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From Dirt to DNA Agriscience Applications

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Title: From Dirt to DNA Agriscience Applications


1
From Dirt to DNAAgriscience Applications
2
What is Agriculture?
  • Activities concerned with the production of
    plants and animals, and related supplies,
    services, mechanics, products, processing, and
    marketing.

3
USDA refers to agriculture as.
  • Agriculture/ Agribusiness and renewable natural
    resources.
  • Another definition is food, fiber, and
    environmental systems.

4
What is Agriscience?
  • The application of scientific principles and new
    technologies to agriculture.

5
Agriscience is
  • An applied science because it uses principles
    learned in biology, chemistry, and physics (the
    basic sciences) in a practical way.

6
Examples of Applied Sciences
  • Agronomy
  • Uses biology and chemistry to discover new ways
    to control weeds in crops.
  • Entomology
  • Uses biology and chemistry to study insect life.
  • Agricultural Engineering
  • Uses physics to develop new machinery.
  • Saw Stop

7
Agriscience employs..
  • The scientific method to solve problems.
  • The steps to the scientific method are.
  • Identify the problem.
  • Review literature.
  • Form a hypothesis.
  • Prepare a project proposal.
  • Design the experiment.
  • Collect the data.
  • Draw conclusions.
  • Prepare a written report.

8
Why is Agriculture/Agriscience Important?
  • Largest employer and the largest source of
    income in the United States and North Carolina.

9
Opportunities in Agriculture
  • Agricultural production is supported by many more
    careers than actually exist in production.
  • Many careers in agriscience products
    distribution are needed to grade, transport,
    process, package, market agriculture
    commodities.
  • Products, Processing Distribution
  • Projections show that the average size of farms
    in the U.S. will increase while the number of
    farms will decrease.

10
Opportunities in Agriculture
  • Twenty percent of all jobs in the U.S. are
    agriscience related.
  • In addition to farming, agriscience jobs help
    support farmers to meet the worlds food fiber
    needs.
  • Areas include
  • Production
  • Processing, products, and distribution
  • Supplies and services.

11
World Outlook
  • The world population will grow as more people
    beget more people.
  • More children are surviving to adulthood.
  • More adults are living longer.
  • Population growth will.
  • Add stress to environmental systems of air,
    water, soil, and natural resources.
  • Create challenges to meet the demands for food
    and fiber (clothing and shelter).

12
Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience
  • Agriculture will always be an essential industry.
  • Increased commercialization of agriculture will
    continue.
  • New types of farming such as aquaculture (fish
    farming and farming the sea) will be used as well
    as traditional farming methods.

13
Trends for Agriculture/Agriscience
  • An expanded view of agriculture is necessary.

14
7 Divisions of Agriculture
  • Agribusiness
  • Agriscience Mechanics
  • Agronomy
  • Animal Science
  • Biotechnology
  • Horticulture
  • Natural Resources

Where Did That Come From?
15
What is Agribusiness?
  • Commercial firms that have developed with or stem
    out of agriculture.

16
Agribusiness includes.
  • Farming
  • Chemical company
  • Fertilizer dealer
  • Seed store
  • Tractor dealer
  • Horticulture
  • Landscape nursery
  • Greenhouse dealer
  • Horticulture supply company

17
What is Agriscience Mechanics?
  • The application of engineering principles in
    agricultural settings.

18
Agriscience Mechanics includes.
  • The design, operation, maintenance, service,
    selling, and use of power units, machinery,
    equipment, structures, and utilities in
    agriscience.

19
What is Agronomy?
  • The application of soil and plant sciences to
    land management and crop production.

20
Agronomy includes.
  • Crop Science
  • Soil Science
  • Turfgrass Management
  • Weed Science
  • Range Management

21
What is Animal Science?
  • The care, management, and production of domestic
    animals.

22
Animal Science includes.
  • Livestock
  • Companion Animals
  • Specialty Animals

23
What is Biotechnology?
  • The application of living processes to
    technology.
  • The use of microorganisms, animal cells, plant
    cells, or components of cells to produce products
    or carry out processes.

24
Biotechnology includes.
  • Genetics
  • Biochemistry
  • Microbiology
  • Toxicology
  • Plant Pathology

25
What is Horticulture?
  • Involves the producing, marketing fruits,
    vegetables, and ornamental plants.(Green
    Industry)
  • Continues to expand as the standard of living is
    raised.

26
Horticulture includes.
  • Greenhouse Management
  • Nursery Management
  • Landscape Architecture
  • Plant Physiology
  • Integrated Pest Management

27
What are Renewable Natural Resources?
  • Resources provided by nature that can replace or
    renew themselves.
  • Important both economically and for posteritys
    sake to maintain life.
  • Agriculture resources management will include
    pollution control.

28
Natural Resources - Forestry
  • Timber management for lumber, poles, post,
    plywood, and etc. is another part of the
    agricultural industry.

29
Other Examples include
  • Wildlife
  • Water
  • Fish
  • Soils
  • Air

30
What are Commodities?
  • Agricultural products which are sold.
  • Examples
  • Milk
  • Corn
  • Wheat
  • Beef
  • Cotton

31
U.S. Agricultural Commodities (Market Value of
Products Sold)
  • Total Crops
  • California
  • Total Livestock
  • Texas
  • Total Ag Income
  • California

32
Top 10 U.S. Ag Commodity Exports
  • 1 Soybeans
  • 2 Corn
  • 3 Wheat
  • 4 Cotton
  • 5 Misc. Hort Products
  • 6 Poultry Meat
  • 7 Feed
  • 8 Edible Tree Nuts
  • 9 Pork
  • 10 Feed Grain

Consistently ranks in top 5 in U.S. grain
exports year after year. Number 1 meat export
as far as tonnage shipped from the U.S.
33
Agricultural Commodities
Corn
  • _______ ranks in the top five in US agricultural
    commodities every year.
  • __________ are the worlds most important source
    of vegetable oil and provide basic materials for
    hundreds of products.
  • During the 1990s ________ was the number one meat
    export from the US.

Soybeans
Poultry
34
U.S. Dept of Agriculture
  • Secretary
  • Mike Johanns
  • Nebraska

35
U.S. Dept of Agriculture
  • Oversees the following
  • Food Safety Inspection
  • Commodity Grading
  • Meat
  • Fruit
  • Vegetables
  • Eggs

36
U.S. Dept of Agriculture
  • Oversees the following
  • School Lunch Program
  • Food Stamps
  • Agricultural Cooperatives
  • U.S. Forest Service
  • Cooperative Extension
  • Agricultural Marketing

37
North Carolina Agriculture
38
General NC Ag. Information
  • There are 2,200,000 farms in N.C.
  • Includes small farms
  • 90.8 of farms in N.C. are family farms.
  • The average N.C. farmer is 57 years old.
  • The county with the most amount of agricultural
    sales is Duplin County.

39
Top Commodities In NC
  • During the 1990s the top three agricultural
    commodities in terms of cash receipts for North
    Carolina were
  • Hogs
  • Broilers
  • Tobacco

40
North Carolina Agriculture
  • North Carolina is 1 in the following
    commodities.
  • Tobacco
  • Sweet potatoes

41
North Carolina Agriculture
  • North Carolina is 2 in the following
    commodities.
  • Hogs
  • Christmas Trees
  • Turkeys

42
North Carolina Agriculture
  • North Carolina is 3 in the following
    commodities.
  • Cucumber Processing
  • Trout
  • Total Poultry Eggs

43
Agricultural Statistics - Cash Receipts 2008
Rank Item Million Dollars
1 Broilers ¹ 2,692
2 Hogs 2,171
3 Greenhouse/Nursery/Floriculture/Christmas Trees 777
4 Tobacco 687
5 Turkeys ¹ 652
6 Soybeans 440
7 Chicken eggs ¹ 374
8 Corn 333
9 Wheat 291
10 Cattle and calves 198
11 Cotton Cottonseed 193
12 Dairy Products 190
13 Sweet Potatoes 142
14 Peanuts 68
15 Blueberries 48
16 Tomatoes, Fresh 34
17 Irish Potatoes 26
18 Cucumbers 25
19 Apples 22
20 Strawberries 21
SOURCE Economic Research Service, USDA ¹ Value of Production

44
North Carolina Agriculture
45
NC Dept of Agriculture
  • Steve Troxler
  • Current Commissioner
  • Guilford County

46
NC Dept of Agriculture
  • Oversees the following
  • All agricultural issues
  • Weights Standards
  • Food Drugs in North Carolina
  • NC State Fair

47
NC Dept of Agriculture
  • Oversees the following
  • Marketing
  • Farmers Markets
  • Goodness Grows Program
  • Research Stations
  • Structural Pests
  • Veterinarian Program

48
Cooperative Extension Service
  • Located in all 100 counties and the Cherokee
    Indian Reservation.
  • Provides information for those working in
    agriculture.
  • Best free source of information for small
    agricultural businesses.
  • Administers the 4H program.

49
Progress in Agriculture
  • Mechanization helps 2 of Americas work force to
    meet the food fiber needs of our nation.
  • (2 of US population works on the farm.)
  • There has been a reduction from 90 of the
    nations populace involved in farming 200 years
    ago.

50
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • George Washington
  • In 1785, he became the first American to own
    mules.
  • Also introduced agricultural concepts such as
    terracing, crop rotation, and the use of cover
    crops.

51
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Eli Whitney
  • Invented the cotton gin in 1793.
  • Turned cotton into an usable product by removing
    cottonseed from the cotton fiber.

52
Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin
53
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • In 1814, Jefferson had his moldboard plow cast in
    iron, thus inventing the iron plow.
  • Was a marked improvement over the inefficient
    European plow.

54
Thomas Jeffersons Plow
55
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Cyrus McCormick
  • Invented the grain reaper in 1834 to save labor
    in cutting wheat, oats, and similar crops.
  • It only CUT the grain.
  • Later a threshing machine was added and it became
    known as a combine.

56
Cyrus McCormicks Reaper
57
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • John Deere
  • In 1837, improved the iron plow by inventing the
    steel moldboard plow.
  • Need caused by tough prairie soils.

58
John Deeres Plow
59
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Edmund W. Quincy
  • Invented the mechanical corn picker
    in 1850.
  • Anna Baldwin
  • Changed the dairy industry in 1878 by inventing a
    milking machine to replace hand milking.

60
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Joseph Glidden
  • Invented barbed wire in 1874.
  • Used for livestock fencing.
  • Tamed the west by allowing ranches with fixed
    boundaries to be established.

61
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Booker T. Washington
  • Founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.
  • Advocate of vocational education/skills
    development.
  • The school was later given land-grant status.

62
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • George Washington Carver
  • Director of agricultural research at Tuskegee
    Institute in early 1900s.
  • Found new uses for soybeans, peanuts, and
    sweetpotatoes.
  • Diversified southern agriculture.

63
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Benjamin Holt
  • Invented the tractor
  • Company went one to become Caterpillar Inc.
  • Also invented the traction method used on many
    tanks

64
Benjamin Holts Tractor
65
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • Harry Ferguson
  • Invented the 3 point hitching system on tractors.
  • Met with Henry Ford in 1938 and had the famous
    Handshake Agreement.

66
The Handshake Agreement
67
Ferguson Insignia on a Ford Tractor
68
Progress in Agriculture Historical Events
  • In 1954, the tractor finally surpasses the mule
    as the main source of agricultural power.

69
Assignment
  • With a partner you must design a new
    agricultural invention.
  • Requirements
  • Must be something that has not already been
    invented.
  • Must have a name and price.
  • Must have a color picture.
  • Must include a four sentence description of the
    invention and how it works.

70
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • Soybeans
  • Known as the Yellow Jewell to the Chinese.
  • Worlds most important source for vegetable oil.
  • Provide basic materials for hundreds of products.
  • Used as major food source in China in the form of
    tofu.

71
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • The Green Revolution
  • Process whereby many countries became self
    sufficient in food production in the 1960s by
    using improved crop varieties and practices.

72
Improving Life through Agriscience
  • The Green Industry
  • The modern horticulture industry with emphasis on
    turf and landscape plants.

73
Agriscience and the Future
  • The average American farmer produces enough food
    and fiber for 128 people.
  • As the worlds population increases, it will
    require a more sophisticated agriscience industry
    to keep pace with
    demand.

74
Agriscience and the Future
  • The science of food production, processing, and
    distribution will require
  • College graduates to fill roles as scientists,
    engineers, and other professionals.
  • USDA reported an
    increased demand for graduates from
    agricultural colleges in the 90s.

75
Agribusiness
  • Activity
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