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Hindu Terms

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Hindu Terms Moksha Dharma Karma Ahimsa Reincarnation Avatar In Nepal, people believe Buddha was an incarnation of the Hindu god _____. Vishnu What does ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hindu Terms


1
Hindu Terms
  • Moksha
  • Dharma
  • Karma
  • Ahimsa
  • Reincarnation
  • Avatar

2
Hinduism
  • Main religion today in Indian subcontinent
  • No Founder Ancient Aryans began telling
    parables
  • Main texts the 5,000 year old Vedas
    collections of stories
  • believed in one spiritual entity that made up
    everything called Brahman
  • Brahman showed itself through avatars,
    representations

There are no original pictures of the Vedas
because no one wrote the stories down till
thousands of years later
3
Ganesha
Vishnu
Dancing Shiva
4
Beliefs
priests
  • Believed in Reincarnation
  • - If you live a life according to your dharma
    (duty to your caste), your karma (Brahmans
    consequence for you behavior), will carry you to
    the next level
  • - if you do wrong, you go down
  • Caste System, like a class system, once born into
    a certain level, you could not move up or down
    your entire life
  • After you reach the highest caste level, you
    reincarnate and achieve moksha (oneness with
    Brahman)
  • Also believed in non-violence, Ahimsa

warriors
Merchants/Farmers
Servants
The caste system was created by the Aryans
because they were fierce warriors and imposed it
on people they conquered
5
  • If you were a God, what would your avatar be?

6
(No Transcript)
7
Hindu Rituals
  • Daily there is NOT a single ritual that ALL
    Hindus MUST follow
  • Most perform worship in the form of prayer or
    recitation at dawn and dusk
  • Generally, a Hindu must bathe before performing a
    worship or prayer ritual cleanse oneself before
    approaching a god
  • Most rituals are performed at home
  • Rituals at home involve drawing good luck symbols
    on the ground, offering food to an idol in their
    living room
  • Yearly Festival of Ganesha festival for those
    who worship Ganesha God of prosperity

8
Hindu Temples
  • Brahmin in India are responsible for the ritual
    offerings many live in monasteries, dormitories
    for
  • In US they act in a more pastorly role
    organizing corporate worship and services
  • Temples are designed architecturally to reflect
    the levels of the caste system
  • Each temple has many gods depending on the
    avatars that the people of the local region
    believe in
  • Choosing a site of a temple
  • Soil testing - whichever type of soil it is,
    thats the caste it will serve
  • White Brahmin
  • Red Kshatriya
  • Yellow Vaisya
  • Black Sudra

9
Other Hindu Beliefs
10
Buddhism
  • Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BC), is the founder
    of Buddhism
  • Was a born a Hindu prince but gave up position to
    seek the meaning of life
  • He went against dharma and caste
  • Buddha means I am awake.
  • Buddhas sayings were collected in the
    Tripitaka or three baskets of knowledge
  • All Buddhists believe The Four Noble Truths about
    life which Buddha discovered.
  1. All life is full of suffering
  2. The cause of suffering is the desire for
    illusions health, riches, power, long life.
  3. The only cure is to overcome desire.
  4. The way to overcome desire is to follow the
    eightfold path.

11
Buddhism Spreads
  • India is in the middle of the Silk Road
  • Traders who converted to Buddhism took Buddhism
    to East Asia
  • Today, Zen Buddhism is the type practiced in
    Asia

FAT Asian Buddha
  • Practice of Zen, a type of meditation, came from
    an Indian Buddhist monk, Bodhidarma, who
    travelled to East Asia in the 400s AD 800 yrs
    after Buddha
  • It became popular because East Asian religions
    did not offer significant release from suffering
  • (Buddhism is not highly common in India today.
    Its more popular in Western and Northern India)

12
The Eightfold Path
Nirvana
Nirvana
  • Right views
  • Right aspirations
  • Right speech
  • Right conduct
  • Right livelihood
  • Right effort
  • Right mindfulness
  • Right contemplation

How to Achieve Nirvana
13
Buddhism Reincarnation
  • There are six realms of existence
  • Depending on Karma you may be reborn into one of
    them
  • Buddhists do NOT believe in the same darmha of
    Hindus
  • For them, darmha means a lifestyle of discipline
    not duty to caste
  • At the human level a person can break out of the
    cycle of reincarnation and achieve Nirvana
  • A soul does not have to live through every level
    to achieve enlightenment
  • A soul can achieve enlightenment in one lifetime
  • Buddhists believe in a figurative Hell but not
    Heaven
  • In other words, hell is not a place you are
    sent after Judgement Day
  • Your stay there is not permanent

14
(No Transcript)
15
Review
  • What are the two words for achieving oneness with
    Brahman in Hinduism and Buddhism?
  • Who founded each religion?
  • What are the main spiritual texts of each
    religion?
  • What leader is responsible for the spread of
    Buddhism?

16
Deccan Plateau
  • Dravidians lived to the south of the Mauryan
    Empire, in the Northern Deccan

17
Maurya Empire
  • Responsible for the spread of Buddhism
  • 321 185 B.C. Height of Empire
  • Chandragupta conquered part of the Deccan
    Plateau

18
Mauryan Leaders
  • Chandragupta maintained order through
    well-organized bureaucracy
  • Many officials managed every aspect of society
    and trade shipyards, road building, factories
  • Had brutal secret police to report corruption and
    dissent
  • Trained women warriors to guard palace

19
Mauryan Leaders
  • Asoka grandson of Chandragupta conquered the
    rest of the Deccan
  • Converted to Buddhism rejects non-violence
  • Sends missionaries to spread Buddhism around
    India
  • Set up stone pillars proclaiming Buddhist sayings

Read p 84. Asoka Biography and answer question
on piece of paper.
20
Decline of Maurya Empire
  • Asokas death
  • Rivaling kingdoms of the Deccan

21
Silk Road ancient trade route
22
Guptas
  • Golden Age of Indian Empires
  • 500 years after the Mauryans 320 500 A.D.
  • Capital city Patiliputra
  • Relaxed rule much power resided with governors
  • Faxian Chinese Buddhist monk visited and wrote
    about the Gupta rule

23
Advances
  • Education Buddhist Monastery at Nalanda taught
    mathematics, religion, medicine, physics,
    language
  • Mathematics Gupta empire brought concept of
    zero, decimal system, Arabic numerals
  • Literature Kalidasa the most famous poet and
    playwright of the Gupta Empire
  • Medicine small pox vaccinations, plastic
    surgery, surgery
  • Arts Dancing Read page 84

24
Decline of Guptas
  • Weak leaders
  • White Han invaders

25
Assignment
  • Read pp. 86-88 take notes on the lives of
    ancient India

26
Notes Quiz
  1. Who was responsible for spreading Buddhism to
    China through, in part, missionaries?
  2. What is the main way that Buddhism came to China?
  3. What ancient leader united all of India by
    conquering the Deccan Plateau?
  4. Where is the Deccan plateau?
  5. Fill in the blank Moksha is to Hinduism as
    _______ is to Buddhism.
  6. Dharma is your ____ to your caste.
  7. What is Karma? Describe it in your own words.
  8. Hindus believe in reincarnation. Explain in 2
    sentences how that relates to the social caste
    system.
  9. What are the two words for achieving oneness with
    Brahman in Hinduism and Buddhism?
  10. Who founded each religion? Hinduism __________
    Buddhism _________
  11. What are the main spiritual texts of each
    religion?_________, ___________
  12. What leader is responsible for the spread of
    Buddhism?

Extra Credit (1 pt each) 1. What is the Jewish
Holy book? 2. Who is considered the father of the
Jews, or the founder of Judaism?
27
  • Group 1 Family Life, p. 87-88
  • Group 2 Wisdom of Confucius, p. 89
  • Group 3 Legalism, 90-91
  • Group 4 Daoism
  • Group 5 Buddhism in China

28
Groups 1 Family Life, p. 87-88 (this group
can follow the subheadings in your book) 2
Wisdom of Confucius, p. 89 3 Legalism, 90-91 4
Daoism, 90-91 5 Buddhism in China, 92 (use
the section on Indian Buddhism) You will have 2
minutes to make your presentation. Determine who
will speak and when. Take notes while another
group is speaking.
  • Presentation Must Include
  • Founder or how the religion arrived there
  • Give (approx.) dates of founder and religion
  • Mention important vocabulary or facts
  • List sacred text
  • Describe moral teachings, sayings, and philosophy

29
Word Bank
  • Vedas Tripitaka alphabet represents
    sounds represents things no founder
  • Euphrates River code of law
    wedge-shaped used for priests to worship
  • caste system stone pillars monotheistic
    Polytheistic Tigris River Siddartha
    Gautama
  • carriers of civilization pictogram
    nirvana moksha reincarnation
  • silk road Deccan plateau fertile
    crescent judgment Day
    afterlife
  • Yearly floods united the subcontinent
    Sumer, Assyria, Babylon Akhenaton and
    Nefertiti
  • GPS EQ answer the following at the bottom of
    your test
  • Name the two ways in which Buddhism got to China,
    and identify which one is the most important way.
  • Describe how Hindus link the caste system to
    their religious beliefs.

Homework Fill in Qin, Zhou, kung Tzu, Mandate of
Heaven, and Confucianism on your guided notes.
30
What is the vocabulary word that means
non-violence?
  • Ahimsa
  • http//teachersites.schoolworld.com/webpages/AClea
    ry/

31
What word refers to a physical or mental action
or motion that is performed regularly and has
religious or spiritual meaning behind it?
  • ritual

32
What are the Dalits?
  • Untouchables or gods children

33
Who advocated for the Dalits in the 1930s and
1940s?
  • Mohandas Ghandi

34
Which light-skinned, ancient, Indo-European group
came from the Northern part of India and
conquered the Southern darker skinned people
putting them into the caste system?
  • Aryans

35
What word means duty, or obligation, to your
caste?
  • Dharma

36
What is the name of the Elephant God, the God of
prosperity and intelligence?
  • Ganesha

37
What is the word that is the English equivalent
of a worship service?
  • Puja or Pooja

38
What does jalit mean?
  • caste

39
Which ancient book stresses the importance of the
caste system and fulfilling ones duty?
  • The Baghavad Gita

40
Who is the Warrior prince who must kill his
family and friends in order to please the God
Krishna?
  • Arjuna

41
What word means representation of a God, or a
Gods persona?
  • Avatar

42
Why do Hindus believe they are NOT a polytheistic
religion?
  • Because they worship the avatars, or
    representations of the one spirit, Brahman

43
How is racism incorporated into the caste system?
  • Often in India, the darker ones skin, the lower
    one is in the caste levels

44
Why has Southern India largely broken away from
the caste system in politics?
  • It has a strong economic base allowing more
    wealth, so that all levels benefit
  • Technological advances have allowed those of
    lower castes to become rich and move up

45
What is the name for the main religious Hindu
text, an at least 4,000 year old collection of
scriptures that form the basis of Hindu belief?
  • The Vedas

46
What is the goal of the cycle of reincarnation?
  • To achieve Moksha
  • OR
  • To break out of the cycle of suffering through
    life and reincarnation

47
What does it mean to achieve Moksha - what
happens to the persons soul?
  • It becomes one with Brahma/Brahman

48
What are the main gods that are worshipped in
Hinduism?
  • Brahma
  • Shiva
  • Vishnu
  • Ganesh/Ganesha
  • Parvati (Ganeshas mother)

49
How does one get to the next caste level?
  • By fulfilling ones duty to ones caste, even if
    that means collecting cow patties

50
How does a Hindu temple reflect the belief in the
caste system?
  • It has many archictectural levels just like the
    castes

51
Where do most Hindus worship and perform the
rituals?
  • In the home

52
What group of people makes up the highest caste
level before Moksha?
  • Brahmin or Preists

53
Place a Wager
54
Why do you think that the majority of lower caste
people in India followed the strict caste system
for so many years without rebelling against it?
  • Possible answers
  • -many in the lower castes rationalized that if
    they had to endure a life of suffering, that they
    would at least get relief eventually by making it
    to the next level their suffering would last
    forever
  • -the warrior castes oppressed those castes below
    them and the lower castes had no choice but to
    obey them, kind of like American slavery
  • -warrior castes had to explain why certain groups
    of people were left out of financial prosperity
    and were subjugated under them, thus they began
    to believe they were better than other groups of
    people obviously god wanted them in charge
    because they had done something to deserve it

55
Buddhism Review Game
56
  • Buddhism is often called the __________________
    Way of __________________________.
  • Middle compassion

57
  • What communist country controls Tibet causing
    many tantric Buddhists to flee?
  • China

58
  • What is the Shambala Sun?
  • The most popular Buddhist Magazine

59
  • What two belief systems combined to make up
    tantric Buddhism?
  • Local animist beliefs and Buddhism

60
  • In what modern day country was Siddartha Gautama
    born?
  • Nepal

61
  • Why was the Buddha brought up in seclusion?
  • His father wanted him to be a prince, not a holy
    leader

62
  • Where is tantric Buddhism practiced?
  • Nepal

63
  • What is another form of Japanese Buddhism called?
  • Zen

64
  • Where else is Zen Buddhism practiced?
  • America

65
  • How is Zen practiced?
  • Meditation OR peaceful arrangements

66
  • In Nepal, people believe Buddha was an
    incarnation of the Hindu god _____________________
    __________.
  • Vishnu

67
  • What does a prayer wheel do?
  • Send prayers up to heaven

68
  • What does it mean to be an austere ascetic?
  • Live a strict life dedicated to god

69
  • How old was Siddartha when he discovered the path
    to enlightenment?
  • 35

70
  • Buddhism is known as the middle way because
    believers maintain a balance between self
    ______________ and self _____________________.
  • Denial indulgence

71
  • What is the main difference between the two major
    types of Buddhism?
  • Theroveda does not think of Buddha as God
    Mahayans worship him

72
  • What does Mahayana mean?
  • The large vehicle

73
  • Where is Mahaya Buddhism practiced? (name at
    least countries)
  • China, Korea, Japan

74
  • What principle is Mahayana Buddhism founded on?
  • A flexible religion that can accomdate other
    beliefs

75
  • Where is Theravada Buddhism practiced? (name at
    least 3 countries)
  • Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos South East Asia

76
  • What does Theraveda mean?
  • Doctrine of the elders

77
  • How many people are Buddhists today?
  • 250 million

78
  • Stupas, or ___________________, contain Buddhist
    relics (artifacts) and remains of Buddhist
    priests.
  • Earthen mounds

79
  • Why are animals important in the Buddhist faith?
  • Because it comes from Hinduism in which animals
    are sacred

80
  • What kind of painting is used as objects of
    meditation in Buddhism?
  • Tangkha

81
  • What is the Tripitika?
  • 3 baskets of knowledge OR sayings of Buddha

82
  • How old was the Buddha when he died?
  • 80

83
  • What is the Noble Eightfold Way?
  • The right way to live your life to achieve Nirvana

84
  • In Buddhism, Nirvana is escape from
    ___________________________ even though a person
    cannot escape without dying, by meditating, a
    person can escape the pain of ____________________
    .
  • Reincarnation life

85
  • Karma is the law of conservation of
    ____________________, according to Buddhist
    beliefs.
  • energy

86
  • Change this sentence to make it true
  • If you go to Hell, in Buddhism, you remain there
    forever.
  • If you go to Hell, in Buddhism, you can
    reincarnate out.

87
  • How did Buddhism spread to East Asian countries?
  • Through the silk road some missionaries

88
Place a Wager
89
  • Compare and Contrast Buddhism and Hinduism
  • Hinduism
  • Moksha enlightenment
  • Karma leads to enlightenment
  • Get good Karma by following caste rules
  • Reincarnate through every level of caste system
  • Cannot skip caste levels
  • No founder
  • Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesh are gods
  • Buddhism
  • Nirvana enlightenment
  • Karma leads to enlightenment
  • Get good karma by following Eight Fold Path
  • Reincarnate through 6 levels
  • Can skip levels
  • Siddartha Gautama was founder
  • Vishnu, Shiva, Ganesh are gods
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