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OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

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Title: OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


1
OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
2
Overview of AP Objectives
  • Upon completion the student will be able to
  • Define the terms anatomy and physiology
  • Identify the major levels of organization in
    humans and other living organisms
  • Explain the importance of homeostasis
  • Describe how positive and negative feedback are
    involved in homeostatic regulation.
  • Use anatomical terms to describe body regions,
    body sections, and relative positions.

3
Overview of AP Objectives
  • Identify the major body cavities and their
    subdivisions.
  • Distinguish between visceral and parietal
    portions of serous membranes

4
Anatomy and Physiology
  • All living organisms perform the same basic
  • functions
  • Responsiveness
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Movement
  • Metabolism

5
ANATOMY Defined
  • Study of internal and external structure and the
    physical relationships between body parts.

6
PHYSIOLOGY Defined
  • Study of how living organisms perform their vital
    functions.

7
MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY
  • Two areas of microscopic anatomy
  • Cytology (cells)
  • Histology (tissues)

8
MACROSCOPIC ANATOMY
  • Also known as gross anatomy. Three areas of
    macroscopic anatomy
  • Surface Anatomy
  • Regional Anatomy
  • Systemic Anatomy

9
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
  • Cell Physiology
  • The study of the functions of living cells
  • Special Physiology
  • The study of specific organs
  • System Physiology
  • The study of specific organ systems
  • Pathology
  • The study of the effects of diseases on organ or
    system functions

10
LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
  • Chemical
  • Cellular
  • Tissue
  • Organ
  • System
  • Organism

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HOMEOSTASIS
  • Refers to the existence of a stable internal
    environment. Also referred to as the tendency of
    internal balance of the organ systems.

20
HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION
  • Refers to the adjustments in physiological
    systems that preserve homeostasis.
  • Homeostatic regulation usually involves
  • A receptor that is sensitive to a particular
    environmental change or stimulus
  • A control center, or integration center, which
    receives and processes information from the
    receptor.

21
HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION
  • An effector which responds to commands from the
    control center and whose activity opposes or
    reinforces the stimulus

22
HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION Negative Feedback
  • The essential feature of negative feedback is
    this
  • Regardless of whether the stimulus rises or falls
    at the receptor, a variation outside normal
    limits triggers an automatic response that
    corrects the situation.
  • Primary example is thermoregulation.
  • Too hot peripheral vasodilation sweating
  • Too cold peripheral vasoconstriction
    shivering.

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HOMEOSTATIC REGULATION Positive Feedback
  • In positive feedback, the initial stimulus
    produces a response that reinforces that
    stimulus.
  • Positive feedback is improtant in accelerating
    processes that must proceed to completion
    rapidly.
  • Example would be blood clotting.

25
Clotting Accelerates
Positive Feedback Loop
Break in blood vessel wall causes bleeding
Damaged cells release chemicals
Clotting Begins
Additional Chemicals Released
Blood clot plugs break in vessel wall bleeding
stops
26
SURFACE ANATOMY Anatomical Landmarks
  • Anatomical Position
  • With the hands at the sides with the palms facing
    forward, and the feet together.
  • Supine
  • Lying face up
  • Prone
  • Lying face down

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Directional Terms
  • Anterior
  • The front.
  • Example The navel is on the anterior surface of
    the trunk.
  • Ventral
  • The belly side (equivalent to anterior when
    referring to the human body)

31
Directional Terms
  • Posterior
  • The back behind
  • Example The shoulder blade is located posterior
    to the rib cage
  • Dorsal
  • The back (equivalent to posterior when referring
    to the human body)

32
Directional Terms
  • Cranial or Cephalic
  • The head
  • Example The cranial, or cephalic, border of the
    pelvis is superior to the thigh.
  • Superior
  • Above at a higher level (in the human body,
    toward the head
  • Example The nose is superior to the chin.

33
Directional Terms
  • Caudal
  • The tail (coccyx in humans)
  • Example The hips are caudal to the waist.
  • Inferior
  • Below at a lower level
  • Example The knees are inferior to the hips.

34
Directional Terms
  • Medial
  • Toward the bodys longitudinal axis
  • Example The medial surfaces of the thighs may
    be in contact.
  • Lateral
  • Away from the bodys longitudinal axis
  • Example The thigh articulates with the lateral
    surface of the pelvis.

35
Directional Terms
  • Proximal
  • Toward an attached base, closer to the center of
    the body
  • Example The thigh is proximal to the foot.
  • Distal
  • Away from an attached base, further from the
    center of the body
  • Example The fingers are distal to the wrist

36
Directional Terms
  • Superficial
  • At, near, or relatively close to the body surface
  • Example The scalp is superficial to the skull.
  • Deep
  • Farther from the body surface
  • Example The bone of the thigh is deep to the
    surrounding skeletal muscles.

37
SECTIONAL ANATOMY Planes and Sections
  • Transverse Plane
  • Frontal Plane
  • Sagittal Plane

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BODY CAVITIES Dorsal Cavities
  • Cranial Cavity
  • Spinal Cavity

40
BODY CAVITIES Ventral Cavities
  • Thoracic Cavity
  • Abdominopelvic Cavity
  • Ventral cavities are divided by the diaphragm

41
BODY CAVITIES Ventral Cavities
  • Abdominopelvic and thoracic cavities lined with
    serous membrane. The serous membranes have two
    divisions
  • Visceral covers surfaces of internal organs
  • Parietal forms outer wall of body cavity

42
BODY CAVITIES Ventral Cavities Serous Membranes
  • Pericardial Cavity consists of pericardium
    (visceral and parietal layers)
  • Pleural Cavities (2) pleura surrounds lungs.
    Mediastinum divides the cavities
  • Peritoneal Cavity peritoneum surround abdominal
    cavity. Mesenteries support organs

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CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
45
Cell Structure Objectives
  • Upon completion the student will be able to
  • List the functions of the cell membrane and the
    structures that perform those functions.
  • Describe the ways cells move materials across the
    cell membrane
  • Describe the organelles of a typical cell and
    indicate their specific functions
  • Explain the functions of the cell nucleus
  • Summarize the process of protein synthesis

46
Cell Structure Objectives
  • Describe the process of mitosis and explain its
    significance
  • Define differentiation and explain its importance

47
CELL THEORY
  • Cells are the basic structural units of all
    plants and animals.
  • Cells are the smallest functioning units of life.
  • Cells are produced only by the division of
    preexisting cells.
  • Each cell maintains homeostasis.

48
Cytology
  • Defined as the study of the structure and
    function of cells.

49
CELLULAR ANATOMY
  • Extracellular Fluid
  • Watery fluid around cells, also called
    interstitial fluid (something in between)
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell contents
  • Cell Membrane
  • Also called the plasma membrane
  • Separates cytoplasm from extracellular fluid
  • Organelles
  • Intracellular structures

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CELL MEMBRANE FUNCTIONS
  • Physical Isolation
  • Physical barrier. Needed to preserve
    homeostasis.
  • Regulation of exchange with the environment
  • Controls the entry of ions and nutrients,
    elimination of wastes, and release of secretions.

53
CELL MEMBRANE FUNCTIONS
  • Sensitivity to the environment
  • Responsive to changes in extracellular fluid.
    Receptors on membrane recognize and respond to
    specific molecules.
  • Structural support
  • Connections between membranes and other materials
    provide stable structure.

54
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE Membrane Lipids
  • Made up of fatty acids/cholesterol molecules
    called phospholipids.
  • The phospholipids in a cell membrane lie in two
    distinct layers. This layer is also known as
    phospholipid bilayer because of its make-up.

55
MEMBRANE STRUCTURE Membrane Proteins
  • Receptors
  • Channels
  • Carriers
  • Enzymes
  • Anchors/Identifiers

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MEMBRANE STRUCTURE Membrane Carbohydrates
  • Important as cell lubricants and adhesives.
  • Act as receptors for extracellular compounds.
  • Are part of a recognition system that keeps the
    immune system from attacking its own tissues.

58
MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
  • Permeability of the cell membrance determines
    which substances enter or leave the cytoplasm.
  • Impermeable Nothing can cross
  • Freely permeable Any substance can cross
  • Selectively permeable Free passage of some
    substances and restricting of others.

59
MEMBRANE TRANSPORT
  • Two types of transport across the cell membrane
  • Passive Transport Examples
  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Filtration
  • Facilitated Diffusion
  • Active Transport
  • Requires that the cell expend energy, usually in
    the form of ATP.

60
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion
  • Defined as Net movement of molecules from an
    area of relatively high concentration to an area
    of relatively low concentration.
  • The difference between the high and low
    concentrations represents a concentration
    gradient.

61
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion
  • Diffusion described as proceeding down a
    concentration gradient or downhill.
  • An ion or molecule can independently diffuse
    across a cell membrane in one of two ways
  • Move through a lipid portion
  • Passing through a cell membrane channel

62
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion
  • Primary factors determining whether a substance
    can diffuse across a cell membrane are its lipid
    solubility and it size relative to the diameter
    of the membrane channels.

63
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion Lipid Solubility
  • Alcohol, fatty acids and steroids can enter cells
    easily through the lipid membranes.
  • This is also true of oxygen and carbon dioxide as
    both are lipid soluble.

64
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion - Size
  • Channel membranes are very small, a water
    molecule can enter or exit freely whereas glucose
    is too big to fit through the channel.

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PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion - Osmosis
  • Defined as The diffusion of water across a
    membrane.
  • Whenever a concentration gradient exists, water
    molecules will diffuse rapidly across the cell
    membrane until the gradient is eliminated.

67
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion - Osmosis
  • Water molecules will tend to diffuse across a
    membrane toward the solution containing a higher
    solute concentration.
  • WATER FOLLOWS SALT!!!!!!!!

68
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion - Osmosis
  • Three Characteristics of osmosis are of primary
    importance
  • Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules
    across a membrane
  • Osmosis occurs across a selectively permeable
    membrane that is freely permeable to water but
    not to solutes

69
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion - Osmosis
  1. In osmosis, water will flow across a membrane
    toward the solution that has the highest
    concentration of solutes

70
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion Osmotic Pressure
  • Defined as An indication of the force of water
    movement into a solution as a result of solute
    concentration.
  • In other words, if theres a lot of salt on one
    side of a membrane the osmotic pressure will be
    high and vice versa.

71
PASSIVE TRANSPORT Diffusion Hydrostatic Pressure
  • Defined as Pressure exerted against a fluid.
  • Sometimes used to balance osmotic pressure.

72
SOLUTIONS
  • Isotonic
  • Hypotonic
  • Hypertonic

73
ISOTONIC
  • Solution is one that will not cause a net
    movement of water into or out of the cell.
    Concentration is equal to your circulating blood
    volume.
  • Example is normal saline which has a solute
    concentration of 0.9.

74
HYPOTONIC
  • When a cell is placed in this solution it will
    swell. This is because the solution is at a
    lower concentration than your circulation.
  • This swelling could result in membrane rupture or
    lyse (breakdown).

75
HYPERTONIC
  • When a cell is placed in this solution it will
    shrink in size because the solution is at a
    concentration higher that the individuals
    circulation.

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PASSIVE TRANSPORT Filtration
  • Water and small solute molecules are forced
    across a membrane because of a hydrostatic
    pressure gradient.
  • Hydrostatic pressure is blood pressure.
  • Filtration across specialized blood vessels in
    the kidneys is an essential step in the
    production of urine.

78
CARRIER-MEDIATED TRANSPORT
  • Involves the activity of membrane proteins that
    bind specific ions or organic substrates and move
    them across the cell membrane.
  • They are selective in nature.
  • Can be passive or active.

79
CARRIER MEDIATED TRANSPORT
  • Carrier proteins transport one ion at a time, but
    some may deal with two simultaneously.
  • Cotransport the carrier transports two
    substances in same direction.
  • Countertransport one substance moves into the
    cell while the other moves out.

80
CARRIER MEDIATED TRANSPORT
  • Two major forms include
  • Facilitated Diffusion
  • Active Transport

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FACILITATED DIFFUSION
  • Transporting molecules across a membrane by
    carrier proteins, once they have bound to a
    receptor site.
  • Example is the transportation of glucose across
    the cell membrane.

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ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  • High-energy bond in ATP provides the energy
    needed to move ions or molecules across the
    membrane.
  • Forms
  • Ion Pumps
  • Exchange Pumps (Sodium/Potassium Pumps)

84
ACTIVE TRANSPORT Ion Pumps
  • Ion pumps (carrier proteins) in all cells
    actively transport the cations sodium, potassium,
    calcium, and magnesium across cell membranes.
  • In some cells other ions are transported.

85
ACTIVE TRANSPORT Sodium-Potassium Pumps
  • If one kind of ion moves in one direction and the
    other moves in the opposite direction the carrier
    protein is called an exchange pump.
  • A major function of these pumps is to maintain
    cell homeostasis.
  • With sodium and potassium being the principal
    cations in body fluids, maintaining their balance
    is essential.

86
ACTIVE TRANSPORT Sodium-Potassium Pumps
  • Homeostasis within the cell depends on
    maintaining sodium and potassium ion
    concentration gradients with the extracellular
    fluid.
  • The sodium-potassium exchange pump maintains
    these gradients by ejecting sodium ions and
    recapturing lost potassium ions.

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ACTIVE TRANSPORT Vesicular Transport
  • Movement of materials through the formation of
    small membranous sacs (vesicles).
  • Two major categories
  • Endocytosis
  • Exocytosis

89
ACTIVE TRANSPORT Vesicular Transport - Endocytosis
  • Is the packaging of extracellular materials in a
    vesicle at the cell surface for importation into
    the cell.
  • Three Major Types
  • Receptor-mediated endocytosis (large molecule
    transport)
  • Pinocytosis (cell drinking)
  • Phagocytosis (cell eating)

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ACTIVE TRANSPORT Vesicular Transport - Exocytosis
  • The functional reverse of endocytosis.
  • A vesicle created inside the cell fuses with the
    cell membrane and discharges its contents into
    the extracellular environment.
  • Examples Hormones, mucus, waste products

93
CYTOPLASM
  • General term for the material inside the cell
    from the cell membrane to the nucleus.
  • Divided into
  • Cytosol
  • Organelles

94
CYTOPLASM Cytosol
  • Is the intracellular fluid, which contains
    dissolved nutrients, ions, soluble and insoluble
    proteins and waste products.
  • It differs in composition from the extracellular
    fluid that surrounds most of the cells in the
    body in the following ways
  • Contains a high concentration of potassium ions,
    whereas extracellular fluid contains a high
    concentration of sodium ions.

95
CYTOPLASM Cytosol
  • Contains a relatively high concentration of
    dissolved proteins, which give the cytosol a
    consistency that varies between that of thin
    maple syrup and almost-set gelatin.
  • Contains relatively small quantities of
    carbohydrates and large reserves of amino acids
    and lipids.

96
CYTOPLASM Cytosol - Inclusions
  • The cytosol may also contain stored nutrients
    (insoluble) known as inclusions.
  • Include glycogen granules in muscle and liver
    cells and lipid droplets in fat cells.

97
CYTOPLASM Organells
  • Structures that perform specific functions
    essential to normal cell structure, maintenance,
    and metabolism.
  • Some organells are membrane enclosed that
    isolates the organelle from the cytosol so the
    organelle can manufacture or store secretions,
    enzymes, or toxins that might otherwise damage
    the cell.

98
CYTOPLASM Organells
  • Membrane enclosed organells include
  • Nucleus
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Lysosomes
  • Organells that are not surrounded by their own
    membrane include
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Microvilli
  • Centrioles
  • Cilia
  • Flagella
  • Ribosomes

99
CYTOPLASM Organells Cytoskeleton
  • Internal protein framework of various threadlike
    filaments and hollow tubules that gives the
    cytoplasm strength and flexibility. Three most
    important cytoskeletal elements are
  • Microfilaments
  • Intermediate filaments
  • Microtubules

100
CYTOSKELETON Microfilaments
  • Thinnest strands, usually composed of the protein
    actin.
  • Attach the cell membrane to the underlying
    cytoplasm by forming connections with proteins of
    the cell membrane.
  • Interact with thicker filaments made of another
    protein, myosin.

101
CYTOSKELETON Intermediate Filaments
  • In between the size of microfilaments and thick
    filaments (myosin).
  • Strengthen the cell and stabilize its position
    with respect to surrounding cells through
    specialized attachments to the cell membrane.

102
CYTOSKELETON Microtubules
  • Found in all our cells, are hollow tubes built
    from the globular protein tubulin.
  • Form the primary components of the cytoskeleton,
    giving the cell strength and rigidity, and
    anchoring the organells.

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CYTOPLASM Organells - Microvilli
  • Small, finger-shaped projection of the cell
    membrane supported by microfilaments.
  • Common features of cells actively engaged in
    absorbing materials from the extracellular fluid,
    such as the cells of the digestive tract and
    kidneys.

105
CYTOPLASM Organells Centrioles
  • Short cylindrical structure composed of
    microtubules.
  • Create the spindle fibers that move DNA strands
    during cell division.
  • Cells that do not divide, such as mature red
    blood cells and neurons of the brain, lack
    centrioles.

106
CYTOPLASM Organells Cillia
  • Long finger-shaped extensions of the cell
    membrane.
  • Their movements are coordinated so that their
    combined efforts move fluids or secretions across
    the cell surface.

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CYTOPLASM Organells Flagella
  • Resemble cilia but are much longer. Propel a
    cell through the surrounding fluid, rather than
    moving the fluid past a stationary cell.
  • The sperm cell is the only human cell that has a
    flagellum.

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CYTOPLASM Organells Ribosomes
  • Small organelles that manufacture proteins.
  • Ribosomes are found in all cells.
  • Two major types
  • Free Ribosomes
  • Fixed Ribosomes

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CYTOPLASM Organells Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Network of intracellular membranes that is
    connected to the membranous nuclear envelop
    surround the nucleus.
  • Four Major Functions
  • Synthesis Proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids
  • Storage Synthesized molecules or materials
    absorbed from the cytosol without affecting other
    cellular operations
  • Transport
  • Detoxification Drugs and toxins neutralized by
    enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum

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CYTOPLASM Organells Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Two Distinct Types
  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

111
SER
  • Functions
  • Synthesis of the phospholipids and cholesterol
    needed for maintenance and growth of cell
    membrane
  • Synthesis of steroid hormones, such as
    testosterone and estrogen
  • Syntesis and storage of glycerides, especially
    triglycerides, in liver and fat cells
  • Synthesis and storage of glycogen in skeletal
    muscle and liver cells

112
RER
  • Functions as a combination workshop and shipping
    depot.
  • Ribosomes on the surface of the RER (why its
    called rough) release newly formed proteins
    into the RER.
  • Some proteins function as enzymes (workshop)
  • Some proteins form transport vesicles and deliver
    the proteins to the Golgi apparatus, where they
    are processed further (shipping).

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CYTOPLASM Organells Golgi Apparatus
  • Consists of a set of five or six flattened
    membrane discs.
  • Major Functions
  • Synthesis and packaging of secretions, such as
    hormones and enzymes
  • The renewal of the cell membrane
  • Packaging of enzymes for use in cytosol

115
CYTOPLASM Organells Golgi Apparatus
  • Once proteins arrive from the RER, the Golgi
    Apparatus modifies these proteins and repackages
    them as vesicles.

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CYTOPLASM Organells Golgi Apparatus
  • The Golgi Apparatus creates three classes of
    vesicles
  • Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes. Remain in
    the cytoplasm.
  • Secretory vesicles Contains secretion that will
    be discharged from the cell. (Hormones)
  • Membrane renewal vesicles Fuses with the
    surface of the cell to add new lipids and
    proteins to the cell membrane.

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Golgi Apparatus LYSOSOMES
  • Vesicles filled with digestive enzymes.
  • Perform cleanup and recycling functions within
    the cell.
  • Also function in the defense against disease.
  • Involved in process autolysis, known as suicide
    bags

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CYTOPLASM Organells Mitochondria
  • Small organelles containing enzymes that regulate
    the reactions that provide energy for the cell.
  • Key activities consume oxygen, the process of
    mitochondrial energy production is known as
    aerobic metabolism.

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CYTOPLASM Organells Nucleus
  • The control center for cellular operations, DNA
    storage.
  • Most cells have 1 nucleus.

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TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION
124
Tissue Level Objectives
  • Upon completion the student will be able to
  • Discuss the types and functions of epithelial
    cells.
  • Describe the relationship between form and
    function for each epithelial type
  • Compare the structures and functions of the
    various types of connective tissues
  • Explain how epithelial and connective tissues
    combine to form four different types of
    membranes, and specify the functions of each

125
Tissue Level Objectives
  • Describe the three types of muscle tissue and the
    special structural features of each
  • Discuss the basic structure and role of nervous
    tissue
  • Explain how tissues respond to maintain
    homeostasis after an injury.
  • Describe how aging affects the tissues of the
    body.

126
TISSUES
  • Four Primary Tissue Types
  • Epithelial tissue
  • Connective tissue
  • Muscle tissue
  • Neural tissue

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EPITHELIAL TISSUE
  • Consists of epithelia and glands.
  • Epithelium is a layer of cells that forms a
    barrier with specific properties. Important
    characteristics include
  • A free surface exposed to the environment
  • Attachment to underlying connective tissue by a
    basement membrane
  • The absence of blood vessels (avascular)

129
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
  • Cells are bound closely together.
  • Continual replacement or regeneration of
    epithelial cells that are damaged or lost at the
    exposed surface.
  • Cover both external and internal body surfaces.
  • Line internal passageways.
  • Line internal cavities and passageways.

130
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
  • Functions
  • Providing physical protection
  • Controlling permeability
  • Providing sensations
  • Producing specialized secretions

131
EPITHELIAL TISSUE Specialized Secretions
  • Exocrine
  • Discharged to the surface of the skin.
  • Endocrine
  • Released into the surrounding tissues and blood.
    (hormones).

132
EPITHELIAL TISSUE Intercellular Connections
  • To be effective epithelial cells must remain
    together.
  • Three forms of junctions
  • Gap Junction
  • Permit the free diffusion of ions and small
    molecules. Essential in muscle contractions.

133
EPITHELIAL TISSUE Intercellular Connections
  • Tight Junction
  • Prevents the passage of water and solutes between
    cells. Essential in digestive track where acids
    and enzymes take a toll.
  • Desmosome
  • Cell membranes of two cells are locked together
    and form layers. Common in skin.

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EPITHELIAL TISSUE Epithelial Surface
  • Microvilli on exposed surfaces.
  • On epithelia where absorption and secretion take
    place (digestive track).
  • Stereocillia are found only on very specialized
    cells in the male reproductive tract and in the
    inner ear.

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EPITHELIAL TISSUE Basement Membrane
  • Epithelial cells not only must hold onto one
    another but also must remain firmly connected to
    the rest of the body, this is the function of the
    basement membrane.
  • Provides a barrier that restricts the movement of
    proteins and other large molecules from
    connective tissue into the epithelium.

138
EPITHELIAL RENEWAL
  • Only survive for a day or two.
  • Replaced by continual division of unspecialized
    cells known as stem cells or germinative cells.

139
CLASSIFYING EPITHELIA
  • Classified by the number of cell layers and the
    shape of the exposed cells.
  • Two Types of Layering
  • Simple
  • Stratified

140
CLASSIFYING EPITHELIA
  • Three cell shapes
  • Squamous Thin and flat
  • Cuboidal Resemble little hexagonal boxes
  • Columnar Hexagonal, taller and more slender

141
CLASSIFICATION OF EPITHELIA Cell Shape
  1. Simple Squamous Epithelia
  2. Simple Cuboidal Epithelia
  3. Simple Columnar Epithelia
  4. Pseudostratified Epithelia
  5. Transitional Epithelia
  6. Stratified Squamous Epithelia

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GLANDULAR EPITHELIA
  • Exocrine - discharge through ducts.
  • Endocrine - release into blood or tissue fluids.

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GLANDULAR EPITHELIA Mechanism of Secretion
  • Three methods
  • Merocrine secretion - released through exocytosis
    (mucus)
  • Apocrine secretion - involves the loss of both
    cytoplasm and the secretory product (milk)
  • Holocrine secretion - entire cell becomes packed
    with secretions and burst a part dies
    (sebaceous)

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GLANDULAR EPITHELIA Type of Secretion
  • Exocrine Glands characterized by type of
    secretion produced
  • Serous Glands Watery solution containing
    enzymes
  • Mucous glands Thick, slippery mucus
  • Mixed glands Contains more than one secretion

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CONNECTIVE TISSUE
  • Deep tissues that are never exposed to the
    environment outside the body.
  • Functions include
  • Supporting and protecting
  • Transporting materials
  • Storing energy reserves
  • Defending the body

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CONNECTIVE TISSUE
  • Most diverse tissues of the body (bone, blood and
    fat)
  • Three basic components
  • Specialized cells
  • Protein fibers
  • Ground substance

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CLASSIFYING CONNECTIVE TISSUES
  • Based on the physical properties of their matrix,
    connective tissues are classified into three
    major types
  • Connective tissue proper - tissue that underlies
    the skin, fatty tissue, and tendons and ligaments
  • Fluid connective tissues - blood and lymph
  • Supporting connective tissues - cartilage and bone

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CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER
  • Contains fibers, a syrupy ground substance and a
    varied cell population. Include
  • Fibroblasts Maintains the connective tissue
    fibers of connective tissue proper
  • Macrophages Eaters. Tissue defense.
  • Fat cells
  • Mast cells Bodies defensive mechanism starters

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CONNECTIVE TISSUE FIBERS
  • Three basic types
  • Collagen Most common. Long, straight and
    unbranched.
  • Elastic Contain elastin.
  • Reticular Least common. Form branching,
    interwoven framework in various organs.

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GROUND SUBSTANCE
  • Fills all the spaces between cells and surrounds
    all the connective tissue fibers. Clear,
    colorless, and similar in consistency to maple
    syrup.
  • Slows movement of pathogens for easier cleanup.

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LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
  • Also called areolar tissue.
  • Forms a layer that separates the skin from
    underlying muscles.
  • Provides padding and a considerable amount of
    independent movement.

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ADIPOSE TISSUS
  • Fat, a loose connective tissue containing
    adipocytes (fat cells).
  • Another source of padding.
  • Insulation.

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DENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUES
  • Mostly collagen fibers. Also called fibrous
    tissues.
  • Tendons
  • Ligaments

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FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUES
  • Blood and Lymph
  • Blood components
  • Red Blood Cells
  • Plasma
  • White Blood Cells
  • Platelets
  • Vessels

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FLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUES
  • Lymph components
  • Lymphatics
  • Lymphocytes

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SUPPORTING CONNECTIVE TISSUE
  • Cartilage - firm gel. Cells called chondrocytes,
    and live in small pockets known as lacunae.
  • Types
  • Hyaline cartilage
  • Elastic cartilage
  • Fibrocartilage

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BONE
  • Also known as osseous tissue. The matrix of bone
    consists of hard calcium compounds and flexible
    collage fibers.
  • General Organization
  • Lacunae - contain bone cells (osteocytes)
  • Canaliculi
  • Periosteum

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MEMBRANES
  • Four Membranes
  • Mucous membranes (digestive)
  • Serous membranes (pleura)
  • Cutaneous membrane (skin)
  • Synovial membranes (joints)

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MUSCLE TISSUE
  • Specialized for contraction
  • Types of muscle tissue
  • Skeletal
  • Cardiac
  • Smooth

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NEURAL TISSUE
  • Two Types
  • Neuron
  • Neuroglia

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NEURON
  • Typical Neuron
  • Cell body (soma)
  • Dendrites
  • Axon

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TISSUE INJURIES AND REPAIRS
  • Two Processes
  • Inflammation
  • Brings fighters to the fight
  • Regeneration
  • Fixing the damage
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