
    spot where batteries give up and accept charge
    most readily.

50
Dont Get Fooled by an Ammeter
  • When charging begins, battery may not begin
    charging right away.
  • Reason Takes time for the battery chemistry to
    change directions
  • Delay in discharge to charging reaction is called
    Coup de Fouet by battery gurus. (crack of the
    whip)
  • Read current after 5-minutes of charging, or so
  • Coup de Fouet is why active (charging braking) on
    electric vehicles is so problematic energy
    cant just reverse and save takes time!

51
Real Example of Coup de Fouet
52
Operating Style
  • Plan on 10 transmit and 90 receive unless you
    are net control.
  • Turns off dial lights is available.
  • Use power output at minimum level to get the job
    done. V/UHF 1 watt often sufficient. HF use 100
    to establish coms, then reduce to path
    requirements.
  • Keep mental picture of fluid situations, make
    notes if possible.
  • Keep Radiogram pads on hand if regional emergency
    doing public service traffic be sure to get
    delivery phone number and confirm them.

53
Power and S-Units
  • One S-unit is a change of 6dB in signal strength,
    which corresponds to double the VOLTAGE or four
    times the POWER at the receiver input.

Example If a 100-watt station is S-9 and drops
to 25 watts the result is S-8. From 25 watts down
to 6 Watts is about S-6 2W about S-4 etc.
100 W increased to 2 kW 1½ S-Units
54
On HF Horizontal Antennas are Quieter
  • With S-6 Signals, Antenna Noise becomes a major
    factor in good communications

Max Signal Is 6 DB over Noise Floor
Max Signal Is 18 DB over Noise Floor
55
For HF Emergency Use
  • Easiest to Install Quickly
  • Buddy-Pole
  • Mobile Whip
  • Vertical into a tree
  • Best Performance
  • Random Long Wire (Horizontal or L)
  • Inverted VEE
  • Flat-Top Dipole
  • Delta Loop
  • Horizontal Loop, 1? overall length and at least
    1/2? high

56
My Dream Emergency Antennato Minimize Power
Requirements
  • 160 Meter 1 ? Loop at 25 or higher Used on 20
    Meters where it has some gain

NVIS low bands, 160/80 some gain on 40- 20
Meters. Quiet (its a loop!). Only problem is
size and height and needs a tuner and open wire!
57
For Antennas that are Ground-Dependent
  • Verticals, Mobile Whips, and Long-wires need
    grounds
  • Signals Depend on Grounds
  • IMPROVISE!
  • Metal Roofs
  • Metal gutters
  • Chain link fences (noisy in certain wind
    conditions)
  • Sprinkler Systems (copper), fire stand pipes,
    hydrants
  • (My favorite!).

58
RAILROAD TRACKS!
59
Lifesavers
  • Keep all generators 50 -100 feet or more and
    preferably downwind - from humans. Carbon
    monoxide is carried as easily as oxygen in the
    bloodstream.
  • Never work circuits hot even if they are 12V -12
    V is enough to kill! Its the current (less than
    5 ma.) that kills!
  • When wiring wear rubber-soled shoes and trust no
    one.

60
Thank You!
  • Questions?
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