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Physical Anthropology Anthropology 1

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Physical Anthropology Anthropology 1 Winter2013 Katherine Schaefers, Instructor Office: 3102 OH: 10:00-11:00am Mondays 7:15-7:45am, Tuesday/Thursday – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physical Anthropology Anthropology 1


1
Physical Anthropology Anthropology 1
  • Winter2013
  • Katherine Schaefers, Instructor
  • Office 3102
  • OH 1000-1100am Mondays
  • 715-745am, Tuesday/Thursday

2
To make the strange familiar, and the familiar
strange
  • Strangeness, the unfamiliar is scary and can lead
    to misguided feelings of anger and hate, which
    may eventually lead to warfare and death.
  • Most interpersonal or inter-group conflicts are
    caused by a lack of understanding.
  • Discovering similarities between ones own
    culture and that of others leads to more
    harmonious relationships.

3
Anthropology
  • The study of humanity
  • Greek Anthropos (Man) logy (study of)
  • Also, an integrated study of humanity
  • Holism Integrating as many different aspects of
    human society (like psychology, politics,
    religion, customs, institutions like marriage,
    funerary rituals, gender, subsistence economy,
    etc.) to create the most complete picture
    possible.
  • Goal of Anthropology?
  • Why do we study other people? What can be
    gained?

4
Anthropologys Traditional Fields
  • Physical (Biological)
  • This class!
  • Human Biology and Evolution
  • Genetics, DNA studies, evolutionary theory,
    primate behavior, paleontology, fossil record.
  • Archaeology
  • Physical and Cultural remains
  • Linguistics
  • Origins and distribution of language
  • Cultural
  • Social organization, economics, technology,
    political organization, marriage, family life.
  • These 4 fields are rarely mutually exclusive
    todays anthropology scene is very fluid, often
    incorporating techniques from outside disciplines
    like psychology (study of the human psyche/mind)
    and sociology (study of human society).

5
Main goal of Physical Anthropology?
  • Why is physical anthropology a scientific
    discipline, and what is its importance to the
    general public?

6
To understand why we are the way we are, we need
to know
How evolution works
How evolution works in other primates
The history of the human lineage
How natural selection shapes human minds, bodies,
and behavior
7
Physical Anthropology Challenges
  • Evolution
  • A change in the genetic structure of a population
    from one generation to the next.
  • Adaptation
  • An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral
    response of organisms or populations to the
    environment.
  • Adaptations result from evolutionary change.

8
Evolution
  • Microevolution
  • Small genetic changes that occur within a
    species.
  • Macroevolution
  • Changes that occur only after many generations,
    such as the appearance of a new species
    (speciation).

9
Species
  • A group of organisms that can interbreed to
    produce fertile offspring.
  • Members of one species are reproductively
    isolated from members of all other species (that
    is, they cant mate with them to produce fertile
    offspring).

10
HomininsA grouping of similar human-ish species
that includes we Humans!and extinct bipedal
relatives
  • Hominins are members of the evolutionary lineage
    that includes ourselves, modern Homo sapiens.
    (used to be called Hominids)
  • Reduced canine teeth
  • Non-prehensile big toes
  • Pelvis and legs reflect habitual bipedalism
  • Extreme brain enlargement and elaboration
  • Habitually walking bipedally (on two feet) is a
    critical feature of the hominins.

11
PrimatesThe only living Primate that is also a
Hominin iswe Humans!
  • Humans are members of the Order Primates, the
    group of mammals that includes apes, monkeys,
    tarsiers, lemurs and lorises.

Note Physical Anthropologists who study the
living non-human Primates are called
Primatologists
12
Apes
Gorilla
Chimapnzees
Orangutan
13
Monkeys
Capuchin Monkey
Japanese Macaques
14
Lemurs and Lorises
Slow Loris
Ring Tail Lemur
Galago (Bush baby)
15
Tarsiers
16
Culture
  • Culture is learned, and the process of learning
    ones culture begins at birth.
  • Some aspects of Culture
  • technologies
  • subsistence patterns
  • housing types
  • clothing
  • religion
  • marriage and family
  • values
  • gender roles
  • The human predisposition to assimilate culture
    and function within it is profoundly influenced
    by biological factors.
  • Over time, culture and biology interacted in such
    a way that humans are said to be the result of
    biocultural evolution.

17
Biocultural Evolution
  • The mutual, interactive evolution of human
    biology and culture.
  • The concept that biology makes culture possible
    and that developing culture further influences
    the direction of biological evolution.

Macroevolution example
Australopithecine skull
Human skull
18
Behavior
  • Anything organisms do that involves action in
    response to internal or external stimuli.
  • The response of an individual, group, or species
    to its environment.
  • Responses may or may not be deliberate,
  • and arent necessarily the result of conscious
    decision making.

19
Predisposition
  • The capacity or inclination to do something.
  • An organisms capacity for behavioral or
    anatomical modification is related to the
    presence of preexisting traits.

The Story
20
Anthropometry
  • Measurement of human body
  • Identifying human variation due to possible
    adaptive significance
  • Identify genetic and other evolutionary factors
    that produced variation

21
Osteology
  • The study of the human skeleton
  • Bioarchaeology the study of skeletal remains
    from archaeological sites

22
Forensic Anthropology
  • Application of anthropological techniques to
    legal issues
  • Forensic anthropologists worked with identifying
    remains of victims of the September 11, 2001
    terrorist attacks in the United States.

23
Paleopathology
  • The study of disease and trauma in
    archaeologically-derived skeletons
  • Investigates the prevalence of trauma, certain
    infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies,
    and conditions that may leave evidence in bone

24
Paleoanthropology
  • The interdisciplinary approach to the study of
    earlier hominids, their chronology, physical
    structure, archaeological remains, habitats, etc.

25
Genetics
  • The study of gene structure and action and the
    patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to
    offspring.
  • Genetic mechanisms are the foundation for
    evolutionary change.

26
DNA
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid
  • Double-stranded molecule that contains the
    genetic code, a set of instructions for producing
    bodily structures and functions.
  • DNA is a main component of chromosomes.
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